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Overview of Automation Studio

AS Library offers a design and simulation tool in the construction of hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical circuits. AS Library will offer a tool in designing and managing industrial processes. Two packages of process control components following the international standards of ISA and ISO will be considered.

Industrial Processes

Industrial Processes are defined as the procedures of transformation of the matter.


Industrial process study is based on physicochemical knowledge of the matter and on operations composing the process.

Conditions and Constraints

Row Material

. . . .

Final Product(s)
Intermediate Processes

Main Process

Automation Studio Process Control Workshop and Applications

Industrial processes are extremely varied. Process modeling and control are specific to each industry.

AS Process Control Workshop intends to be an efficient tool in designing


and simulating the most common industrial processes for testing and training purposes. These processes include: Food industry Pharmaceutical industry Petrochemical industry

Mechanization or industrialization of this sort has really only left man with one all-important mission in life: to conquer nature.
Alex Campbell

The preservation of wilderness areas is but one aspect of a series of conflicts, compromises, and accommodations involving use and preservation.
Lawrence Rakestraw, "Conservation Historiography: An Assessment," Pacific Historical Review

Food Industry - General Procedures


Fermentation
Practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry, the cheese products industry

Cooking
Occurs in canning and preserving of food, making biscuit, breweries, sugar refining and tomato-paste production.

Washington Northwest Columbia Crest Winery-Fermentation storage http://www.worldofstock.com/closeups/TAU2507.php

Sugar Refinery: AA048949 Photodisc Royalty Free http://www.fotosearch.com/PHD488/aa048949/

Dehydratation
Carried out in heated chambers (fixed dryers, drying tunnels), is practiced in the coffee, tea industry

Distillation
Used in the making of spirits (cognac, scotches).

Drying Tunnel http://southep882.en.alibaba.com/product/50203253/51124923/Coating_ Equipment/Drying_Tunnel/showimg.html

Arnold Holstein Distillation - Small distillery (product: alcohol for consumption) http://www.a-holstein.de/en/index_en.htm

Pharmaceutical Industry - General Procedures


Biotechnology
Synthesizing (fermentation), processing and high-purification (down-stream processing) of the active substances.

Fermentation

Plant/animal extraction

Insulin plant - Biotechnological fermentation - Linde-KCA-Dresden GmbH http://62.27.58.13/en/p0049/p0117/p0117.jsp

Pharmac Technologies Private Limited - CGMP Herbal Extraction Plant http://www.indiamart.com/pharmactechnologies/extractionplant.html#cgmp-herbal-extraction-plant

Refrigeration, Separation (purification)


Immunoglobulin, human albumin and blood coagulation products.

Plant for the Fractionation of Human Blood Plasma - Linde-KCA-Dresden GmbH


http://www.linde-kca.com/international/web/le/kca/likelekcacom.nsf/docbyalias/pharma_active_fine

Petrochemical Industry - General Procedures


Refining or treating crude oil
End products: automotive or aviation fuels, lubricants, heating oils, petrochemical bases.

Separation - Distillation

Transformation
Converting the heavy fuel oil into diesel motor fuel (gas-oil), and petrol (gasoline) by catalytic cracking and hydrocracking

Distillation Tower http://www.bayporttechnical.com/acrylic_working_demonstrators.htm

The BASF/AtoFina Steam Cracker. http://www.chemicalstechnology.com/projects/arthur/arthur6.html

Separation S-L (Purification, Filtration)


Eliminate the undesirable chemicals (sulfur and its compounds ) present in the derivatives

Blending
Blending the distillate products to obtain the required product

Oil & Gas filter separator (remove solid and liquid from gas streams) http://www.spxprocessequipment.com/literature/spxpe/spxpe-001_ov_spxpe.pdf

Blending plant - Sasol Chemical Industries http://www.emersonprocess.com/home/news/resources/morephotos.html

State of Automation Studio - Process Control Workshop and Developments

ISA and ISO standards Symbolization and Identification

Instrumentation and process model


Valves and control models Reactor models Configuration options

Automation Studio Process Control Library - ISA Standard

Automation Studio Process Control Library - ISO Standard

Process Control
Generally, modeling an industrial process involves:
Designing a multivariable system (interaction between two or more process variables). Modeling control loops and the relationship between them (open & closed loops). Controlling the process itself hydraulically, pneumatically, electrically or digitally to respond to a set of parameters as constant gain, time response, and delay. Customizing the inputs/outputs to match the controlled model accordingly to the preset technical conditions such as: pressure, flow, level, temperature etc.

