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Chapter One

Understanding the Managers Job

Copyright 2005 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook.

Bab Garis Besar


Sebuah Pengantar Manajemen
Jenis Manajer Fungsi Dasar Manajemen Dasar Keterampilan Manajemen Ilmu dan Seni Manajemen

Evolusi Manajemen
Pentingnya Sejarah dan Teori Konteks Historis Manajemen Perspektif Manajemen Klasik

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Chapter Outline (contd)


Evolusi Manajemen (Lanjutan)
Perspektif Manajemen Perilaku Perspektif Manajemen Kuantitatif

Pemikiran Manajemen Kontemporer


Sistem Perspektif Perspektif Kontingensi Manajemen Kontemporer Tantangan dan Peluang

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Tujuan belajar
Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus dapat:
Mendefinisikan manajemen, menggambarkan jenis manajer yang ditemukan dalam organisasi, dan secara singkat menjelaskan empat fungsi manajemen dasar. Membenarkan pentingnya sejarah dan teori untuk manajer dan menjelaskan evolusi pemikiran manajemen. Diskusikan isu-isu manajemen kontemporer dan tantangan.

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Apa itu Manajemen?


Satu set kegiatan
perencanaan dan pengambilan keputusan, pengorganisasian, memimpin, dan mengendalikan

mengarahkan sumber daya organisasi


manusia, keuangan, fisik, dan informasi

dengan tujuan mencapai tujuan organisasi secara efisien dan efektif.

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Tujuan Dasar Manajemen

EFFICIENTLY
Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way
And

EFFECTIVELY
Making the right decisions and successfully implementing them

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Apa itu Manajer?


Seseorang yang tanggung jawab utamanya adalah untuk melaksanakan proses manajemen. Seseorang yang merencanakan dan membuat keputusan, mengorganisir, memimpin, dan kontrol manusia, keuangan, sumber daya fisik, dan informasi.

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Figure 1.1 Kinds of Managers by Level and Area

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Jenis Manajer Menurut Tingkat


Top Managers
Kelompok yang relatif kecil eksekutif yang mengelola keseluruhan tujuan organisasi, strategi, dan kebijakan operasional.

Middle Managers
Kelompok terbesar dari manajer dalam organisasi
Menerapkan kebijakan manajemen puncak dan rencana. Mengawasi dan mengkoordinasikan kegiatan manajer tingkat rendah.

First-Line Managers
Manajer yang mengawasi dan mengkoordinasikan aktivitas karyawan operasi.
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Jenis Manajer Berdasarkan Area


Marketing Managers
Bekerja di bidang yang terkait dengan mendapatkan konsumen dan klien untuk membeli produk organisasi atau jasa.

Financial Managers
Berurusan terutama dengan sumber daya keuangan organisasi.

Operations Managers
Berhubungan dengan menciptakan dan mengelola sistem yang menciptakan produk dan jasa organisasi.

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Kinds of Managers by Area (contd)


Human Resource Managers
Terlibat dalam proses sumber daya manusia
Perencanaan, perekrutan dan seleksi, pelatihan dan pengembangan, merancang sistem kompensasi dan manfaat, merumuskan sistem penilaian kinerja.

Administrative Managers
Berfungsi sebagai generalis dalam bidang fungsional dan tidak terkait dengan manajemen khusus tertentu.

Other Kinds of Managers


Ditugaskan sebagai spesialis dalam posisi langsung berhubungan dengan kebutuhan organisasi.

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Management in Organizations

Planning and decision making Inputs from the environment Human resources Financial resources Physical resources Information resources Controlling

Organizing

Goals attained Efficiently Effectively

Leading

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Figure 1.2 The Management Process

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The Management Process (contd)


Perencanaan dan Pembuatan Keputusan
Menetapkan tujuan organisasi dan memilih suatu tindakan dari serangkaian alternatif untuk mereka mencapai.

Organizing
Menentukan bagaimana aktivitas dan sumber daya dikelompokkan.

Leading
Mendapatkan anggota organisasi untuk bekerja sama untuk memajukan kepentingan organisasi.

Controlling
Pemantauan kemajuan organisasi ke arah tujuan.
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Skills and the Manager

Technical Skills

Interpersonal Skills
Conceptual Skills

Fundamental Management Skills

Diagnostic Skills Communication Skills Decision-Making Skills Time-Management Skills

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Dasar Keterampilan Manajemen


Technical
Skills necessary to accomplish or understand the specific kind of work being done in an organization.

Interpersonal
The ability to communicate with, understand, and motivate both individuals and groups.

