Anda di halaman 1dari 42

Air Circulating System & Cooling Towers

Presented by
Md.Mainuddin Hasan

2646-Mech-2007
Syed mohammad khalil

2570-Mech-2007
Asif ayaz

2587-Mech-2007

Contents

Introduction to circulating system and cooling tower

Classifications

The circulating water system


Supplies cooling water to the turbine condenser Acts as heat rejecting source from system to

surrounding Vital for performance of powerplant

System classification
Once-through systems

Closed loop system

Combination system

Once-through systems
Water from natural resorvoir is used
The pumped water is circulated and discharged back
Heat is exchanged form hot water to cold water

Discharge methods
Surface Discharge: Water is released in thin layer on surface. Submerged Discharge: Water is released buoyant

jet below the surface of a body. Diffuser Discharge: Water is through number of nozzles from a submerged long pipe. Heat rejection is accomplished by evaporation in all methods

Closedloop system
Water is taken from the condenser pass through a cooling device and return it to the condenser.

Cooling devices
Cooing tower
Spray ponds Spray canals

Combination system
Once through system is combined with cooling device
Cooling device cools the water returning to resorvoir

Parts of circulating system


Intake structure
Circulating water pumps Circulating water condutes Vacuum breaking system

Cooling Towers
A cooling tower is a heat rejection unit. Rejects heat though the cooling of a water stream Supplies cooling water to turbine condensor,

Major Components
Cooling Tower (Supply) Basin Water is supplied from the discharge of the Circulating Water System to a Distribution Basin, from which the Cooling Tower Pumps take a suction. Cooling Tower Pumps
These large pumps supply water to the Cooling Towers.

Classification of cooling tower


By Air flow generation methods
By air-to-water flow

By use in field
By Heat transfer methods

Air flow generation methods


There are three methods of air generation
Natural draft Mechanical draft

(a)induced draft (b)forced draft Fan assisted natural draft

Air flow generation methods


Natural draft
Hot air moves through

tower

Fresh cool air is drawn

into the tower from bottom

No fan required

Concrete tower <200 m


Used for large heat duties

Natural draft cooling tower

Mechanical draft
Induced draft
A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge

which pulls air through tower.


The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge This produces low entering and high exiting air

velocities

Induced draft

Series of induced draft cooling tower

Air flow generation methods


Forced draft
A mechanical draft tower

with a blower type fan at the intake The fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities.

Forced draft
Forced draft
A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the

intake The fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities.

Forced draft

Forced draft cooling tower

By air flow generation method


Fan assisted natural

draft. A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft though airflow is assisted by a fan

Fan assisted cooling tower

By air to water to water flow


Crossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed

perpendicular to the water flow Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity

By air to water to water flow

by air-to-water flow
Counterflow In a counterflow design the

air flow is directly opposite to the water flow Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite to the air flow

Counterflow
In a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite

to the water flow Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill.

ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES OF COUNTER FLOW cooling towers

due to their pressurized spray water distribution system: More efficient use of air due to finer droplet size from pressure sprays. ADVANTAGES OF COUNTER FLOW cooling towers due to their vertical air distribution system: The vertical air movement across the fill allows the coldest water to be in contact with the driest air maximizing tower performance.

DISADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES OF COUNTER FLOW cooling

towers due to their pressurized spray water distribution system: Increased system pumping head requirements. Increased energy consumption and operating costs. Distribution nozzles difficult to inspect and clean. Requires individual risers for each cell, increasing external piping costs.

Classification of cooling tower


by use in field
canbe classified by use into either HVAC (air-

conditioning) or industrial duty (a) Industrial cooling towers (b)HVAC

Classification by use in field


HVAC:
An HVAC cooling tower is a subcategory rejecting

heat from a chiller


Chiller removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-

compression. This liquid is circulated through a heat exchanger to cool air or equipment as required. Air cooled chillers are also available

Schematic of chiller

Industrial cooling towers


Industrial cooling towers can be used to remove heat

from various sources in industries The primary use of large, industrial cooling towers is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems

Real life image

By heat transfer method


Wet cooling towers or simply cooling towers operate on

the principle of evaporation. The working fluid and the evaporated fluid (usually H2O) are one and the same.

By heat transfer method


Dry coolers operate by heat transfer through a surface

that separates the working fluid from ambient air, such as in a heat exchanger, utilizing convective heat transfer. They do not use evaporation