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Food Microbiology 1

Unit 9 HACCP

Source: Keith Warriner, UoG

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

Was first devised by Pillsbury Company,

NASA and US Army laboratories in the 1970s

Based on No Defects philosophy

Preventive approach to food safety (Farm to Fork Approach) System for the identification, assessment and control of hazards


Covers Hazards that are: Biological Physical Chemical

HACCP Pre-Requisite

Before establishing HACCP there is a need to establish pre-requisite program. Includes: Making managers and workers aware of moving to implement HACCP Food Safety training for all staff

Procedures for Sanitation including

microbiological testing of sanitation efficacy Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) must be in place

HACCP Key Points

All training and sanitation performance must

be documented Documentation in HACCP provides trace back and encourages safe working practices in relation to food safety HACCP will not work if pre-requisite program is not applied Record keeping is the foundation of HACCP

HACCP Consists of Seven Specific Steps:

1- Identify potential hazards

2- Identify critical control points (CCPs) 3- Establish critical limits for CCPs 4- Establish CCP monitor procedure 5- Establish corrective actions

6- Establish record keeping procedure

7- Establish verification procedure

HACCP Step 1: Identifying Hazards

Assemble a team of experts (HACCP team)


- Microbiologists

- Production Manager
- Quality Control Manager - Process Engineer

HACCP Step 1: Identifying Hazards Define hazards & Conduct Hazard Analysis
Observe the actual operating practices

Evaluate ingredients and products for possible cross contamination

Review past contamination incidents

Evaluate the likelihood and severity of occurrence of each hazard Assess if preventive measures can be built into the process

HACCP Step 2: Identifying CCPs

A control point: is a step or procedure at

which control can be applied and as a result a hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels

Example: use correct temperature regimes, separate clean and dirty areas

HACCP Step 2: Identifying CCPs A critical control points: are steps where control measures are critical to ensure safety

Example: cooking, refrigerating

HACCP Step 2: Identifying CCPs How to identify CCPs?

Q1: Does this step eliminate/reduce the hazard to an acceptable level? If yes = CCP
If no go to Q2

HACCP Step 2: Identifying CCPs

Q2: Could unacceptable hazardous contamination occur?

If yes go to Q3 if no = not CCP Q3: Will subsequent step eliminate hazard?

If yes = not CCP

If no = CCP

So on to the next step in the production flow diagram

Example: Poultry Processing Flow Diagram

Delivery Stun

Pluck Chill


Process 1: Delivery Q1: Does this step eliminate/reduce the likely occurrence of hazard to an acceptable level?

Ans: Yes; screening of birds for Salmonella CCP: Yes

Process 2: Stun Q1: Does this step eliminate/reduce the likely occurrence of hazard to an acceptable level?

Ans: No

Q2: Could unacceptable Hazardous contamination occur Ans: No


HACCP Step 3: Establishment of CCP limits

Critical limits: are measurable target levels

that will immediately indicate that the product is at risk from an identified hazard Examples of critical limits:

Temperature: a product must be maintained below 3oC in a chiller

Visual appearance (inspection): the presence of fecal material on carcasses

HACCP Step 3: Establishment of CCP limits Other examples of critical limits: Time Humidity Dimensions of cans

Depth of products in trays to be chilled


Water activity
Level of preservative

HACCP Step 4: Monitoring CCPs

Monitoring procedures are regular observations

and/or measurements to establish that CCP is under control HACCP team must establish:

How monitoring should take place

The frequency of monitoring CCP

Who is responsible
How the monitoring will be documented

HACCP Step 4: Monitoring CCPs Examples of Monitoring: Twice a day checks on cooler temperature

Daily check of cleaning regime

Individual inspection of carcasses for absence of fecal material

If monitoring shows that critical limits are not being met then corrective action needs to be taken

HACCP Step 5: Establish Corrective Actions

Corrective actions are the actions to be taken

when monitoring indicates the process is moving out of control at a CCP Example: A violation of control limit in cold store due to hot product placed in chiller causes temperature rise Corrective action: Move product to a new chiller

Repair chiller
Train staff to ensure only cooled products are placed in chiller

HACCP Step 6: Record Keeping

All documents must be kept up to date and

Records of Hazard list Critical Limits Monitoring

Corrective action
Staff training

Validations (e.g. microbiological data)

HACCP Step 7: Validate HACCP

Validation is a check to confirm that the

HACCP plan is implemented and to ensure it is complete and accurate Verification is performed by consultants, customers and government inspectors Primarily based on auditing documents and inspection of process

Is HACCP an Effective Approach to Food Safety? HACCP provides a focal point for food handlers to follow GMP

Prevention is always a preferred approach

Validations is based on end product testing (i.e not preventive) HACCP can place too much focus on documentation and not on how the problems can be solved