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Coatings and Cathodic Disbondment The True Story

Steel pipelines prevention of corrosion

Fe + O2



Coating: Impermeable to oxygen and water (properties) 100% coverage (application)

Cathodic protection: Prevent oxidation of Fe Impressed current Sacrificial anodes Back-up for imperfections of coatings

Field conditions underground pipelines - Construction

Field conditions underground pipelines Coating defects (1)

Poor application of heat shrinkable sleeve

Mechanical damage

Loss of adhesion at overlap of tape Damage caused by soil loading Stone damage

Stress cracking

Pictures taken from: Macaws Pipeline Defects, ISBN 0-9544295-0-8

Field conditions underground pipelines Coating defects (2)

Blisters Inclusions

Leopard spot (salt residues, osmosis)


Cathodic disbondment
Mechanical damage

Pictures taken from: Macaws Pipeline Defects, ISBN 0-9544295-0-8

Cathodic protection - How it works (simplified representation) Ground bed with anode CP power supply

What happens with cathodic protection

2H2O + 2e 2OH- + H2(g) 2e Fe

Gas formation under edge of coating Lifting of coating Disbondment

H2(g) 2H2O 2OH-

pH 11 13 Leaching of adhesive / coating Change in composition Loss of essential properties

Shielding in CP Corrosion under coating

Risk for pipeline owners!


Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Selection of standard (1)

Standard CSA Z-245 (1) ASTM-G8 (1) ASTM-G42 (1) ASTM-G80 (1) ASTM-G95 (1) AS/NZS 4352 (1) EN 12068 ISO 15711 (1) ISO 21809-3 Country Potential (V) CAN USA USA USA USA AU/NZ EU Int. Int. 1,5 or 3,5 1,5 vs CuCuSO4 1,5 vs CuCuSO4 1,5 3,0 3 mA 1,5 vs CuCuSO4 1,05 1,5 vs calomel (sat.) Temp. (C)
By agreement

Elektrolyte (aqueous) 3% NaCl Triple salt (2) Triple salt (2) Triple salt (2) 3% NaCl 3% NaCl 3% NaCl Sea water 3% NaCl

Duration (days)
By agreement

Requirement None None 20 (HT)

By agreement

21 - 25C Max. 60C 23C 23C

By agreement

30, 60, 90 30 60 90
By agreement

21 - 25C Tmax. 50C 23C 21 - 25C Tmax. 95C

28 182 28 (or by

Varies per type coating

and at least 10 different other standards, a.o. modified by oil companies

(1) (2) Mentioned in NACE paper 07022 1% NaCl / 1% Na2SO4 / 1% Na2CO3

Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Selection of standard (2) Considerations :

Test duration varies between 28 days and 90 days, but Pipeline life expectancy might easily be more than 30 years!

Pipelines International September 2011:

Many of these pipelines are ageing they are typically over 30 years of age, but will be needed to operate for many more decades to meet increasing demands

Eric Nalder - Houston Chronicle - November 15, 2010:

In Texas alone, more than 25,000 of nearly 46,000 miles of transmission pipe are older than 1970

Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Selection of standard (3) Considerations (continued):

ASTM G8 quotes They (the test methods) are intended for use with samples of coated pipe taken from commercial production and are applicable to such samples when the coating is characterized by function as an electrical barrier. Damage to pipe coating is almost unavoidable during transportation and construction. While apparently loosened coating and cathodic holidays may not result in corrosion, this test provides accelerated conditions for loosening to occur and therefore gives a measure of resistance of coatings to this type of action. Ability to resist disbondment is a desired quality on a comparative basis, but disbondment per se in this test is not necessarily an adverse indication. The virtue of this test is that all dielectric type coatings now in common use will disbond to some degree thus providing a means of comparing one coating with another. Bond strength is more important for proper functioning of some coatings than others and the same measured disbondment for two different coating systems may not represent equivalent loss of corrosion protection.

Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Experimental (1)

ISO 21809-3: 2008, annex F 1. working electrode (test pipe with coating) 2. electrode (anode) 3. electrode (reference) 4. reference electrode 5. plastic lid 6. plastic vessel, min. internal 50 mm 7. electrolyte (150 ml) 8. coating 9. steel test pipe with coating 10. sealant 11. defect 3 - 6 mm with coating thickness < 1 mm; 6 mm in other cases 12. sealant 13. electrode (cathode) 14. platinum electrode, 0.8 1.0 mm (anode) 15. potentiostat 16. electrical power supply


Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Experimental (2)


1. Cathode: 2H2O + 2e 2OH- + H2(g) 2. Anode: 2H2O 4e + 4H+ + O2(g) but also 2Cl- Cl2(aq) + 2e 3. Near cathode: 2OH- + Cl2 ClO- + Cl- + H2O ClO- : Oxidizing agent, can cause deterioration* *Will not appear in real live situations with CP! Placement of anodes far away from pipelines.



Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Results

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2.90 2.70 2.50 10 20 30

Current (mA)

Conventional coatings
Visual inspection after test Disbondment > 20 mm

Daily adjustments cause variations.

ISO 21809-3 recommends the use of potentiostat, this leads to improved control of applied potential.

Applied potential (V)

2.10 1.90 1.70 1.50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30


Stopaq coating systems Brief introduction (1) Consists of at least 2 materials with different functions: Corrosion prevention: Stopaq Wrappingband CZH Mechanical protection: Stopaq Outerwrap PVC/PE, High Impact Shield Girth weld PE cutback 3LPE pipe

Stopaq Wrappingband CZH

Stopaq High Impact Shield


Stopaq coating systems Brief introduction (2) Stopaq Wrappingband CZH: Based on polyisobutene, which has a number of favourable properties: Liquid with high viscosity and glass transition temp. < 60C: cold flow properties, beneficial for 100% coverage Very low permeability for water and oxygen: corrosion prevention No reactive chemical groups: chemical resistance, resistance to ageing and weathering Adhesion by vanderWaals forces: Surface preparation not critical for proper adhesion Excellent adhesion to various substrates like steel, PE, PP, FBE, etc.


Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Stopaq (1)


Self-healing effect



Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Stopaq (2)

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 10 20 30

Conventional coatings

> 20 mm




Stopaq coating systems

0 mm (-3 mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30



Testing of resistance to cathodic disbondment Stopaq (3) Stopaq coating systems distinguish in a positive way from conventional coatings. Result of cathodic disbondment test = 0 mm, caused by occurence of self healing effect.


Ageing of coatings Causes: Fluctuating thermal stress Fluctuating mechanical stress Effects: Change in composition Cracks


Coating ageing tests Hot Water Immersion followed by adhesion test

Peel strength values compared to non-aged samples: FBE coating @95C Non-aged: 100% 60 days: 40% left 120 days: 29% left 3-layer HSS @80C Non-aged: 100% 60 days: 124% 120 days: 56% PE coating @60C Non-aged: 100% 60 days: ~0 120 days: ~0 PE tape@60C Non-aged: 100% 60 days: 80% 120 days: 40%
Source: Vienna pipeline conference 2010 Berry Plastics Belgium D. Tott Hot water immersion predicting long term coating perfomrance


Coating ageing tests Stopaq coating systems

Values compared to non-aged samples

Coating system: Stopaq Wrappingband CZH Stopaq Outerwrap PVC HWI 100 days @90C Adhesion test: 100% Self healing: 100% within 24 hrs.



Even after severe ageing, Stopaq coating systems will not show cathodic disbondment

... as long as there is self-healing effect present.


The end

Thank you for your attention

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