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Software Operating System

15 / 22 Februari 2010

Sistem Komputer

Sistem Komputer
Hardware Software Brainware

Software (Perangkat Lunak)


Terdiri dari : System Software Application Software Programming Software

System software
System software membantu menjalankan perangkat keras komputer dan sistem komputer. Termasuk diantaranya adalah : device drivers, diagnostic tools, operating systems, servers, utilities, windowing systems,

System software
Tujuan dari system software adalah agar pengguna tidak terlalu sibuk dengan detail yang harus dilakukan saat penggunaan hardware atau peralatan komputer.

Merupakan kumpulan dari sumber daya untuk memindahkan, menyimpan dan memproses data dan untuk mengendalikan fungsi-fungsi tersebut. Program yang sangat penting untuk menjalankan komputer. Setiap komputer yang general-purpose mempunyai sistem operasi untuk menjalankan program yang lainnya.

operating systems

Sistem Operasi
Sistem operasi menjalankan tugas dasar (basic tasks), seperti merecognize input dari keyboard, mengirimkan output ke layar display, keeping track berkas dan direktori pada disk, dan mengendalikan divais seperti disk drive dan printer.

operating systems

operating systems

Sistem Operasi
multi-user : Mengijinkan dua atau lebih user untuk menjalankan program pada saat yang sama. Beberapa sistem operasi mengijinkan ratusan, bahkan ribuan user yang concurrent.. multiprocessing : Mensupport menjalankan sebuah program pada lebih dari satu CPU. multitasking : Mengijinkan lebih dari satu program dijalankan secara concurret

Sistem Operasi
multithreading : Mengijinkan bagian yang terpisah dari program tunggal untuk dijalankan secara concurrent real time: Merespor pada input secara cepat.

Sistem Operasi
Termasuk dalam System software Sistem Operasi (OS) mengendalikan hampir semua fungsi yang ada pada komputer. Seluruh komputer mengandalkan sistem operasi (OS) untuk memberikan interface (antar muka) untuk interaksi antara user, application, dan hardware.
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Tugas Sistem Operating


Sistem Operasi boot komputer / start komputer dan mengendalikan sistem berkas. Hampir semua sistem operasi modern dapat mendukung lebih dari satu user, task, atau CPU. Sistem operasi mempunyai 4 tugas utama :
Mengendalikan akses hardware Mengendalikan berkas dan folder Memberikan interface user Mengendalikan aplikasi

Characteristics of Operating Systems


Control hardware access OS automatically discovers and configures PnP Plug and Play hardware (merupakan suatu proses/teknologi dimana dapat menginstall driver untuk komponen tersebut) File and folder management User interface
Application management
Command line interface (CLI) Graphical user interface (GUI)

Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) DirectX

Tipe Sistem Operasi


Command Line Interface (CLI): User mengetik command pada prompt.

Graphical User

Interface (GUI): User berinteraksi dengan menu dan icon.

Hampir semua OS mempunyai GUI dan CLI.

System Software
Fungsi pengendali komputer:

Operating systems
Hardware Memory Program Aplikasi Sistem Perawatan

System utilities
Programs that perform computer housekeeping tasks:
Manage system resources Improve efficiency Virus prevention

Memberikan user interface

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Kategori Sistem Operasi


Ada 4 kategori: Real-Time (RTOS) Single-User, Single-Task Single-User, Multitask Multi-user

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Real-Time Operating Systems


Systems with a specific purpose and a certain result Uses include:
Industrial machines Robotic equipment Automobiles Video game consoles Home appliances

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Perform one task at a time PDAs:


MS-DOS
Pocket PC Palm OS

Single-task systems

Single-User Operating Systems


Perform simultaneous tasks Windows MAC OS Linux

Multitask systems

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Known as network operating systems Allow access to the computer system by more than one user Manage user requests Systems include:
UNIX Novell Netware Windows Server 2003

Multi-user Operating Systems

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Desktop Operating Systems


Operating system combined with the processor is known as a platform
Desktop operating systems include:
Microsoft Windows MAC OS UNIX Linux Microsoft Windows / Intel Apple Macintosh / Motorola

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Microsoft Windows
Market leader 90% market share
Click to view the various Windows systems
First widely This Fundamentally operating used PC better Includes Introduces Offers a new This upgrade system different runs This upgrade graphical user This upgrade graphics point-and-click multi-user to Windows NT faster operating includes interface (GUI) to Windows capabilities and commands with desktop as offers and system more with additional file operating 95 and and introduces a mouse well as improvements efficiently, increased protection and system. Windows 98 keyboard includes modest improved to file security introduces security, power, Plug incorporates Improved includes shortcuts and multitasking digital media and Internet and performance, Play Internet point-and-click system the ability to capabilities and features and support. capabilities, and Explorer 4.0, a mouse backup and overlap desktop Internet long multitasking file names, customizable operations and multimedia windows. applications. capabilities. short-cut scheduler. taskbar, and multitasking capabilities right-click desktop capabilities. (such as menus, a features Media and Player). cleaner 23 desktop.

