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Sistem Telekomunikasi Modul-04

TCP/IP and the Internet

Protokol
Protokol adalah sebuah aturan atau standar yang mengatur komunikasi, dan perpindahan data antara dua atau lebih komputer. Protokol dapat diterapkan pada perangkat keras, perangkat lunak atau kombinasi dari keduanya. Pada tingkatan yang terendah, protokol mendefinisikan koneksi perangkat keras. Protokol perlu diutamakan pada penggunaan standar teknis, untuk menspesifikasi bagaimana membangun komputer atau menghubungkan peralatan perangkat keras.

Beberapa Contoh Protokol


TCP/IP : internet HTTP : akses internet SMTP : pertukaran e-mail FTP : mengunduh dan mengunggah berkas SIP : salah satu protokol VoIP

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol merupakan sekumpulan protokol yang terdapat di dalam jaringan komputer yang digunakan untuk berkomunikasi atau bertukar data antar komputer. Merupakan protokol standart pada jaringan internet yang menghubungkan banyak komputer yang berbeda jenis mesin maupun sistem operasi agar dapat berinteraksi satu sama lain. Protokol yang digunakan pada jaringan ARPANET (Advance Research Project Agency) lama kelamaan tidak mampu menangani jumlah simpul yang terus berkembang DARPA mendanai pembuatan protokol komunikasi yang lebih umum, yakni TCP/IP. TCP/IP diadopsi menjadi standard ARPANET pada tahun 1983.

Layanan TCP/IP
Pengiriman file (File Transfer). File Transfer Protokol (FTP) memungkinkan user dapat mengirim atau menerima file dari komputer jaringan. Remote Login. Network Terminal Protokol (telnet). Memungkinkan user untuk melakukan login ke dalam suatu komputer di dalam jaringan. Computer Mail. Digunakan untuk menerapkan sistem e-mail. Protokol yang digunakan: SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protokol) untuk pengiriman email POP (Post Office Protokol) dan IMAP (Internet Message Access Control) untuk menerima email MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) untuk mengirimkan data selain teks Network File System (NFS). Pelayanan akses file jarak jauh yang memungkinkan klien untuk mengakses file pada komputer jaringan jarak jauh walaupun file tersebut disimpan lokal. Remote Execution. Memungkinkan user untuk menjalankan suatu program dari komputer yang berbeda. Name Servers. Nama database alamat yang digunakan pada internet. IRC (Internet Relay Chat). Memberikan layanan chat Streaming (Layanan audio dan video). Jenis layanan yang langsung mengolah data yang diterima tanpa menunggu mengolah data selesai dikirim.

Introduction
What is TCP/IP:
A software-based communications protocol used in networking Provides network services: Telnet, email, etc Provides a method for transfering information from one machine to another Using the term TCP/IP usually refers to one or more protocols within the family, not just TCP and IP

TCP/IP vs OSI Model

TCP/IP Components

A Quick Overview of TCP/IP Components


(1/2) Telnet :
Provides a remote login capability. Enables a file on one system to be copied to another system Used for transferring electronic mail Security protocol using uses a special application called an authentication server to validate passwords and encryption schemes Enables a computer with a common name to be converted to a special network address. DNS provides a conversion from the common local name to the unique physical address of the device's network connection Provides status messages and problem reports across a network to an administrator SNMP works with managers and agents, instead of clients and servers An agent provides information about a device, whereas a manager communicates across a network with agents a standard and flexible notation that describes data structures for representing, encoding, transmitting, and decoding data
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File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): Kerberos:

Domain Name System (DNS):


Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) :


Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN):

A Quick Overview of TCP/IP Components


(1/2)
Network File System (NFS):
A set of protocols developed by Sun Microsystems to enable multiple machines to access each other's directories transparently A set of functions that enable an application to communicate with another machine (the server) It provides for programming functions, return codes, and predefined variables to support distributed computing A very simple, unsophisticated file transfer protocol that lacks security A communications protocol that provides reliable transfer of data It is responsible for assembling data passed from higher-layer applications into standard packets and ensuring that the data is transferred correctly A connectionless-oriented protocol, meaning that it does not provide for the retransmission of datagrams (unlike TCP, which is connection-oriented) Responsible for moving the packets of data assembled by either TCP or UDP across networks Responsible for checking and generating messages on the status of devices on a network It can be used to inform other devices of a failure in one particular machine. ICMP and IP usually work together

