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ELECTRON BEAM TREATMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

TEACHER IN CHARGE PN. FATIMAH BT. MOHD. JAMIL SUPERVISED BY PN. KHOMSATON ABU BAKAR PN. NATASHA ISNIN EN. HASNUL NIZAM OSMAN PARTICIPANTS NG KIM HO LESTER KIRAN RAJ A/L GOBAL THEVA DARSHINI A/P SURENTHIRAN SCHOOL SMK SHAHBANDARAYA, KLANG, SELANGOR

Purpose
To measure the value of COD, colour and pH of textile wastewater before and after irradiation with electron beam.

Introduction
Electron beam treatment removing pollutants by active radicals is one of the most advanced technologies for wastewater management. Organic and non-biodegradable pollutants can be easily converted into simple hydrocarbons or biodegradable compounds through irradiation by electron beams. Such technology is capable to provide a better environment for us.

Introduction
Among the advantages of electron beam treatment

Low energy consumption Easy to operate under low costs Disinfection and discolouration
Wastewater from petrochemical companies Dyeing wastewater treatment Reclamation for industrial supply

Among the fields of application of electron beam treatment


Hypothesis
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of irradiated textile wastewater is lower than the COD of nonirradiated textile wastewater The pH value of irradiated textile wastewater is more acidic than the pH value of non-irradiated textile wastewater The colour intensity of irradiated textile wastewater is lower than the colour intensity of non-irradiated textile wastewater.

Materials
Textile wastewater Raw source Irradiated source with dosage of 17 kGy Irradiated source with dosage of 30 kGy COD reagent Distilled water 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution 0.1 M sulphuric acid, H2SO4 solution Cellulose nitrate membrane filter paper (size: 0.4 m)

Apparatus

Glassware DR 5000 UV spectrophotometer Vacuum machine COD digester Pipetter Mettler Toledo pH meter

Procedure
pH test on textile wastewater
The pH meter is first calibrated using the 2-point calibration method. The electrode is dipped into the raw wastewater sample. Once a stable pH reading is obtained, the reading is recorded. The steps above are repeated with the two irradiated wastewater samples. The readings are recorded.

Procedure (cont.)
Colour meter - ADMI weight ordinate method The pH of the textile wastewater samples are adjusted to pH 7.6 using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide and 0.1 M sulphuric acid. The filtering apparatus is prepared and used to filter the textile wastewater samples. The UV spectrophotometer is zeroed by using a sample cell with deionized water. A cell sample with 10ml raw textile wastewater is prepared and inserted into the cell holder of the spectrometer. The spectrometer is run and the reading of percentage transmittance is obtained and recorded. The steps above are repeated with the irradiated wastewater samples.

Procedure (cont.)
Digestion procedure to measure chemical oxygen demand (COD) Four COD digestion reagent vials are prepared and labelled. A pipetter is used to transfer 2.00 ml of deionized water into the first vial (blank sample), and the vial is capped tightly. This step is repeated using raw wastewater into the second vial, 17kGy-irradiated wastewater into the third, and 30kGyirradiated wastewater into the fourth. The vials are inverted several times to mix slowly before they are placed in the preheated COD reactor and heated for two hours. Then, the vials are left to cool. The outside of the vials are cleaned with damp towel followed by dry towel to remove fingerprints or other marks. The instrument is set up, and then zeroed by using the blank sample. The sample vial is placed into the adapter. The result is displayed in mg/L COD, and is recorded. The steps are repeated using other sample vials.

Observation
1. The 30 kGy-irradiated textile wastewater indicates higher pH value than raw textile wastewater. 2. The raw textile waste water shows highest AMDI colour value reading, followed by 17 kGy and 30 kGy-irradiated samples. 3. The highest COD value is showed by raw textile wastewater followed by 17 kGy and 30 kGy-irradiated samples.

Results of pH test

Results of pH test
pH TEST ON TEXTILE WASTE WATER SAMPLES
8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.4 Ph METER READING

pH value

8.4
0 17 30

DOSAGE OF IRRADIATED TEXTILE WASTE (kGy)

Results of ADMI test

Results of ADMI test


800.0 700.0 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 AVERAGE ADMI VALUE

COLOUR METER-ADMI WEIGHT ORDINATE METHOD

200.0
100.0 0.0 0 17 30

DOSAGE OF IRRADIATED TEXTILE WASTE (kGy)

Results of COD test

Results of COD test


CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) TEST
160.0 140.0 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 0 17 30 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND(Mg/l)

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (mg/L)

DOSAGE OF IRRADIATED TEXTILE WASTE (kGy)

Discussion
The pH value of irradiated textile wastewater is found to be higher than that of non-radiated textile wastewater. As the irradiation dose increases, the pH value increases as well. However, this result is inaccurate because the pH value of irradiated sample should be lower than that of the non-irradiated sample. This could be due to human error and insufficient quantity of sample available to repeat the pH test. Theoretically, the pH value of irradiated sample is lower than that of the non-irradiated sample because the final products of the degradation of pollutants and organic compounds in the water sample are water and carbon dioxide ,which exhibits acidic properties.

Discussion (cont.)
The ADMI colour value of irradiated textile wastewater sample is found to be significantly lower than that of non-irradiated sample. In other words, the colour intensity of irradiated sample is lower than that of non-irradiated sample. This is due to the degradation of chemical compounds that exhibit coloured properties when the sample is irradiated by electron beams. The COD value of irradiated sample is found to be lower than that of non-irradiated sample. This is due to the reduction of pollutants in the irradiated wastewater sample to simpler compounds, compared to the non-irradiated sample which contains a high amount of pollutants.

Conclusion
Based on the COD test and the ADMI colour value test, irradiated textile wastewater contains less pollutants, compared to non-radiated textile wastewater. Based on the pH test, irradiated textile wastewater is alkaline compared to non-radiated textile wastewater. However, previous tests have shown that irradiated textile wastewater should be acidic instead. In summary, electron beam treatment is reliable in converting textile wastewater into wastewater that is acceptable to be discharged into the environment.

Future Considerations
Ways to improve the experiment.

Collect more samples of textile wastewater from various locations. Ensure that the samples of textile wastewater are freshly obtained. Test on textile wastewater should be repeated several times to improve the accuracy of the result.
Support , in various suitable forms, should be given considerably by the government as well as the private sectors to develop this technology for wide-scale uses.

Ways to apply the experiment in real life situation