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UNIT 6 EMOTIONS

SMITA CHOUDHARY

CONTENTS
Introduction Theories of emotion Certain issues Emotional intelligence

INTRODUCTION

In the previous units you have studied about learning, personality


and perception. In this unit we are going to discuss about emotions and emotional intelligence. Emotions are a very vital aspect of human behavior and the interplay of emotions largely affects the

behavior in organizations as well.


Emotions-I hope you all may be familiar with this word. Will you like to name some emotions? They are happiness, love, hatred, anger and many more. Emotions are our feelings. We feel them in

our bodies as tingles, hot spots and muscular tension. There are
cognitive aspects, but the physical sensation is what makes them really different.

INTRODUCTION

Emotion is defined as a state of consciousness having to do with the arousal of feelings (Websters New World Dictionary). It is different from other mental states, from cognition, volition (desire), and physical sense. Feeling is defined as any individual reaction, good or bad that a person may experience in a particular situation.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After this unit, you will be able to understand Theories of emotion Emotional intelligence

THEORIES OF EMOTION
I. II. III. IV. V.

Cannon-Bard theory (1927) Schachter-Singer theory (1962) Lazarus' appraisal theory (1980) Weiner's attribution theory (1986, 1992) James-Lange Theory (1890)

6 KEY EMOTIONS

THEORIES OF EMOTION
1)

James-Lange (1890)

Theory

It was mentioned in Taylor, 1999. According to this theory individual emotional responses are due to physiological changes in the human body. The brain recognizes an event and sends the message to other areas of the brain. This action produces response and these responses bring out emotional response. This theory suggests that physiological behaviors take place before emotions.
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2. CANNON-BARD THEORY (1927)


It was also mentioned in Taylor, 1999. Events that cause emotions produce individual emotional experience and physiological stimulation at the same time. With experience, individuals start gaining some expectations for every situation.

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SCHACHTER-SINGER THEORY (1962)

Feedback from responses and a cognitive evaluation of what caused those responses produce emotions. A persons interpretation of the peripheral(Unimportant) response determines his/her emotions. Individuals identify the emotional response on the basis of what is causing the response.

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LAZARUS APPRAISAL THEORY (1980)

An individual makes an initial cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide if there is a threat. If necessary, an action is taken to manage the situation. The individual takes a deeper look and identifies his emotions.

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WEINERS ATTRIBUTION THEORY (1986, 1992)


Some actions or events produce specific emotions. After initial evaluation, the individual finds the cause of the event. The cause of the event may change the emotions felt. Ortony and Turner (1990) collected many researches related to emotions and proposed a description of basic emotions and the reasons for inclusion:

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Basic Emotions
Arnold Anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire, despair, fear, hate, hope, love, sadness Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise

Basis for Inclusion(Addition)


Relation to action tendencies

Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth

Universal facial expressions

Frijda
Gray Izard

Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow


Rage and terror, anxiety, joy Anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, interest, joy, shame, surprise Fear, grief, love, rage Anger, disgust, elation, fear, subjection, tender-emotion, wonder Pain, pleasure

Forms of action readiness


Hardwired Hardwired

James McDougall

Bodily involvement Relation to instincts

Mowrer

Unlearned emotional states


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Basic Emotions

Basis for Inclusion

Oatley and Johnson-Laird


Panksepp

Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness


Expectancy, fear, rage, panic

Do not require propositional content


Hardwired

Plutchik

Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy, fear, sadness, surprise


Anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, joy, shame, surprise Fear, love, rage Happiness, sadness

Relation to adaptive biological processes


Density of neural firing

Tomkins

Watson Weiner and Graham

Hardwired Attribution independent

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PARROTS CLASSIFICATION OF EMOTIONS


Primary Emotion Secondary Emotion Tertiary Emotions

Love

Affection
Lust Longing

Adoration, affection, love, fondness, liking, attraction, caring, tenderness, compassion, sentimentality
Arousal, desire, lust, passion, infatuation Longing

Joy

Cheerfulness

Amusement, bliss, cheerfulness, gaiety, glee, jolliness, joviality, joy, delight, enjoyment, gladness, happiness, jubilation, elation, satisfaction, ecstasy, euphoria Enthusiasm, zeal, zest, excitement, thrill, exhilaration
Pride, triumph Eagerness, hope, optimism Enthrallment, rapture