Open loop vs. closed loop


Open loop control - A sequence of commands carried out irrespectively of the consequences.
Ex: Program a microwave on to defrost for 2 minutes. This occur if it is defrosted or not.

Closed loop control - A continuous feedback is involved ensuring that the conditions imposed are met.
Ex: Multivariable process schemes containing more than 2 loops: distillation towers, chemical reactors, heat exchangers etc.

Automation Studio Needs Analysis for Process and Control Workshop Summary
Number of Components in Library:
ISO Library: ~ 164 Components Symbols are different from the ISO symbols of hydraulic and pneumatic
ISA Library: ~ 261 Components libraries

Editor:
Lines type: The lines type are different form those of the standard editor, it depends on the signal that is flowing through the line. However, a general pattern could be employed for any type of signal, but this is not advised when different types of signals are present in the same diagram. Components identifiers: The names (or identifiers) of the components are different from the ISO standards of hydraulic and pneumatic components. They are based on the components function and are chosen from the tables provided by the ISO and the ISA standards. In other words, a configurator for the components identifiers is needed. Configurators: Most of the components are composed of the device and the actuator that controls that device (i.e Valves + Solenoid). This is why a configurator is needed for those components similarly to the configurators of hydraulic valves and electrotechnical components. Connection ports: The connections among the components is done in the same way of the other workshops of Automation Studio.

Automation Studio Needs Analysis for Process and Control Workshop Summary (Continued)
Simulation:
Multi-Fluid: In industrial processes, more than one fluid are often present in the same process (i.e Water used to cool oil). The option of using several fluids should be available. The fluid that enters a component can be different from the fluid that exits from that same component. However, the fluid that enters a component should be the same as the fluid of that exits from the one to which it is connected. The best way to achieve this restriction is to have a parameterizable fluid defined by its density vs. temperature, viscosity vs. temperature and bulk modulus. Or to begin in a simpler way, at least have the basic fluids available (Oil, Air, Steam and Water)
Processes Display: The color of a process depends on its state: Normal, broken down, emergency state, critical state, opened, closed, on , off The ISA standards provide a table that specifies the color of a process depending on its functioning state, and a table that specifies the mnemonic of every process.

Process Control

Distillation process is:


The most common separation technique in North America. It is used to separate two or more miscible components characterized by a significant difference between their boiling points and vapor pressures; Based on the vaporization of low boiling point components away from high boiling point components when heat energy is applied to the mixture; Carried out in a system containing three basic elements: a reboiler, a multiple stage of separation called column and a condenser; The procedure where the control is pointed to: feed and reflux rate, reboiler, pressure, temperature, overhead and bottom product rate ( analysis ); A multivariable procedure scheme requiring an accurate control of the closed loops. An input/output process variable change could affect other variables or the process itself. Ex: A change in feed rate or composition could induce changes in reboiler, reflux and product rate.

Process Control

Modeling of a Distillation Column


Notation:

Li and Vi - liquid and vapor flow from stage i [kmol/min], xi and yi - liquid and vapor composition of light component on stage i [mole fraction], Mi - liquid holdup on stage i [kmol], D and B - distillate top and bottoms product flowrate [kmol/min], L = LT and V = VB - reflux flow and boilup flow [kmol/min], F, zF - Feed rate [kmol/min] and feed composition [mole fraction], qF - fraction of liquid in feed i - stage no. (1 = bottom. NF = feed stage, NT = total condenser) alpha - relative volatility between light and heavy component taul - time constant [min] for liquid flow dynamics on each stage lambda - constant for effect of vapor flow on liquid flow ("K2-effect")
1. Total material balance om stage i: dMi/dt = L{i+1} - Li + V{i-1} - Vi 2. Material balance for light component on each stage i: d(Mi xi)/dt = L{i+1} x{i+1} + V{i-1} y{i-1} - Li xi - Vi yi which gives the following expression for the derivative of the liquid mole fraction: dxi/dt = ( d(Mi xi)/dt - xi dMi/dt ) / Mi

Process Control

Modeling of a Distillation Column (continued)