Remote Procedure Call (RPC):

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP):


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP):

User Datagram Protocol (UDP):


Internet Protocol (IP): Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP):


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TCP/IP Layers
Physical Layer
Concerned with physical interface between computer and network (characteristics of transmission medium, signal levels, data rates, etc)

Network Access Layer


Exchange of data between an end system and attached network Concerned with issues like :
destination address provision invoking specific services like priority access to & routing data across a network link between two attached systems

Allows upper layers to ignore link specifics

Internet Layer (IP)


Routing functions across multiple networks for systems attached to different networks using IP protocol

Implemented in end systems and routers Routers connect two networks and relays data between them

Transport Layer (TCP)


Provides reliable delivery of data

Application Layer
Provides support for user applications Needs a separate module for each type of application

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Reasons to use TCP/IP


TCP/IP is up and running and has a proven record. TCP/IP has an established, functioning management body. Thousands of applications currently use TCP/IP and its well-documented application programming interfaces. TCP/IP is the basis for most UNIX systems, which are gaining the largest share of the operating system market (other than desktop single-user machines such as the PC and Macintosh). TCP/IP is vendor-independent
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Cara kerja TCP/IP


TCP merupakan connection-oriented, yang berarti bahwa kedua komputer ikut serta dalam pertukaran data harus melakukan hubungan terlebih dulu sebelum pertukaran data berlangsung (dalam hal ini email). TCP bertanggung jawab untuk meyakinkan bahwa email tersebut akan sampai tujuan, memeriksa kesalahan dan mengirimkan error ke lapisan atas hanya bila TCP tidak berhasil melakukan hubungan. Jika isi email tersebut terlalu besar untuk satu datagram, TCP akan membaginya ke dalam beberapa datagram.

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Cara kerja TCP/IP


IP bertanggung jawab setelah hubungan berlangsung. Tugasnya adalah untuk merutekan paket data di dalam network. IP hanya bertugas menjadi kurir dari TCP dan mencari jalur yang terbaik dalam penyampaian datagram. IP tidak bertanggung jawab jika data tersebut tidak sampai dengan utuh, namun IP akan mengirimkan pesan kesalahan melalui ICMP (Internet Control Message Protokol) dan kemudian kembali ke sumber data. Karena IP hanya mengirimkan data tanpa mengetahui urutan data mana yang akan disusun berikutnya, maka menyebabkan IP mudah untuk dimodifikasi di daerah sumber dan tujuan datagram.

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Arsitektur TCP/IP
Application Layer (SMTP, FTP, HTTP, dll) Transport Layer (TCP, UDP) Internet Layer (IP, ICMP, ARP) Network Interface Layer (Ethernet, SLIP, PPP)

TCP/IP Stack

Jaringan Fisik
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The Internet
The Internet is not a single network but a collection of networks that communicate with each other through gateways The different networks connected to each other through gateways are often called subnetworks, because they are a smaller part of the larger overall network Subnetworks are complete networks, but they are connected through a gateway as a part of a larger internetwork, or in this case the Internet.
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Internet Layer (ICMP)


ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), bertugas mengirimkan pesan-pesan kesalahan dan kondisi lain yang memerlukan perhatian khusus

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Internet Layer (ICMP)


Beberapa pesan kesalahan ICMP, yaitu: Destination Unreachable, Pesan yang dihasilkan oleh router jika paket gagal dikrim akibat putus jalur. Network Unreachable, jaringan tujuan tidak dapat dihubungi Host Unreachable, host tujuan tidak dapat dihubungi Protokol At Destination Unreachable, Protokol tidak tersedia Port is Unreachable, port tidak tersedia Destination Network is Unknown, jaringan tujuan tidak dikenal Destination Host is Unknown, host tujuan tidak dikenal Time Exceeded Parameter Problem, terjadi kesalahan parameter dan letak oktet dimana kesalahan terdeteksi. Source quench, yang terjadi karena router/host tujuan membuang datagram karena pembatasan ruang buffer atau karena datagram tidak dapat diproses. Redirect, memberi saran kepada host asal datagram mengenai router yang lebih tepat untuk menerima datagram tersebut
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Internet Layer (ICMP)


Beberapa ICMP Query Message, yaitu: Echo request dan Echo reply message, bertujuan memeriksa apakah sistem tujuan dalam keadaan aktif. TimeStamp dan TimeStamp Reply, menghasilkan informasi waktu yang diperlukan sistem tujuan untuk memproses suatu paket. Address Mask, untuk mengetahui berapa netmask yang harus digunakan oleh host dalam suatu network
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Internet Layer (ARP)


ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), digunakan untuk keperluan pemetaan IP address dengan ethernet address. ARP bekerja dengan mengirimkan paket berisi IP address yang ingin diketahui alamat ethernetnya ke alamat broadcast ethernet.

