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Sifat-Sifat Material

-Sifat Mekanis
-Sifat Listrik
-Sifat Panas
-Sifat Magnet
-Sifat Optik
Sifat Mekanik
Sebagian besar material dalam penggunaannya
mendapat pembebanan, sehingga perlu
diketahui karakteristik material apabila
mendapat pembebanan
Perilaku mekanik material menunjukkan
hubungan antara respons material atau
deformasi terhadap pembebanan
Sifat Mekanis yang penting antara lain :
Strength, Hardness, Ductility, dan Stiffness
Konsep Tegangan-Regangan
Ao
F
= o
F
F
F
F
lo
l
Ao
lo
l
lo
lo l A
=

= c
Perilaku Tegangan-Regangan
regangan
t
e
g
a
n
g
a
n

Ultimate Tensile Strength
Fracture
Slope = modulus elastisitas
Yield point
Daerah plastis Daerah elastis
0,2% offset
c o E =
Keuletan (Ductility)
Keuletan dapat
dinyatakan dalam
Elongasi
Reduksi Area
100 %
100 %
x
Ao
Af Ao
AR
x
lo
lo lf
EL
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

=
regangan
t
e
g
a
n
g
a
n

ulet
Getas
Resilience
Kapasitas material untuk
menyerap energi ketika
terjadi deformasi elastis
modulus resilience, Ur
}
=
y
d Ur
c
c o
0
Toughness
Ukuran dari kemampuan
suatu material menyerap
energi pada saat
dibebani hingga material
tsb patah
Secara kuantitatif dari
kurva tegangan-regangan
luas daerah di bawah
kurva sampai batas patah
Satuan sama dengan
resilience
}
=
f
d Ur
c
c o
0
True Stress dan True Strain
True Stress didefinisikan
sebagai beban F dibagi
dengan luas area awal Ai
True Strain didefinisikan
sebagai
Jika tidak terjadi
perubahan volume
selama deformasi, maka
Sehingga hubungan true
dan engineering stress
dan strain adalah
i
T
A
F
= o
o
i
T
l
l
ln = c
o o i i
L A l A =
( ) c o o + = 1
T
( ) c c + = 1 ln
T
Kekerasan (Hardness)
Adalah ukuran ketahanan material
terhadap deformasi plastis lokal seperti
indentasi atau goresan
Pengujian Kekerasan
Rockwell Hardness Test
Brinell Hardness Test
Knoop and Vickers Microhardness Test

Electronic Properties of Materials
Topics to cover
Metals, semiconductors, and insulators.
Band structure & electron conduction.
Electrical conductivity in metals.
Semiconducting materials.
Conducting polymers.
Ionic conduction & polymer electrolytes.
Electrical conductivity and bonding
3s
3p
Na
(_ = 0.9)
3s
3p
Cl
(_ = 3.0)
IONIC BONDING
Fixed ion cores
(nuclei and inner
electrons)
sea of electrons
METALLIC BONDING
COVALENT BONDING
H
H
H
H
C
Localized o-bonds
Conjugated t-bonds


Room T conductivity values (Ohm-m)
-1
Selected values from Tables 18.1, 18.2, and 18.3, Callister 6e.
A
l
R

= Resistance =
A
l
= resistivity (materials property)
Conductivity =

o
1
=
Electrical conductivity in materials
Metals: good conductors with electrical conductivity on the order of 10
7

O
-1
m
-1
.
Metallic bonding leads to a sea of electrons that are free to move around.

Insulators: electrical conductivity ~ 10
-10
to 10
-20
O
-1
m
-1
.
Ionic or strong covalent bonds where valence electrons are tightly bound
(localized).

Semiconductors: electrical conductivity ~ 10
-6
to 10
4
O
-1
m
-1
.
Covalent (or predominantly covalent) bonds that are relatively weak
(valence electrons are not as tightly bound as in insulators).