3. Algebraic equations. The vapor composition yi is related to the liquid composition xi on the same stage through the algebraic vapor-liquid equilibrium: yi = alpha x xi / (1 + (alpha - 1)xi) Where alpha is the relative volatility. From the assumption of constant molar flows and no vapor dynamics we have the

following expression for the vapor flows (except at the feed stage if the feed is partly vaporized, where VNF = V{NF-1} + (1-qF)F):
Vi = V{i-1} The liquid flows depend on the liquid holdup on the stage above and the vapor flow as follows: Li = L0i + (Mi - M0i)/taul + (V-V0){i-1} x lambda Where L0i [kmol/min] and M0i [kmol] are the nominal values for the liquid flow and holdup on stage i 4. The previous equations apply at all stages except in the top (condenser), feed stage and bottom (reboiler). Feed stage, i = NF (we assume the feed is mixed directly into the liquid at the feed stage): dMi/dt = L{i+1} - Li + V{i-1} - Vi + F d(Mi xi)/dt = L{i+1} x{i+1} + V{i-1} y{i-1} - Li xi - Vi yi + FzF

Process Control

Modeling of a Distillation Column (continued)


Total condenser, i = NT (MNT = MD, LNT = LT) dMi/dt = V{i-1} - Li - D d(Mi xi)/dt = V{i-1} y{i-1} - Li xi - Dxi Reboiler, i = 1 (Mi = MB, Vi = VB = V) dMi/dt = L{i+1} - Vi - B

d(Mixi)/dt = L{i+1}x{i+1} - Viyi - Bxi


5. Example of input data: (technical data) NT = 41 stages including reboiler and total condenser, Feed at stage NF = 21 counted from the bottom, Nominal conditions: Feed rate F = 1 [kmol/min], Feed composition zF = 0.5 [mole fraction units] Feed liquid fraction qF = 1 (i.e., saturated liquid) Reflux flow LT = 2.706 [kmol/min] Boilup V = 3.206 [kmol/min]. The nominal liquid holdup on all 41 stages is M0i = 0.5 [kmol] (including the reboiler and condenser; for more realistic studies you may use M01 = 10 [kmol] (reboiler) and M0NT = 32.1 [kmol] (condenser)). The time constant for the liquid flow dynamics on each stage (except the reboiler and condenser) is taul = 0.063 min. We assume that the vapor flow does not affect the liquid holdup, i.e. lambda=0. Reference: http://www.nt.ntnu.no/users/skoge/book/matlab_m/cola/cola.html#data

CAD Design ISO

ISO Standards:
A line (usually pipe) that belongs to the process is represented with a bold continuous line (arrows could be used to indicate the flow direction).

P-100A FEED PUMP

A line that goes to a measuring instrument in general, is represented with a continuous thin line having a stroke repeated along its length. The strokes are inclined at 60o to the main line and are distant of 7mm.

PDI-100
P-100A FEED PUMP 0 Psi

DISTILLATION COLUMN

DISTILLATION COLUMN

CAD Design ISO

ISO Standards (continued):


To be more specific, an instrument signal (a line that goes to an instrument) can be represented in a way that indicates the type of signal that it carries. (The pattern are distant of 2cm)
STEAM
HS-127 FI-101

Electric Hydraulic Pneumatic (Or other Gas)


TR

Capillary

Radiation

CAD Design ISO

ISO Standards (continued):


Instrument Signals that separate from a same route are numbered identically to eliminate confusion

STEAM

HS-127

FI-101 1 1

TR

CAD Design ISO

ISO Standards (continued):


Lines Crossing:

OR

Lines Intersection (junction): The diameter of the connection point should be 5 times the thickness of the line.

OR

CAD Design ISA

ISA Standards:
A line (usually pipe) that belongs to the process is represented with a regular plain line (arrows could be used to indicate the flow direction).
STEAM
HS-127 FI-101

AS: Air Supply IA: Instrument Air PA: Plant Air

Those abbreviations can be used to denote the type of power flowing in the process line

ES: Electric Supply GS: Gas Supply HS: Hydraulic Supply NS: Nitrogen Supply SS: Steam Supply WS: Water Supply

A line that goes to a measuring instrument in general, is represented with a continuous thin line having a stroke repeated along its length. The strokes are inclined at 60o to a horizontal line and -45o to a vertical line and are distant of 12mm.