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Transfer of a datagram over an internetwork

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Internet Addresses
Three terms commonly used in the Internet relate to addressing:
name: is a specific identification of a machine, a user, or an application. It is usually unique and provides an absolute target for the datagram. address: typically identifies where the target is located, usually its physical or logical location in a network Route: tells the system how to get a datagram to the address

name server: a network software package used to resolve the address and the route from the name. Advantage of name server:
addressing and routing unimportant to the end user System/network admin can freely change the network as required
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Subnetwork Addressing
On a single network, several pieces of information are necessary to ensure the correct delivery of data. The primary components are:
the physical address the data link address.

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Physical Address

Each device on a network that communicates with others has a unique physical address, sometimes called the hardware address For hardware, the addresses are usually encoded into a network interface card, set either by switches or by software If the recipient's address matches the physical address of the device, the datagram can be passed up the layers. If the addresses don't match, the datagram is ignored Ethernet and several others use 48 bits in each address It is called a media access control (MAC) address
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The Data Link Address

Ethernet Frames The preamble is a set of bits that are used primarily to synchronize the communication process and account for any random noise in the first few bits that are sent. At the end of the preamble is a sequence of bits that are the start frame delimiter (SFD), which indicates that the frame follows immediately. The recipient and sender addresses follow in IEEE 48-bit format, followed by a 16-bit type indicator that is used to identify the protocol The Data field is between 46 and 1,500 bytes in length Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) count, which is used to ensure that the frame's contents have not been modified during the transmission process.

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Format IP Address
IP address merupakan bilangan biner 32 bit yang dipisahkan oleh tanda pemisah berupa tanda titik disetiap 8 bitnya. Tiap 8 bit ini disebut dengan oktet. Bentuk dari IP address adalah sebagai berikut :
xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx 10000100.01011100.01111001.00000001 132 92 121 1 Dotted Decimal Notation
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Network ID dan Host ID


Pembagian kelas-kelas IP berdasarkan pada dua hal : Network ID dan host ID dari suatu IP. Network ID adalah bagian dari IP address yang digunakan untuk menunjuk jaringan tempat komputer ini berada. Host ID adalah bagian dari IP Address yang digunakan untuk menunjuk workstation, server, router dan semua host TCP/IP lainnya dalam jaringan tersebut.
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Pembagian IP Address
Dikenal dua cara pembagian IP address:
Classfull Addressing Classless Addressing

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Classfull Addressing
Merupakan metode pembagian IP berdasarkan kelas dimana IP Address dibagi menjadi 5 kelas
Kelas A Kelas B Kelas C Kelas D Kelas E

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IP Versi 4
IP Address merupakan pengenal yang digunakan untuk memberi alamat pada tiap-tiap komputer dalam jaringan. Format IP Address adalah bilangan 32 bit yang tiap 8 bitnya dipisahkan oleh tanda titik. Format IP Address dapat berupa biner (xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxx) atau berupa bilangan desimal yang masing-masing dipisahkan oleh titik (dotted decimal) (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx)
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IP Addresses (IPv4)
TCP/IP uses a 32-bit address to identify a machine on a network and the network to which it is attached.
IP addresses identify a machine's connection to the network, not the machine itself Whenever a machine's location on the network changes, the IP address must be changed, too IP address is the set of numbers many people see on their workstations or terminals, such as 127.40.8.72, which uniquely identifies the device if a network is not connected to the Internet, that network can determine its own numbering For all Internet accesses, the IP address must be registered with the NIC

IP (or Internet) addresses are assigned only by the Network Information Center (NIC)

There are four formats for the IP address, with each used depending on the size of the network: Class A, B, C, and D

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IP Addresses (IPv4)
Class A addresses are for large networks that have many machines. The 24 bits for the local address (also frequently called the host address) are needed in these cases. The network address is kept to 7 bits, which limits the number of networks that can be identified. Class B addresses are for intermediate networks, with 16-bit local or host addresses and 14-bit network addresses. Class C networks have only 8 bits for the local or host address, limiting the number of devices to 256. There are 21 bits for the network address. Class D networks are used for multicasting purposes, when a general broadcast to more than one device is required. The lengths of each section of the IP address have been carefully chosen to provide maximum flexibility in assigning both network and local addresses.

