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ULTRASONIC IMAGING SYSTEM

M.Angeline hannah PR10BT2010 I M.Sc med biochem

INTRODUCTION

Sound with frequency > 20000 cylces/sec Energy in form of mechanical vibrations, frequencies > human hearing Diagnostic - thermal, echo, doppler shift Therapeutic thermal, cavitation effects Ultrasonic imaging use mechanical energy Non invasive technique Used in major aspects of medicine

PHYSICS

Frequency above > 20 KHz Same physical property as audible sound Most preferrable because of following

Directional, inaudible, define property of very small structure, information is accurate

Take place in different modes wave motion is transverse or longitudinal Mostly used in longitudinal in medicine

PHYSICS OF ULTRASOUND

CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDENCE

Product of density of medium with velocity of sound in same medium, Z= p* V Determine degree of reflection, refraction at interface between 2 media App value for biology, 1.6*10*5g/cm2 >impedence, > amt of reflected energy Coupling medium- olive oil, jelly minimize energy reflection by air free path

WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY

General relationship, product of frequency of point in unit time and wavelength Ultrasound in medical applications range from 1 to 15 MHz, transmitted as mechanical vibrators VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION: Determined by density of medium and stiffness Depth of penetration = velocity * time / 2 Velocity is constant so depth is read directly from position of echo on calibrated time

WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY

ABSORPTION AND BEAM WIDTH

Reduction of amplitude is due to absorption, deviation from parallel beam Relaive intensity is in decibels and absorption coefficient in db/cm Average value in soft tissue -1 db/cm/MHz BEAM WIDTH: Split into near and far fields Near field distance = r2/wavelength- wv/4 Far field intensity reduces with distance. Angle of divergence = 0.61lambda/rn = 1.22V/nD

RESOLUTION

System ability to distinguish between closely related structures AXIAL: minimal axial distance. Determined by wavelength of transmitted pulse LATERAL: lateral distance in a plane perpendicular to beam axis at which 2 reflecting structures. Determined by shape or divergence of beam by probe

GENERATION AND DETECTION

Physical mechanism piezo electric effect Demonstrated by crystals like quartz, tourmaline, rouchelle salt Offers method of converting electrical energy into electrical energy Synthetic materials barium nitrate, lead Optimizing transducers on 3 parameters frequency, active element diameter, focussing

BLOCK DIAGRAM

MEDICAL ULTRASOUND
THERAPEUTICS:

DIAGNOSTIC:

Operate at ultrasonic power levels of upto several watts/cm2 Agitate tissue to level where thermal heating heating occurs in tissue Successful in treatment of muscular diseases

Operate at power levels of below 100 mW/cm2 Certain amount of signal has returned for electronic processing, no additional needed Used as continous or pulse wave mode

A- SCANNER

Offer only one dimensional information Echo signals are applied to Y deflecting plate, displayed as vertical blips CRT is of electronic deflection type. cathode ray tube is of flat face type to eliminate screen curvature error. For prolonged viewing storage facilities are used

APPLICATIONS

ENCEPHALOGRAPH:
For head injury, there is tilting of brain to one side and echoes can be easily obtained, but placed at different distances For tumor, the brain is tilted and ultrasonic midline echo shows abnormality due to its shift to one side from center Instrument is echoencephaloscope, measures range of 0 to 18 cm of tissue depth. Frequency range is 1 to 3 MHz.

APPLICATIONS

ECHOOPTHALMOGRAPH:
For diagnosing retinal detachments, intra occular tumors, vitreous capacities, orbital tumors, lens dislocation Measures axial length with myopia, localization of intraoccular foreign bodies, extraction of foreign bodies It employs 7.5 to 15 MHz pencil type transducer

B SCANNER

A scope display is difficult to interpret when many echoes are present simultaneously B scan display uses brightness modulation with amplitude of echoes is perpendicular to transducer movement. Common scan used is echocardiography in sector scan, made by rocking it about a fixed point so sound beam covers a sector Compound scanning is a combination of linear and sector scans

B SCANNER IMAGING INSTRUMENTATION


All systems contain same basic building block circuits namely transmittor, receiver, memory, display. B scan is based on fundamental information provided by echoes in A scan mode that is used to moderate intensity. For various probe positions and orientations to produce cross sectional image of the object For recording cross sectional pictures of internal structures the ultrasonic probe is mounted on mechanical scanner

TYPES OF B SCANNERS

3 arrangements are utilized for building cross sectional images using ultrasound Common scan used for abdominal studies is linear scan Ultrasonic transducer remains parallel to surface of object being examined. To know its position and orientation then it is attached to articulated arm that allows scan over a sector of gantry It produces a linear scan

TYPES OF B SCANNERS

It is moved manually for scanning the region of interest on the body. B scanning of static objects gives 2 dimensional images that allows assessment of size, shape, position of examined structures. Fast working real time scanners are developed to study dynamic and static structures in human body

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