PDI-100
P-100A FEED PUMP 0 Psi

CAD Design ISA

ISA Standards (continued):


To be more specific, an instrument signal (a line that goes to an instrument) can be represented in a way that indicates the type of signal that it carries. (The pattern are distant of 12mm)
STEAM
HS-127 FI-101

Or
L L L

Electric Hydraulic

Pneumatic or other Gas x x x Capillary


TR

Electromagnetic or sonic Internal link

Mechanical link Pneumatic binary Electric binary

Complete Functionalities

Pressure Flow Temperature Processes Control

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration


Primary Elements Symbols: Flow rate: A configurator allows to select the type, the number and the location of the ports, the identifier* and the technical data of the Flow rate component that is needed among the following options

Level instruments: A configurator allows to select the type and the identifier* of the Level instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols (Continued) Pressure instruments: A configurator allows to select the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Pressure instrument as well as to configure the controller that ensures the regulation process.

Actuators: A configurator allows to select the type of the actuator (that could be used for any regulating component) and its technical data among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Signal Modifiers, Analog: A configurator allows to select the type of the Signal modifier that needs to be applied to an analog signal, among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Process Instrumentation (What is inside the basic symbols and more) Non-converting instruments: A configurator allows to select the type, the number and the location of the ports and the identifier* of the Non-converting instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Process Instrumentation (Continued) Converting instruments: A configurator allows to select the type, the number and the location of the ports, the identifier* as well as the output variable of the Converting instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Process Instrumentation (Continued) Instruments: A configurator allows to select the type, the number and the location of the ports, the identifier*, the output variable and the attached device from the non-converting instruments library of the Process instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Process Instrumentation (Continued) Control valves: A configurator allows to select the type of Control valve, its technical data as well as its actuating device among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Process Instrumentation (Continued) Actuators: A configurator allows to select the type and the technical data of the Actuator that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Detectors Flow detectors: A configurator allows to select the type, the technical data, the location and the number of ports as well as the indicating device if any of the Flow detector that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Detectors (Continued) Temperature detectors: A configurator allows to select the type, the location and the number of ports as well as the indicating device if any of the Temperature detector that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Detectors (Continued) Level detectors: A configurator allows to select the type, the location and the number of ports as well as the indicating device if any of the Level detector that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Detectors (Continued) Pressure detectors: A configurator allows to select the type, the location and the number of ports as well as the indicating device if any of the Pressure detector that is needed among the following options

* The Instrument Identifier Depends on its function and is chosen according to the table provided by ISO for this purpose

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 1 : Flow Measurement Basic Symbol:
FI

Advanced Representation:

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 2: Temperature control and alarm Basic Symbol:

TIZA

TIC: Temperature Indicating Controlling


TIC

TIZA: Temperature Indicating Emergency Alarm

Complete Functionalities ISO


Alarme Alarme

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Advanced Representation:

0 200 C

EXAMPLE 2 : Temperature control and alarm (Continued)

0 200 C

0 200 C

Heat Exchanger

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


Basic Symbols for Process Computer, Interface and Shared Display Process Computer

Basic Symbol for Process Computer only

Shared Display/Control Function

Basic Symbol for Shared Display/Control Function

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 1:Process Computer

P
FI 24

Pressure Signal to Computer

FRC
412

Flow Recording and Control by Computer, Flow Indication in Control Room

Complete Functionalities ISO

ISO Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 2: Shared Display / Control

FR
Flow Recording on Shared Display

LICA
106

LZA 107

Cascaded Control

TA
100

TA 110

FRC
101

HS 103

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration


Valves and dampers: A configurator allows to select the type of the Valve (or Damper) with its appropriate actuating device that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Actuators: A configurator allows to select the type of an actuator (that could be used for any regulating component) that is compatible with the original one among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Flow instrumentation: A configurator allows to select the type and the identifier* of a Flow Instrument as well as the output variable of the regulator in case of an automatic flow regulator among the following options

Hand and Level Instrumentation: A configurator allows to select the type and the identifier* of the Hand and Level Instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Pressure instrumentation: A configurator allows to select the type of a Pressure Instrument that is compatible with the original one as well as the type of the actuating device among the following options

Trap instrumentation: A configurator allows to select the type of Trap that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: Analysis: A configurator allows to select the function and the identifier* of the Analyzing process

Burner/Combustion: A configurator allows to select the type the identifier* and the technical data of the Burner that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: Users Choice: A configurator allows to select the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Users choice instruments (Not listed in the ISA Standards) among the following options

Voltage: A configurator allows to select the type, the name* and the technical data of the voltage instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: Current and Power: A configurator allows to select the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Current or Power instrument among the following options