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IP Addresses (IPv4)
IP addresses are four sets of 8 bits, for a total 32 bits, e.i.:
network.local.local.local for Class A network.network.network.local for Class C

The IP addresses are usually written out in their decimal equivalents, instead of the long binary strings, example 147.10.13.28,
network address is 147.10 local or host address is 13.28.

The actual address is a set of 1s and 0s. The decimal notation used for IP addresses is properly called dotted quad notation if an address is set to all 1s, the address applies to all addresses on the network, example: the address 147.10.255.255 for a Class B network (identified as network 147.10) would be received by all devices on that network (255.255 being the local addresses composed of all 1s), but the data would not leave the network.
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Klasifikasi pada IP Address


Klas 8 bit 8 bit Host ID Network ID Network ID 8 bit Host ID 8 bit Host ID

Klas A Network ID Klas B Network ID Klas C Network ID Klas D Multicast Klas E

Host ID

Host ID

Network ID Host ID

Research
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IP Address Class Network and Host Capacities

P Address Class

Total # Of Bits For Network ID / Host ID

First Octet of IP Address

# Of Network ID Bits Used To Identify Class

Usable # Of Network ID Bits

Number of Possible Network IDs

# Of Host IDs Per Network ID

Class A

8 / 24

0xxx xxxx

8-1 = 7

27-2 = 126

224-2 = 16,277,214

Class B

16 / 16

10xx xxxx

16-2 = 14

214 = 16,384

216-2 = 65,534

Class C

24 / 8

110x xxxx

24-3 = 21

221 = 2,097,152

28-2 = 254

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The Domain Name System

Instead of using the full 32-bit IP address, many systems adopt more meaningful names for their devices and networks. Network names usually reflect the organization's name Translating between these names and the IP addresses would be practically impossible on an Internet-wide scale. To solve the problem of network names, the Network Information Center (NIC) maintains a list of network names and the corresponding network gateway addresses. This system grew from a simple flat-file list (which was searched for matches) to a more complicated system called the Domain Name System (DNS) when the networks became too numerous for the flat-file system to function efficiently. DNS uses a hierarchical architecture, much like the UNIX filesystem.
The first level of naming divides networks into the category of subnetworks, such as com for commercial, mil for military, edu for education, and so on. Below each of these is another division that identifies the individual subnetwork, usually one for each organization. This is called the domain name and is unique. The organization's system manager can further divide the company's subnetworks as desired, with each network called a subdomain. For example, the system merlin.abc_corp.com has the domain name abc_corp.com, whereas the network merlin.abc_corp is a subdomain of merlin.abc_corp.com. A network can be identified with an absolute name (such as merlin.abc_corp.com) or a relative name (such as merlin) that uses part of the complete domain name.

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The Domain Name System


Seven first-level domain names have been established by the NIC so far. These are as follows
arpa .com .edu .gov .mil .net An ARPANET-Internet identification Commercial company Educational institution Any governmental body Military Networks used by Internet Service Providers Anything that doesn't fall into one of the other categories

.org

The NIC also allows for a country designator to be appended. There are designators for all countries in the world, such as .ca for Canada and .uk for the United Kingdom. DNS uses two systems to establish and track domain names.
A name resolver on each network examines information in a domain name. If it can't find the full IP address, it queries a name server, which has the full NIC information available. The name resolver tries to complete the addressing information using its own database. If a queried name server cannot resolve the address, it can query another name server, and so on, across the entire internetwork.

There is a considerable amount of information stored in the name resolver and name37 server, as well as a whole set of protocols for querying between the two.