Conceptual
The managers ability to think in the abstract.

Diagnostic
The managers ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation.

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Fundamental Management Skills (contd)


Communication
The managers abilities both to convey ideas and information effectively to others and to receive ideas and information effectively from others.

Decision-Making
The managers ability to recognize and define problems and opportunities correctly and then to select an appropriate course of action to solve the problems and capitalize on opportunities.

Time-Management
The managers ability to prioritize work, to work efficiently, and to delegate appropriately.

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Management: Science or Art?


The Science of Management
Assumes that problems can be approached using rational, logical, objective, and systematic ways. Requires technical, diagnostic, and decision-making skills and techniques to solve problems.

The Art of Management


Decisions are made and problems solved using a blend of intuition, experience, instinct, and personal insights. Requires conceptual, communication, interpersonal, and time-management skills to accomplish the tasks associated with managerial activities.

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Sources of Management Skills

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The Importance of Theory and History


Why Theory?
Provides a conceptual framework for organizing knowledge and providing a blueprint for action.
Management theories, used to build organizations, are grounded in reality. Most managers develop their own theories about how they should run their organizations.

Why History?
An awareness and understanding of historical developments in management are important.
Furthers the development of management practices. Avoiding the mistakes of others in the past.

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Early Management Pioneers


Robert Owen (17711858)
British industrialist who was one of the first managers to recognize the importance of human resources and the welfare of workers.

Charles Babbage (17921871)


English mathematician who focused on creating efficiencies of production through the division of labor, and the application of mathematics to management problems.

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Classical Management Perspective


Scientific Management
Concerned with improving the performance of individual workers (i.e., efficiency). Grew out of the industrial revolutions labor shortage at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Administrative Management
A theory that focuses on managing the total organization rather than individuals.

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Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor (18561915)
Replaced old methods of how to do work with scientifically-based work methods.
Eliminated soldiering, where employees deliberately worked at a pace slower than their capabilities.

Believed in selecting, training, teaching, and developing workers. Used time studies of jobs, standards planning, exception rule of management, slide-rules, instruction cards, and piece-work pay systems to control and motivate employees.

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Figure 1.3 Steps in Scientific Management

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Scientific Management Pioneers


Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Both developed techniques and strategies for eliminating inefficiency.
Frank reduced the number of movements in bricklaying, resulting in increased output of 200%. Lillian made substantive contributions to the fields of industrial psychology and personnel management.

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Classical Management Perspective (contd)


Administrative Management Theory
Focuses on managing the whole organization rather than individuals. Henri Fayol (18411925)
Was first to identify the specific management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

Lyndall Urwick (18911983)


Integrated the work of previous management theorists.

Max Weber (18641920)


His theory of bureaucracy is based on a rational set of guidelines for structuring organizations.

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Classical Management PerspectiveToday


Contributions
Laid the foundation for later developments. Identified important management processes, functions, and skills. Focused attention on management as a valid subject of scientific inquiry.

Limitations
More appropriate approach for use in traditional, stable, simple organizations. Prescribed universal procedures that are not appropriate in some settings. Employees are viewed as tools rather than as resources.

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Behavioral Management Perspective


Behavioral Management
Emphasized individual attitudes and behaviors, and group processes, and recognized the importance of behavioral processes in the workplace. Hugo Munsterberg (18631916)
A German psychologist, the father of industrial psychology, who advocated applying psychological concepts to employees selection and motivation industrial settings.

Mary Parker Follett (18681933)


Recognized the importance of the role of human behavior in the workplace.

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Key Managerial Roles (Munsterberg)


Key Management Roles

Interpersonal Roles
1. Figurehead 2. Leader 3. Liaison

Informational Roles
1. Monitor 2. Disseminator 3. Spokesperson

Decisional Roles
1. Entrepreneur 2. Disturbance handler 3. Negotiator

Source: Van Fleet, David D., Contemporary Management, Second Edition. Copyright 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permission. Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 129

The Hawthorne Studies (19271932)


Conducted by Elton Mayo and associates at Western Electric
Illumination studyworkplace lighting adjustments affected both the control and the experimental groups of production employees. Group studyimplementation of piecework incentive plan caused production workers to establish informal levels of acceptable individual output.
Over-producing workers were labeled rate busters and under-producing workers were considered chiselers.

Interview programconfirmed the importance of human behavior in the workplace.

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Behavioral Management Perspective (contd)


Human Relations Movement
Grew out of the Hawthorne studies. Proposed that workers respond primarily to the social context of work, including social conditioning, group norms, and interpersonal dynamics. Assumed that the managers concern for workers would lead to increased worker satisfaction and improved worker performance.

