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# IC Transistors and Resistors

Chris Kendrick
Jan. 29, 2003
BiCMOS Design
I. Resistors
II. Bipolar Transistors
III. MOS
IV. DMOS
Resistor Voltage Coefficient
Figure 1 A p type region in an n type tub forms the resistor.
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Resistor Voltage Coefficient
% Change PHV Resistance vs. Body Bias
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
0 10 20 30 40 50
Body Bias (V)
%

C
h
a
n
g
e

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
30x300
12x300
6x300
12x120
12x30
V
Appl i ed
= 5V
Resistor Temperature Coefficient
PHV Resistance vs. Temperature
-40.0%
-20.0%
0.0%
20.0%
40.0%
60.0%
80.0%
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200
Temperature (C)
%

C
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
30x300
12x300
6x300
V
Body
= 5V
Resistor Voltage limits
Diffusion Breakdown (V)
Buried Layer Isolation 95
PWell Epi 95
PHV Epi 60
NHV - PWell 43
PSD - Epi 30
NSD - PWell 17.5
NSD PHV 12
NSD PSD (in PWell) 5.8
The maximum resistor voltage is NOT
defined by the tub its sitting in!
The voltage rating of the tub determines
the spacing of PHV to Epi
Lateral PNP Saturation
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Low current NPN/PNP biasing
Whats the lowest current bipolars can be biased at?
Lateral PNP
ICmin ~ 5uA
PNP (PHV/Epi - Emitter 21x 21
UDR) cross-section
Epi
Substrate
E

C

PSD
FOX
PHV
NSD
PSD
PSD
PHV
B

PHV
FOX
FOX
Low current NPN/PNP biasing
Whats the lowest current bipolars can be biased at?
Vertical PNP
ICmin ~ 20nA
PWell
PNPV (PSD/NHV - Emitter 28 x 28
UDR) cross-section
Epi
Substrate
B

PSD
NHV
PSD
PSD PHV
C

PHV
E

NSD NSD
C

FOX FOX
Low current NPN/PNP biasing
Whats the lowest current bipolars can be biased at?
NPN
ICmin ~ 20nA
PWell
NPN (NSD/PWell - Emitter 21 x 21
UDR) cross-section
Epi
Substrate
E

B

PSD PHV
NSD
NSD
PSD
PHV
FOX
C

FOX FOX
MOS Safe Operating Area
Hot carrier injection limits NMOS operating voltage
Low Voltage NMOS cross-section
Epi
Substrate
PWell
FOX FOX
BPSG BPSG
Poly
S
G D
NSD
0.0E+00
5.0E-06
1.0E-05
1.5E-05
2.0E-05
2.5E-05
3.0E-05
3.5E-05
4.0E-05
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Gate Voltage (V)
B
u
l
k

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
LV LVT NMOS 100x6
Time to 10% IDlin degredation vs. Vds
1.0E+05
1.0E+06
1.0E+07
1.0E+08
1.0E+09
0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22
1/Vds (V
-1
)
T
i
m
e

@

1
0
%

I
d
l
i
n

d
e
g
r
e
d
a
t
i
o
n
10 yrs -> Vds=4.6V
LV NMOS Hot Carrier Injection
Maximum Vds determined from HCI measurements 10% degradation in 10 yrs
Transient Vds rating based on 10% duty cycle

Measured Vds Max (V)

Id 10%

Device

1 yr.

10 yr.

LV NMOS 100x6

5.5

5.1

LV NMOS 100x16

6.8

6.5

LV LVT NMOS 100x6

5.1

4.6

LV LVT NMOS 100x16

6.4

6.1

LV LVT PMOS drain-source leakage
Drain-source leakage determines maximum Vds at high temperature
Minimum channel length targeted based on process variation and independent
SEM measurement

LV LVT PMOS Leakage vs. Gate Length (Vds=5V)
L29894, wf #19
1.0E-16
1.0E-15
1.0E-14
1.0E-13
1.0E-12
1.0E-11
1.0E-10
1.0E-09
1.0E-08
1.0E-07
1.0E-06
4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
Gate Length (UDR)
L
e
a
k
a
g
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
/
u
m
)
Flat_27
Flat_150
Center_150
Top_27
Top_150
Flat_poly1_27
1.69um
1.70um
1.43um
Minimum Poly2 CD = 1.57um
150C
27C
DMOS Specific Rdson
Rsp = Rdson x transistor active area
Active Area width
A
c
t
i
v
e

A
r
e
a

l
e
n
g
t
h

Ex : LDMOS transistor
Device Rdson (O) Area (cm
2
) Rsp. (mO.cm
2
)
LV NLDMOS 0.66 5.19E-4 0.34
MV1 NLDMOS 1.93 7.32E-4 1.41
LV PLDMOS 2.58 5.19E-4 1.34
MV PLDMOS 4.92 7.32E-4 3.6
VDMOS_HEC 1.53 1.77E-3 2.7
transistor active area = # cells x cell area
DMOS Specific Rdson

N-Buried Layer
N-Epi
PHV PHV PW
N+
Sinker
N+ N+ N+ P+ P+
P-substrate
S G D
More components to Rdson
than just channel resistance
R
CH
+ R
Epi
+ R
BL
+ R
Metal
0.0E+00
1.0E-02
2.0E-02
3.0E-02
4.0E-02
5.0E-02
6.0E-02
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
VGS (V)
I
D
S

(
A
)
Series resistance causes bend
in ID vs. VG curve

A useful way to extract DMOS series resistance
DS
V
T
V
GS
V
L
W
ox
C
D
I ' = ) (
S
R
D
I
DS
V
DS
V = '
L
W C
OX
k =
2
)) ( 1 (
T
V
GS
V
S
R
DS
V
GS
V
DS
I
M
G
+
=
c
c
=
k
k
( )( )
S D DS T GS
D
R I V V V
I

= k
(1)
(2)
(3)
2
)) ( (
D
DS T GS M D
S
I
V V V G I
R

=

Device

size (cells)

R-series (Ohms)

Total rdson (OHMs)

% series resistance

NLDMOS_13V

5x20

0.37

0.69

54 %

NLDMOS_30V

5x20

NLDMOS_45V

5x20

1.44

1.99

72 %

PLDMOS_13V

5x20

1.25

2.66

47 %

PLDMOS_45V

5x20

2.8

5.0

36 %

VDMOS_HD

15x46

1.63

1.84

89 %

VDMOS_HEC

13x46

Substituting (2) into (3) gives,
DMOS Clamped Inductive Switching
Clamping the flyback voltage below the DMOS breakdown increases energy
capability.
Power dissipation eventually allows parasitic bipolar to turn on, killing device

-5.00x10
-4
-2.50x10
-4 0.00
2.50x10
-4
5.00x10
-4
7.50x10
-4
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

Vd
D
r
a
i n

V
o
l t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Time (sec.)
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
t
o
Id
Energy Capability
Device Comparison
y = 1.7849x
0.6421
y = 1.9762x
0.6223
y = 2.8072x
0.6032
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Time (uS)
E
n
e
r
g
y

(
m
J
/
m
m
2
)
47V VDMOS_HD
47V VDMOS_HEC
47V MV2_NLDMOS
Power (47V VDMOS_HD)
Power (47V VDMOS_HEC)
Power (47V MV2_NLDMOS)
Energy capability can determine device size
DMOS Rdson vs. Energy Capability
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
0.0E+00 2.5E-03 5.0E-03 7.5E-03 1.0E-02
Area (cm
2
)
R
d
s
o
n

(
O
)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
140.00
160.00
Rdson
Energy Capability