Zest
Pride Optimism Enthrallment

Contentment Contentment, pleasure

Relief
Surprise Surprise

Relief
Amazement, surprise, astonishment
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Primary Emotion

Secondary Emotion
Irritation Exasperation

Tertiary Emotions
Aggravation, irritation, agitation, annoyance, grouchiness, grumpiness Exasperation, frustration Anger, rage, outrage, fury, wrath, hostility, ferocity, bitterness, hate, loathing, scorn, spite, vengefulness, dislike, resentment

Anger

Rage

Disgust
Envy Torment Suffering Sadness

Disgust, revulsion, contempt


Envy, jealousy Torment Agony, suffering, hurt, anguish Depression, despair, hopelessness, gloom, glumness, sadness, unhappiness, grief, sorrow, woe, misery, melancholy

Sadness

Disappointmen Dismay, disappointment, displeasure t Shame Neglect Guilt, shame, regret, remorse Alienation, isolation, neglect, loneliness, rejection, insult

Sympathy
Fear Horror Nervousness

Pity, sympathy
Alarm, shock, fear, terror, panic, hysteria, fright, horror Anxiety, tenseness, uneasiness, worry, distress, dread
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FELT VS. DISPLAYED EMOTIONS (HOCHSCHILD, 1979, 1983)


Felt emotions are an individuals actual emotions. Displayed emotions are those emotions that are required by the organization for a particular job. Felt and displayed emotions may be different. This happens in organizations where an individuals role and situation require him/her to hide their real feelings.

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CERTAIN ISSUES
Culture and emotion Universality Emotions are a part of human nature and the basic emotions for all cultures are same. Ekman (1999) has found six generally recognized emotions.

Anger Fear Sadness Happiness Disgust Surprise

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CULTURAL SPECIFICITY

Culture, traditions and values are responsible for our personality development and also social and emotional development. Every culture has its own emotions and emotional responses. The emotions of a particular culture are an indication of the norms, values, practices, and language of that culture.

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ALEXITHYMIA-EMOTIONAL DISORDER

Alexithymia is an emotional disorder in which people have difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. Such people do not cry. They feel uncomfortable with their own feelings and are not able to differentiate between their different emotions. They perform well on jobs that require little or no emotional labor. Symptoms of alexithymia may be seen in people who experience

Post-traumatic stress disorder Certain brain injuries Eating disorders Substance use dependence Depression Other mental health conditions

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RELATIONSHIP OF GENDER WITH EMOTION

Many research findings have proved that women are more emotional than men. (e.g. Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, Clarkson, & Rosenkrantz, 1972; Widiger & Settle, 1987). It is supposed that women go through more frequent and strong emotions whereas men do not express their emotions and go through less solid emotional experiences. Researchers have suggested that adult males express less emotions as compared to a child male because males learn to control their emotions as they grow older (Fabes and Martin, 1991).

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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Even in ancient India, emotions and intelligence were considered important in achieving success in life. A concept of Sthitha-prajna (emotional stability) is present in second chapter of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita. Emotional intelligence is the total of individuals knowledge of own and others emotions, feelings, and actions as per the demands of the environment. The most popular and accepted model of emotional intelligence is proposed by Goleman (1995). According to Goleman, emotional intelligence is the total of personal and social competences. Personal competence decides how we manage ourselves while social competence decides how we handle our interpersonal relationship.

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Personal Competence (Three dimensions)

Self-awareness

Self-regulation

Motivation

It is the ability of an individual to observe him/her self. The features of this ability are self-confidence, self-assessment, openness to positive criticism

It is the ability of an individual to control emotions and get rid of emotions that can have a negative impact.

It is the ability of an individual to use emotions to achieve a goal by self-control and adjusting as per the requirements of the situation. Such people are optimistic and committed towards goal.
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Social Competence (Two dimensions)

Empathy

Social skills

It is the ability of an individual to feel and get concerned for others and treat people according to their emotional reactions. Such people are experts in motivating others.

It is the ability of an individual to build and manage relationships with people. Such people are good at team management and convincing.

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CHECK YOUR LEARNING


What are the six emotions which are universally recognized and applicable found by Ekman? Answer: Anger Fear Sadness Happiness Disgust Surprise.

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CHECK YOUR LEARNING


What are the two types of competence being discussed in the Emotional Intelligence theory by Goleman? Answer: Personal Competence Social Competence

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