Types of conductivity
electronic conduction: motion of electrons and/or holes (in most solid
materials).
ionic conduction: motion of charged atoms and/or molecules.
From atomic states to energy bands
1s 1s
H H
H
H
H
H
Atomic orbitals
Molecular orbitals
Recall bonding.
2 atoms:
3 x 1s-orbitals:
4 x 1s-orbitals:
Energy
From atomic states to energy bands
12 atoms
Many atoms:
Continuous bands of energy states!
Depending on the equilibrium
bond length, the bands can
overlap or be separated in
energy!
Note: the outermost valence
states begin to spread to
bands first.
From atomic states to energy bands

A
A
2
A
3
A
4
A

Metals

B
2
B
3
B
4
B

B

Two bands can
also overlap
From atomic states to energy bands

B
2
B
3
B
4
B

B

Energy gap
Insulator or Semiconductor
Valence Band: Energy
band that is filled with
electrons.
Conduction Band:
Energy band that is
empty.
Fermi Energy
E
f
= Fermi Energy = the energy corresponding to the highest filled state at 0K.
In metals:
E
E
f
0K
Increase T
E
f
e.g. RT
Thermal energy (kT) can excite electrons to higher empty states!
Fermi Energy
In insulators:
E
E
f
0K
Increase T
e.g. RT
Thermal energy (kT) is usually insufficient to excite electrons to higher empty
states in the conduction band!
kT << E
g
Electrical conduction
Free electrons
needed for
electrical
conduction
(applied electric
field is sufficient to
generate large
number of free
electrons).
METALS
SEMICONDUCTORS OR INSULATORS
Due to the band
gap, much more
energy input is
necessary to create
charge carriers
(electrons in
conduction band or
holes in valence
band).
Drift Velocity and Mobility
If electrons were truly free (no interaction at all with atoms and imperfections
in the crystal), they will continue to accelerate when an electric potential is
applied. Continuously increasing current with time?
There must be frictional forces that oppose electron flow to maintain
constant current at constant applied electric potential
Scattering (by impurity atoms, vacancies, interstitial atoms, dislocations,
lattice vibrations)
Drift velocity (v
d
): average velocity of electrons in
the direction of the force imposed by applied field.
E v
e d
=
Electron mobility (
e
): indicates the frequency of
scattering events.
e
e n o = Electrical conductivity (o) is given by:
C e
19
10 6 . 1

=
n = number of free electrons per unit volume
Electrical resistivity in metals
n deformatio impurities thermal total
+ + =
Electrical resistivity in metals
Thermal contribution: resistivty increases with T.
WHY?
Thermal vibrations of lattice atoms lead to more
deviations from perfect lattice.
Higher T will also create other irregularities such as
vacancies.
Impurities: resistivity increases with increasing
impurities. For solid solutions with single impurity
type: WHY?
Impurities cause more scattering of electrons and
therefore decrease electron mobility.
Deformation: Resistivity increases with deformation. WHY?
e.g. Deformation leads to increased number of dislocations that will
scatter electrons.
aT
o t
+ =
) 1 (
i i i
c Ac =
Electrical conduction in Semiconductors
Bonding and band gap
Structure m.p. (K) E
g
(eV)
C (Diamond) Diamond 3773 5.5
Si Diamond 1683 1.1
Ge Diamond 1210 0.7
Need to create free electrons (or holes) for electrical
conduction.
Smaller the band gap, less energy required to create
charge carriers.
Conductivity of intrinsic (undoped) semiconductors:
|
|
.
|

\
|

kT
E
g
exp o
Conductivity increases with T.
Adapted from Fig. 19.15, Callister 5e. (Fig. 19.15 adapted from G.L. Pearson and J. Bardeen, Phys. Rev. 75, p. 865, 1949.)
Pure Silicon:
--o increases with T
--opposite to metals
|
|
.
|

\
|

kT
E
g
exp o
Charge carriers
ELECTRONS
HOLES: missing
electrons in the
valence band.
Applied electric
potential will cause
free electrons and
holes to move in
the opposite
directions.
Electrical conduction in Semiconductors
For an undoped semiconductor:
i
n p n = =
(charge neutrality)
Number of electrons
per unit volume
Number of holes
per unit volume
Unlike in metals, we need to consider contribution from holes in the
electronic conduction:
h e
e p e n o + = ) (
h e i
e n + =
|
|
.
|

