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Punctuation guide
Full Stop (.)
 Also Known as Period and denotes the end of the sentence.
Ex. I am leaving this room.
 Full Stop is also used to mark the Abbreviations.
Ex. – Ph.D. , O.K. ,IND. Etc.
Comma (,)
 A comma represents the undeviating break in the sentence.
 Comma is diversely used in following situations;

 Used in separating the items in series.


Ex. She is beautiful, courageous, and intelligent.

 Used before a coordinating conjunction that joins the


independent clauses.
Ex. He prepared delicious food, however no-one liked it.
 Used to set off introductory elements, esp. that contains verb or
verb form.
Ex. Summing it up, he prepared delicious food, however
no-one likes it.

 Used on either sides of an non-essential elements.


Ex. Amender, the vice president of the college, will
participate in the youth festival this year.
Apostrophe (‘)
 Apostrophe is used to denote either the possession of the user or
the contraction of the word.
Ex. Contraction: have not – haven’t
it is – it’s
you are – you’re
possession: Simi's make-up kit is with her.
It’s a bank’s notice, not mine.
Although, we are at the year’s end, it seems to
be
started.
 Apostrophe is not only used to make the word plural but also the letter and
number plural.
Ex: I have achieved B’s through the complete session/
Ex: The scores follow the pattern of 5’s and 10’s.

Note: If the singular form is used the apostrophe is used before the
word to denote possession.
Ex: Simi’s
Note: If the plural form is used the apostrophe is used after the
word to denote possession.
Ex. Girl’s
Quotation Marks (“)
 Quotation marks are used to enclose the direct words of the
speakers.
Ex: he said, “Did you go home last weekend”.

 Quotations are used to enclose the titles of stories, poems, and


articles.
Ex. “The Merchant of Venice” is written by William
Shakespeare.
Note: Full-stop, commas, and single cotes always go within the
double cotes.
Single Quotation
Marks (‘)
 Since the double quotation marks can only be used once in the
sentence, to suffice or alternatively we use Single Quotation
Marks in the same sentence.
Ex: William Shakespeare wrote, “’Merchant of Venice’, ‘The
Hamlet’, ‘Measures for Measure’.”
Colon (:)
 Colons are used to provide formal introductions to given set of
series and quotations in writing.
Ex: This year the sales revenue were less in moth of: May,
June , September, and November.
Ex. The trainer coated: “Patience is Virtue, till it is
Tested”.

Note: A sentence using the colon (if required) is much effective.


Semi-Colon (;)
 Semi-Colon is used to join the integrate independent clauses to one,
and differentiate the separate items in a series when the items posses
the internal punctuation.
Ex. The politicians in this area are active; it must be the
election season.
Ex. I have visited Mumbai, India; London, England; Liverpool,
Canada; and Paris, The United States. Have you ever been to
these places.

Note: Semicolon bifurcates the individual items more clearly than


the comma could have.
Exclamation (!)
 Exclamation, is used to denote the extreme importance of the word or
sentence and also is used to denote the loud spoken word in the
written communication.
Ex: Are you o.k.!
What!
Jesus! How can you do it!
Are you listening! I am talking to you!

Note: Exclamations should be carefully used as they can also appear


as though it is denoting the Person is shouting over the written
communication.
Question Mark (?)
 Question mark denotes the query or an doubt. The end motive of
a question mark is to seek an answer in the sentence.
Ex: Are you not 1987 born?
So, what do you estimate the IT spend for next year?
It will cost me $87?
What is Photosynthesis?
Can you answer the question?
Ellipse (-)
 Ellipse are mostly used with the quotations.
 Ellipse are used to bifurcate the one that the writer wants to
separate from the sentence.
Ex. “All the Glitters is not Gold.” – William Shakespeare
Brackets (())
 Brackets are mostly used with quotations.
 Brackets are used when the writer wants to insert something or
wants to provide an information that might not be part of the text
but would in further understanding.
Ex: Biology has two sub heads, they are – Botany (Study of
Plants) and Zoology (Study of Animals, and Insects)
Ex: Economics (including both Micro and macro) would be
tested for the quarterly exams.