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Behavioral Management Perspective (contd)


Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Advanced a theory that employees are motivated by a hierarchy of needs that they seek to satisfy.

Douglas McGregor (1906-1964)


Proposed Theory X and Theory Y concepts of managerial beliefs about people and work.

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Table 1.1 Theory X and Theory Y


Theory X Assumptions
People do not like work and try to avoid it. People do not like work, so managers have to control, direct, coerce, and threaten employees to get them to work toward organizational goals. People prefer to be directed, to avoid responsibility, and to want security; they have little ambition.
Source: Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, Copyright 1960 by McGraw-Hill. Reprinted by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Table 1.1 (contd) Theory X and Theory Y (contd)


Theory Y Assumptions
People do not dislike work; work is a natural part of their lives. People are internally motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed. People are committed to goals to the degree that they receive rewards when they reach their objectives. People seek both seek and accept responsibility under favorable conditions. People can be innovative in solving problems. People are bright, but under most organizational conditions their potentials are underutilized.

Source: Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, Copyright 1960 by McGraw-Hill. Reprinted by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Organizational Behavior
A contemporary field focusing on behavioral perspectives on management.
Draws on psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and medicine.

Important topics in organizational behavior research:


Job satisfaction and job stress Motivation and leadership Group dynamics and organizational politics Interpersonal conflict The structure and design of organizations

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Behavioral Management PerspectiveToday


Contributions
Provided important insights into motivation, group dynamics, and other interpersonal processes. Focused managerial attention on these critical processes. Challenged the view that employees are tools and furthered the belief that employees are valuable resources.

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Behavioral Management PerspectiveToday (contd)


Limitations
Complexity of individuals makes behavior difficult to predict. Many concepts not put to use because managers are reluctant to adopt them. Contemporary research findings are not often communicated to practicing managers in an understandable form.

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Quantitative Management Perspective


Quantitative Management
Emerged during World War II to help the Allied forces manage logistical problems. Focuses on decision making, economic effectiveness, mathematical models, and the use of computers to solve quantitative problems.

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Quantitative Management Perspective (contd)


Management Science
Focuses on the development of representative mathematical models to assist with decisions.

Operations Management
Practical application of management science to efficiently manage the production and distribution of products and services.

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Quantitative Management PerspectiveToday


Contributions
Developed sophisticated quantitative techniques to assist in decision making. Application of models has increased our awareness and understanding of complex processes and situations. Has been useful in the planning and controlling processes.
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Quantitative Management PerspectiveToday (contd)


Limitations
Quantitative management cannot fully explain or predict the behavior of people in organizations.
Mathematical sophistication may come at the expense of other managerial skills. Quantitative models may require unrealistic or unfounded assumptions, limiting their general applicability.

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Figure 1.4 The Systems Perspective of Organizations

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Integrating Perspectives for Managers


Systems Perspective
A system is an interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole.

Open system
An organizational system that interacts with its environment.

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Integrating Perspectives for Managers (contd)


Closed system
An organizational system that does not interact with its environment.

Subsystems
A system within another system. Their importance is due to their interdependence on each other within the organization.

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The Systems Perspective


Synergy
Subsystems are more successful working together in a cooperative and coordinated fashion than working alone. The whole system (subsystems working together as one system) is more productive and efficient than the sum of its parts.

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The Systems Perspective (contd)


Entropy
A normal process in which an organizational system declines due to failing to adjust to change in its environment Entropy can be avoided and the organization re-energized through organizational change and renewal.

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The Contingency Perspective


Universal Perspectives
Include the classical, behavioral, and quantitative approaches. An attempt to identify the one best way to manage organizations.

The Contingency Perspective


Suggests that each organization is unique. The appropriate managerial behavior for managing an organization depends (is contingent) on the current situation in the organization.

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The Contingency Perspective (contd)


Problem or Situation

Important Contingencies

Solution or Action A

Solution or Action B

Solution or Action C

Source: Van Fleet, David D., Contemporary Management, Second Edition. Copyright 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permission. Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 148

Contemporary Management Issues and Challenges


Acute labor shortages in high-technology job sectors and an oversupply of less skilled labor An increasingly diverse and globalized workforce The need to create challenging, motivating, and flexible work environments The effects of information technology on how people work The complex array of new ways of structuring organizations
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Contemporary Management Issues and Challenges (contd)


Increasing globalization of product and service markets The renewed importance of ethics and social responsibility The use of quality as the basis for competition The shift to a predominately service-based economy

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