Time or Time Schedule: A configurator allows to select the type and the identifier* of the Time instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: (Continued) Flow Rate: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Flow Element that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: (Continued) Level: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier*, the composing instruments (if details are needed) and the technical data of the Level Element that is needed among the following options

Pressure: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier*, the composing instruments (if details are needed) and the technical data of the Pressure Element that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: (Continued) Users Choice: A configurator allows to configure the type and the identifier* of the Users Choice Instrument (Not listed in the ISA standards) that is needed among the following options

Quantity, Radiation and Speed: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Quantity, Radiation or Speed Element that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: (Continued) Temperature: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier*, the composing instruments (if details are needed) and the technical data of the Temperature Element that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Primary Elements Symbols: (Continued) Multivariable, Radiation, Speed or Frequency: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier*, the technical data and the composing instruments (if details are needed) of the Multivariable, Radiation, Speed or Frequency Element that is needed among the following options

Weight Force, Position and Dimension: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Weight Force, Position or Dimension Element that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Diagramming Binary Logic: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the technical data of a Binary Element that is compatible with the original one among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Control/Shared Display Instrumentation, Logic and Computer System: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the output variable (in case of a controller) of the Shared Display Instrument that is needed among the following options

Energy Supply: A configurator allows to configure the type, the identifier* and the technical data of the Energy Supply Instrument that is needed among the following options

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Valves and actuators: A configurator allows to configure the type of the actuator (or valve) and its technical data is needed among the following option

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Processes: The most common processes in industry are pre-defined and modeled with a dialog that allows the entry of the process technical data (i.e. Distillation column); while specific and more complicated processes are simulated in a Black Box with differential equations that are designed and entered by the user. Process display: The color of a process depends on its state: Normal, broken down, emergency state, critical state The ISA standards provide a table that specifies the color of a process depending on its functioning state, and a table that specifies the mnemonic of every process. Containers Vessels:

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Processes: (Continued) Electrical:

Filters:

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Processes: (Continued) Heat Transfer:

HVAC:

Rotating Equipment:

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Processes: (Continued) Material Handeling:

Scrubber, Precipitators and Separators:

* The Instrument identifier Depends on its function and is chosen according to the table provided by ISA for this purpose

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 1: (Cascade Control)

PC 502

ZC 800 E ZY

H L L ZT

PT

Pressure controller (PC) acting through servo-valve (ZY) acting as voltage-to-hydraulic converter to modulate double-acting-cylinder-actuated control valve having positioning system (ZT)

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 2: (Complete system)

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 2: (Binary Logic)

Flow Diagram

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 2: (Binary Logic), (Continued)

Logic Diagram

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 3: (Control / Shared display)

Simple diagram

Supervisory set point Control Analog Controller with conventional Faceplate. Computer Supervisory Set Point via Communication link

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


EXAMPLE 4: (Control / Shared display)

Complete system diagram


Display / adjustments on console. Communication via data link Located in Console. Signal selected from instrument system data base. Field mounted

Complete Functionalities ISA

ISA Components configuration (Continued)


Number of ports added to symbols: For more accurate and realistic diagrams the options of customizing the number of inputs and outputs of an instrument can be activated.

Automation Studio & Process Control Workshop

AS & Process Control Workshop will:


Provide a tool to design any industrial process as well as for industry or teaching purposes;

Respond to any process designer preferences and tastes by displaying a large spectrum of symbols, from valves/actuators, display instrumentation, logic and computer systems to energy supply and diagramming binary logic;
Offer a wide variety of instrumentation for all types of PV-s: pressure, flow, level, temperature, analytical (measure the chemical/physical properties of a process), differential-pressure, speed, weight, vibration, acceleration;

Be able to simulate the most common industrial processes;


Provide a chemical-configurator giving the user the possibility to define (consider, study) his own chemical processes.

Automation Studio & Process Control Workshop

Process Variable Pressure


Manometers, pressure gauges, differential pressure cells, strain gauge transducers, capacitance transducers, barometers, vacuum instruments etc.

Process Variable Level


Gauge/sight glass, float, tape gauge, bubbler, displacer, ultrasonic device, nuclear device, load cell etc.
T A N K

LG 6

Process Variable Temperature


Thermowells, thermometers, bimetallic strip, resistance temperature detector (RTD), thermocouple, thermistor, etc.

T A N K

LT

LC 10

T A N K

LT 11

Process Variable Flow


Orifice plates, venturi tubes, flow nozzles, pitot tubes, rotameters, electromagnetic and turbine meters.