Windows Windows Windows 3.x Windows Windows 2.0 98 Windows (1990ME 95 Windows XP (1987) 2000 (1998) 1.0 1992) (2000) (1995) NT (2001) (2000) (1985) (1993)

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Windows Vista
Diluncurkan 2006 Banyak fungsi di belakang layar Versi terakhir April 2009

Windows 7
Dikeluarkan Juli 2009 Versi terakhir : Oktober 2009

First operating system with point-and-click technology (Graphical User Interface) MAC OS X Excellent in: Graphics display Processing capabilities System reliability Document recovery Fewer software applications

MAC OS

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UNIX
Multi-user, multitask operating system Used primarily with mainframes

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Open-source operating system Based on UNIX Stable system Free May be downloaded through the Internet

Linux

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What the Operating System Does


Provides user interface Manages the CPU Manages memory Manages hardware Coordinates application software with the CPU

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The User Interface


Enables you to interact with the computer Types of interfaces: Command-driven interface Menu-driven interface Graphical user interface

Commandline

Menu-driven

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Graphical

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Processor Management
Controls the timing of events the processor works on
Interrupts Interrupt handler Interrupt table Stack

REQUEST

Process Operating Process 3rd 1st System 4th 2nd

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Memory Management
The operating system allocates space in RAM for instructions and data
RAM

Operating System
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Virtual Memory
Instructions and data are stored on the hard drive when RAM is full
Swap file Paging Thrashing

FULL
Operating System

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Hardware Management
Device drivers:
Programs that enable the operating system to communicate with peripheral devices Provided by the manufacturer of the device

Plug and Play:


Hardware and software standard Facilitates the installation of new hardware
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Application programming interfaces (APIs):


Blocks of code contained in the operating system Coordinates the operating system with software applications
Similar toolbars and menus

Software Application Coordination

Microsoft Direct X
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Starting the Computer

The Boot Process Step 1: The basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated Step 2: A Power-onself-test (POST) checks attached hardware Step 3: The operating system loads into memory Step 4: Configuration and customization settings are checked

1
3

4
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Non-system disk or disk error POST errors

Handling Errors in the Boot Process

Remove the floppy from the drive and press any key Single beep: Everything is loading properly Series of beeps: Hardware problem Windows does not boot properly Uninstall any new devices or software
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Safe mode

Click to view Desktop features

The Desktop
MY DOCUMENTS ____________

Shortcut icons My Documents SHORT CUT ICONS A _______________ Start button Quick launch Open programs OPEN _________ Taskbar PROGRAMS _________ TASKBAR START BUTTON System tray _________ D ____________ F toolbar G QUICKLAUNCH ____________

MY COMPUTER ____________

Desktop features: TOOLBAR _________

___________ SYSTEM TRAY

H
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Click to view Start menu features

Start Menu
A

USER NAME ____________

PINNED ITEMS LIST _______________

B G
_______________ SPECIAL FOLDERS _______________ SYSTEM AREA HELP _______________

MOST FREQUENTLY _______________ USED LIST

C F

ALL PROGRAMS ___________ BUTTON USER LOG OFF _____________

SHUT DOWN/RESTART _______________

E
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Click to view Window features


__________ TITLE BAR __________ MENU BAR TOOL BARS __________

Window
G
_______________ SIZING BUTTONS

A B C

F D E
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SCROLL BARS ____________

VIEW OPTIONS ______________


____________ STATUS BAR

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File Management
The operating system provides an organizational structure to the computers contents Hierarchical structure of directories:
Drives
Folders
Subfolders Files
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Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders

Windows Explorer Tiles View

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Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders


Windows Explorer
Thumbnail View

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Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders

Windows Explorer Icon View

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Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders

Windows Explorer List View

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Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders


Windows Explorer Detail View Sorted and grouped

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Naming Files
Filename:
Name assigned plus filename extension
Bioreport.doc or Bio report.doc

only characters not legal in filenames are:


\ : * ? " < >

all others are allowed


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File Name Extensions


Filename extensions:
Used by programs
Extension .doc .xls .ppt .mdb .bmp Type of Document Word processing document Workbook PowerPoint presentation Database Bitmap image Application Microsoft Word; Corel Word Perfect Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Access Windows

.zip
.pdf .htm or .html

Compressed file
Portable Document Format Web page

WinZip
Adobe Acrobat Hypertext Markup Language
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File path
File path
Location of the file
Secondary folders Filename

C:\My Documents\ Tech in Action\TIA Pics\dotmatrix.gif Drive Primary folder

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Working with Files


File management actions:
Open Copy Move Rename Delete Saving files

Recycle bin

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Small application programs that perform special functions:


Manage system resources Create pleasant environment Improve efficiency

Utility Programs

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Display Utilities
Change the appearance of:
Desktop Windows colors Font sizes Screen savers Screen resolution

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Installation wizard Uninstall wizard:

Add or Remove Programs


Do not delete programs

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File Compression Programs


Reduce the size of a file:
Removes redundancies

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Disk cleanup

System Maintenance Utilities

Cleans unnecessary files

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System Maintenance Utilities


Disk defragmenter ScanDisk:
Error checker

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System Maintenance Utilities


Task manager

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System Restore:
Restores the system settings back to a specific date

System Restore

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System Backup
Backup:
Creates a copy of the hard drive to another storage device

Task Scheduler
Sets a time to run selected utilities automatically

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Accessibility Utilities
Utility manager:
Magnify screen image Screen contents narration On-screen keyboard

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