\
|

kT
E
g
exp o
We stated earlier that
This relation is due to
|
|
.
|

\
|

kT
E
n
g
i
exp
Example problem
Calculate conductivity of intrinsic Si at
423K.
n-Doping
h e
e p e n o + =
e
e n o ~
With n-doping, n>>p
p-Doping
h e
e p e n o + =
h
e p o ~
With p-doping, p>>n
Effect of dopant concentration
i i
e n o ~

i
n
Dopant (impurity) concentration (C
i
)
How does mobility depend on dopant
concentration?
Why does mobility decrease with impurity conc. at high conc.?
Scattering: e.g. charge carrier-impurity scattering
Would you expect conductivity to increase with dopant conc.?
Temperature dependence
Since the electron (hole) needs to be thermally excited to
conduction (valence) band, we may expect :
|
.
|

\
|
A

kT
E
n
i
exp
AE
However, this is the case when AE > kT
Typically, AE << kT (near RT).

Here, thermally enhanced
scattering becomes more
important (as in metals).
Example problem
10
23
m
-3
of As is added to high-purity Si.
1. Does this material become n- or p-type?
2. Calculate RT conductivity.
Example problem
An extrinsic p-type Si material with RT
conductivity = 50 O
-1
m
-1
. Specify impurity
type and its concentration (in atom%).

Conducting Polymers
How do you make a polymer conduct electricity?
Recall metallic bonding
Fixed ion cores (nuclei and
inner electrons)
sea of electrons
Free electrons!
(i.e. electrons are shared by all nuclei)
C C C C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

In most polymers
H
H
H
C
R
R
Electrons are
localized between 2
carbon atoms!
H
Use sp2 or sp hybridized Cs in polymer (conjugated molecules).
Polyacetylene


( )
A
B
( )
n
a
C
C
H
H
Unit cell of 2 atoms.
p orbital
ethylene
Bonding
(filled)
Antibonding
(empty)
r
e
Filled band
Empty band
Band gap
Conductivity = 10
-9
O
-1
m
-1
(cis-trans)
= 10
-5
O
-1
m
-1
(trans-trans)
Better than most polymers but still low!
Doping?
Doping in conducting polymers
Impurity doping (i.e. substitute lattice atoms): is this possible?
Charge transfer doping


+ n[AsF
5
]



n+
+ n[AsF
5
]
-
Consider as holes (actually more complicated)
Similarly inject electrons by charge transfer doping (e.g. with alkali metals such as K).
Other conducting polymers
Polypyrrole
Polyaniline
Polythiophene
Poly(p-phenylenevinylene)
.
All have conjugated t-bonds (also needs to be doped to have
significant conductivity).
N
H
N
H
S
C
H
C
H
Example problem
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H C
H
2
H
H
H
H
H
polystyrene
Label hybridization of all carbons and determine which is more conducting.
Poly(phenyl ethynylene)
Example problem
Determine which form of polyaniline is more conducting.
N
H
N
H
N
H
N
H
Leuco-emeraldine
N
H
N
H
N
+
N
H
Emeraldine salt
X
-
Ionic conduction
Instead of electrons and holes, ions (atomic or
molecular) become charge carriers.
Ionic mobility =
kT
eD n
I I
I
=
Valence of the ion
Diffusion coefficient
Thermal energy
Electric charge
Especially useful in polymer electrolytes.
e.g. in lithium ion batteries: poly(ethylene oxide) as host
polymer and lithium salt as the electrolyte.
Concepts to remember
Bonding and electrical conduction.
Metals, semiconductors, and insulators.
From atomic orbitals to bands.
Fermi energy.
Drift velocity and mobility
Electrical conductivity in metals:
Contributions from thermal, impurities & deformation effects.
Semiconductors:
valence and conduction bands, charge carriers, carrier mobility,
intrinsic vs. doped semiconductors...
Conducting polymers:
t-conjugation, charge transfer doping...
Ionic conduction, ion mobility & polymer electrolytes.