Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Specific heat capacity also known as heat transfer is facilitated by mean of molecular agitation.

Heat capacity (usually denoted by a capital C, often with subscripts) is the measurable physical quantity that characterizes the amount of heat required to change a body's temperature by a given amount. In the International System of Units, heat capacity is expressed in units of joules per kelvin.

The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the

temperature by one degree Celsius. The relationship between heat and temperature change is usually expressed in the form shown below where c is the specific heat. The relationship does not apply if a phase change is encountered, because the heat added or removed during a phase change does not change the temperature.

The theory of specific heat capacity seeks to predict the heat transfer that may take place between different material . This heat transfer can be explained by The Einstein-Debye phonon model produced agreement with the low-temperature cubic dependence of specific heat upon temperature. Explaining the drastic departure from the Law of Dulang and Petit, was a major contribution of the Einstein and Debye models. The final step in explaining the low temperature specific heats of metals was the inclusion of the electron contribution to specific heat. When these were combined, they produced the expression. Note that the vibrational part is only the low temperature limit of the more general Debye specific heat. The data below show that the Debye phonon model with its cubic dependence on temperature matches the silicon data to very low temperatures. The copper shows a departure from the cubic dependence, showing evidence of electron specific heat. The vibrational term here is only the low temperature limit of the Debye specific heat expression. It produces good agreement with the transition to the Dulong and Petit limit at high temperatures. Bose-Einstein statistics is used to describe the contribution from lattice vibrations (phonons) and Fermi-Dirac statistics.

There are variety of materials in our earth. However, in many metal industries and manufacturer, a problem has been raised which is on the selecting the material which having the high specific heat capacity especially in the making of the coil in water heater. In this project, an experiment is to be carried out to determine which is the best material which can be used as the coil in water heater.

The main objective is to determine the specific heat capacity of each material. In this experiment, it is how the various types of materials with different specific heat capacity which can affect the temperature rise of water in 40 seconds.

Model setup is used to represent the water heat used in kitchen. These materials was used in (copper, brass, aluminium and iron) making heating coil in water heater. As to function a water heater, electricity as the source supply is needed in order for the heater to work, the Bunsen burner used in the experiment is taken to represent the source supply which is the heat supply to enable the heat is transferred. The thermometer was used to observe the temperature change. Each beaker contains small amount of water. Stopwatch was used to record the temperature change in each 10 seconds until 40 seconds.

A beaker with 500 ml of water was heated until it reaches 100 C using a Bunsen burner. The length of iron coil is 20cm and diameter of the iron coil is 0.5mm. The 20cm of iron coil was tied with pensil. The pensil which is tied with the iron material coil will be tied to retort stand. The retort stand will be placed near the beaker which is placed on Bunsen burner. The iron coil which is tied to retort stand will be left in the 100 C of 500 ml beaker for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, the iron coil was transfered immediately to the polystyrene cup with 100 ml of water. The thermometer was placed in the polystyrene cup with 100 ml of water. The temperature change was measured using thermometer. The temperature change was measured until 40 seconds. The temperature change for each 10 minutes was recorded until 40 seconds. The temperature change of different materials for 40 minutes is taken and recorded. The processes are repeated again by replacing the iron coil with copper coil , aluminium coil and brass coil. The experiment is repeated again for all coils. All the data collected are recorded in the table below.

It is observed that Aluminum have higher change in temperature of water compared to other material used such as copper, iron and brass. The temperature change of water for each material is observed and recorded in the tables below.

Temperature change of different materials in 40 seconds

Temperature change of water, C (1C) Time, s ( 0.1 ) Aluminium Iron Copper Brass 0.0 24 24 24 24 10.0 30 29 27 25 20.0 35 32 30 29 30.0 40 38 35 33 40.0 45 42 39 35



Aluminium 15 Iron Copper


Metals of different materials have different specific heat capacity. Aluminium offers a substantial amount of heat to the water which can increase the temperature of water gradually. Furthermore, metals or coil made of aluminium cost cheaper therefore making it affordable and usable in manufacturing of water heater coil. Aluminium coil have higher specific heat capacity which can supply more heat to the water in the water heater. Car Radiator. Water is pumped through channels in the engine block to absorb heat. Water is used as cooling agent due to its high specific heat capacity. The hot water flows to the radiator and is cooled by the air flows through the fins of the radiator. The cool water flows back to engine again to capture more heat and this cycle repeated continuously. In short, from this project, it is found that aluminium is the best heat conductor among the metals as it takes the shortest time to heat up the coil. Thus, it is suitable to be chosen as the heating coil in the water heater.

0 10 seconds 20 seconds 30 seconds 40 seconds