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5/12/06 1

Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis


of
Variable Frequency Transformers

Brian C. Raczkowski
Peter W. Sauer
5/12/06 2
Overview
Power Flow Control
Langlois Converter Project
Derivation of Model
Small Power System Case
Experimental Case
Future Work
5/12/06 3
Ways to control power flow
Prime mover and excitation control of
generators
Open and Close Breakers
Reactive Power Compensation
5/12/06 4
Ways to control power flow
(cont.)
High Voltage DC (HVDC)
Rectifies AC to DC then inverts DC to AC
Economical for long distances
Harmonics
Isolation
Frequency
5/12/06 5
Ways to control power flow
(cont.)
Transformers
Tap-Changing-Under-Load (TCUL) Transformers
Ability to change the ratio of transformation while
energized
Requires additional circuitry
Phase shifting transformer
Addition of 90 out of phase voltage
Useful for controlling real power
Most cases there is a fixed range
5/12/06 6
Drawbacks of These Methods
Set minimum and maximum constraints
Fixed change
Power transfer frequency requirement
Harmonics

5/12/06 7
Another Kind of Transformer
Induction machine
Squirrel cage rotor
Conducting bars laid in slots and shorting rings
Wound rotor
3 windings with mirror images of windings on stator

5/12/06 8
Another Kind of Transformer
(cont.)
Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM)
Rotor end not shorted
Wound rotor machine with access to rotor
windings
Slip rings provide connection to rotor
Typically used to alter torque-speed curve
Same as Variable Frequency Transformer
(VFT)


5/12/06 9
VFT Advantages
Continuous and no fixed set change points
Response for stability purposes
Simple model for power system use
HVDC alternative
Can transfer power at different frequencies
More control of the real power flow

5/12/06 10
VFT Disadvantages
Limits on maximum power flow
capability
More lossy especially in reactive power
losses
Works at low kV range so it needs step
up/down transformers
5/12/06 11
Langlois Converter Project
GE investigated a new power
transmission technology (2002)
Variable Frequency Transformer (VFT)
Controllable, bidirectional transmission
device with ability to transfer power
between asynchronous networks

5/12/06 12
Worlds First VFT
Hydro-Quebecs Langlois substation
Exchange +100MW to -100MW
between power grids of Quebec
(Canada) and New York (USA)
Closed Loop Control System to increase
or decrease power delivery to maintain
stability
5/12/06 13
General VFT
Core technology is rotary transformer with three
phase windings on both rotor and stator
Continuously variable phase shifting transformer
Uses 2 transformers, a switched capacitor bank and a
DC motor
Change rotor angle to change the power flow
through the machine
Limits of the phase angle can be set as large as
needed
5/12/06 14
VFT Ideal Use
Drive Motor
Control
System
Power
System
Area
#2
Power
System
Area
#1
Variable Frequency
Transformer
5/12/06 15
Model Derivation
The machine is assumed to be a two-
pole three phase machine with an a:1
turns ratio
X
X
X
X
X
X
u
as
bs
cs
ar
br
cr
as
bs
cs
ar
br
cr
o e u + = t
m
m r s
e e e + =
5/12/06 16
Starting Equations
ms ls ss
L L L + =
mr lr rr
L L L + =
mr sr ms
L a aL L
2
= =
) cos( o e + = t I i
s s as
)
3
2
cos(
t
o e + = t I i
s s bs
)
3
2
cos(
t
o e + + = t I i
s s cs
) cos( | e + = t I i
r r ar
)
3
2
cos(
t
| e + = t I i
r r br
)
3
2
cos(
t
| e + + = t I i
r r cr
)
3
2
cos( )
3
2
cos( cos
2 2
t
u
t
u u + + + + =
sr cr sr br sr ar cs
ms
bs
ms
as ss as
L i L i L i i
L
i
L
i L
)
3
2
cos( )
3
2
cos( cos
2 2
t
u
t
u u + + + + =
sr cs sr bs sr as cr
mr
br
mr
ar rr ar
L i L i L i i
L
i
L
i L
dt
d
i R V
as
as s as

+ =
dt
d
i R V
ar
ar r ar

+ =
r r
I
a
I = '
1
r r
V a V = '
r r
R a R = '
2
lr lr
L a L = '
2
5/12/06 17
Final Equations
) (
2
3
)
2
3
( o | e o e u + Z ' + Z
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = Z
r ms s s ms ls s s s s
I L j I L L j R V
) (
2
3
)
2
3
( o o e | e u Z + Z '
|
.
|

\
|
+ ' + ' = Z '
s ms r r ms lr r r r r
I L j I L L j R V
(

+ Z '
Z
(
(
(

+ ' + '
+ +
=
(

+ Z '
Z
o |
o
e e
e e
o u
u
r
s
ms lr r ms
ms ms ls s
r r
s s
I
I
L L j R L j
L j L L j R
V
V
)
2
3
(
2
3
2
3
)
2
3
(
) (
ls ls
L X e =
lr lr
L X ' = ' e
ms ms
L X e
2
3
=
5/12/06 18
VFT Model (per phase)
5/12/06 19
Small Power System Case
Glover and Sarma example
5/12/06 20
Small Power System with 3 VFTs
Line 1
Line 2 Line 3
Just by inserting VFTs, the flows have changed
5/12/06 21
Power Flows in Small Power
System from -21.9 to +30
P
in
P
load
P
line2
P
loss
P
line3
P
line1
5/12/06 22
Experimental System Setup
GE I689, 7.5 hp, 3, 6-pole induction
machine
2.93:1 turns ratio
SLACK
1
5 2 3
VFT
1 : 93 . 2
o j
e
6
WALL
S R
1:2.93
Line 2
Line 1
P
in
P
line2
P
line1
P
stator
P
load
5/12/06 23
Experimental System Notes
Variac used to match odd turns ratio
Slack Bus was the standard wall outlet
Load is purely resistive 12.8
Source had 10A fuses
1 mechanical was 3 electrical
Verification in PowerWorld Simulator
Voltage - 1000x
Power 1e6x
5/12/06 24
Test System Results - No Caps
5/12/06 25
Make Things Better
System is already inherently lossy
Add a capacitor bank to cut reactive
losses
121.5F to each phase at Bus 3
Current reduced from 7.03A
rms
to
2.45A
rms
Needed 61.32V to achieve 7.05A
rms
For comparative purposes V
in
=20.4V
rms

5/12/06 26
Test System Results with Caps
5/12/06 27
Interesting Cases
Results verified in Power World Simulator
5/12/06 28
Circulating Real Power
5/12/06 29
VFT Conclusions
Alternative method to control power
flow
Easy model
Use in small power system case
Use in experimental power system case
5/12/06 30
Future Work
Larger Test Systems
Higher Voltage
Torque Analysis
Multiple Frequencies
Stability of the System
Economical Impact
5/12/06 31
Questions
Questions??