Sistem Telekomunikasi Modul-06

Gateway and Routing Protocol

TCP/IP,Gateway and Routing Protocol


TCP/IP telah berkembang membentuk jaringan LAN bahkan internet dengan ribuan server dan jaringan yang kompleks terhubung satu sama lain (internetworks). Hal ini dimungkinkan dengan adanya perangkatperangkat berbasis IP seperti Gateway, Bride, Router dll. Penyampaian pesan dari satu komputer ke komputer membutuhkan metode routing tertentu. Metode untuk menyampaikan informasi routing dalam jaringan sangat tergantung role network gateways. Terdapat protokol khusus yang dikembangkan untuk berbagai macam gateway. Protocol ini bekerja bersama-sama dengan TCP.
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Gateways, Bridges, and Routers


Gateway adalah sebuah perangkat yang menjalankan fungsi routing, biasa perangkat stand-alone yang juga menjalankan translasi protokol dari satu jaringan ke jaringan lainnya :
Kemampuan konversi protokol sangat penting biasanya terjadi di layer rendah (physical, data link, network) namun kadang-kadang termasuk layer transport. Konversi dapat terjadi dalam berbagai bentuk, misalnya ketika paket berpindah dari format LAN ke Ethernet (terjadi perubahan format paket) atau dari sebuah file yang mempunyai konvensi proprietary ke bentuk lainnya.

Bridge adalah perangkat jaringan yang menghubungkan satu atau lebih jaringan yang menggunakan protokol yang sama. Bekerja sampai layer 2 OSI Router adalah sebuah node jaringan yang meneruskan (forward) datagrams melalui jaringan IP. Bekerja sampai layer 3 OSI
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Gateway Protocols

Gateway Protocol
Gateway protocols are used to exchange information with other gateways in a fast, reliable manner The Internet provides two types of gateways: core and non-core
All core gateways are administered by the Internet Network Operations Center (INOC). Non-core gateways are not administered by this central authority but by groups outside the Internet hierarchy

The origin of core gateways arose from the ARPANET(Advance Research Project Agency)
ARPANET called them stub gateways,

Any gateway not under direct control (non-core in Internet terms) was called a nonrouting gateway.
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Internet from the start


First, there was ARPANET
Routers had complete information about all the possible destinations core routers
R R R

H H H

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Internet from the start


Then, LANs were connected to ARPANET

ARPANET

Core Routers

LAN

LAN

LAN

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Internet from the start


Problems with above configuration:
Routing overhead increased with the number of connected routers
Number of routes increased with the number of connected segments Frequency of routing exchanges increased Higher likelihood that something went wrong somewhere requiring updates

Number of different types of routers increased Slow deployment of new versions of routing algorithms
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Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)


The move to the Internet and its proliferation of gateways required the implementation of the Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP), which was used between core gateways. The GGP was usually used to spread information about the non-core gateways attached to each core gateway, enabling routing tables to be built.

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Interior and Exterior Gateway


As the Internet grew, it became impossible for any one gateway to hold a complete map of the entire internetwork If the local network has more than one gateway and they can talk to each other, they are considered interior neighbors. (The term interior neighbor is sometimes applied to the machines within the network, too, not just the gateways.) If the gateways belong to different autonomous systems, they are exterior gateways.
when default routes are required, it is up to the exterior gateways to route messages between autonomous systems. Interior gateways are used to transfer messages into an 47 autonomous system.

Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocol


The method of transferring routing information between interior gateways is usually the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or the less common HELLO protocol, both of which are Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs).
These protocols are designed specifically for interior neighbors.

On the Internet, messages between two exterior gateways are through the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). RIP, HELLO, and EGP all rely on a frequent (every thirty seconds) transfer of information between gateways to update routing tables.
EGP is used between gateways of autonomous systems, whereas the IGPs RIP and HELLO are used within the network itself. GGP is used between core gateways.
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Ilustrasi

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Routing and Routing Daemon

Routing
Routing refers to the transmission of a packet of information from one machine through another. Each machine that the packet enters analyzes the contents of the packet header and decides its action based on the information within the header. If the destination address of the packet matches the machine's address, the packet should be retained and processed by higherlevel protocols. If the destination address doesn't match the machine's, the packet is forwarded further around the network. Forwarding can be to the destination machine itself, or to a gateway or bridge if the packet is to leave the local network.

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Routing (cont)
Routing is a primary contributor to the complexity of packet-switched networks. It is necessary to account for an optimal path from source to destination machines It is necessary to handle problems such as
a heavy load on an intervening machine or the loss of a connection.

The route details are contained in a routing table


several sophisticated algorithms work with the routing table to develop an optimal route for a packet.

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References
Teach yourself TCP/IP (Tim Parker & Dean Miller) William Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, 8th Edition Shivkumar Kalyanaraman, Exterior Gateway Protocols: EGP, BGP4, CIDR, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/shivkuma

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Terima kasih