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# 1. To summarise the relationship between degrees and radians 2. To understand the term angular displacement 3.

To define angular velocity 4. To connect angular velocity to the period and frequency of rotation 5. To connect angular velocity to linear speed

## Angles can be measured in both degrees radians ! Arc

length r

The angle in radians is defined as the arc length " the radius

#or a whole circle\$ %3&'() the arc length is the circumference\$ %2 r) *ommon values ! /n2 0./. 1nits we use .ote. 3&'( is radians 2rad3 45( + "4 radians ,'( + "2 radians 1-'( + radians

Angular velocity\$ for circular motion\$ has counterparts which can be compared with linear speed s=d/t. Time %t) remains unchanged\$ but linear distance %d) is replaced with angular displacement measured in radians.
Angular displacement
r r

## Angular displacement is the number of radians moved

#or a watch calculate the angular displacement in radians of the tip of the minute hand in 1. 4ne second 2. 4ne minute 3. 4ne hour 5ach full rotation of the 6ondon eye ta7es 3' minutes. 8hat is the angular displacement per second9

*onsider an ob:ect moving along the arc of a circle from A to ; at a constant speed for time P t! <efinition ! The rate of
Arc length r r A

## change of angular displacement with time

The angle, in radians! an o"#ect rotates per + " through t second\$ 8here is the angle turned through in radians\$ %rad)\$ yields units for of rads=1
This is all very comparable with normal linear speed\$ %or velocity) where we tal7 about distance"time

The period T of the rotational motion is the time ta7en for one complete revolution %2 radians). 0ubstituting into ! + " t + 2 " T T + 2 " #rom our earlier wor7 on waves we 7now that the period %T) frequency %f) are related T + 1"f

*onsidering the diagram below\$ we can see that the linear distance travelled is the arc length P
Arc length r r A

## 6inear speed %v) + arc length %A;) " t v + r " t %u"stituting&&& = / t! v + r

A cyclist travels at a speed of 12ms =1 on a bi7e with wheels which have a radius of 4'cm. *alculate! a. The frequency of rotation for the wheels b. The angular velocity for the wheels c. The angle the wheel turns through in '.1s in i radians ii degrees

The fre'uenc( of rotation for the )heels *ircumference of the wheel is 2 r + 2 > '.4m + 2.5m Time for one rotation\$ %the period) is found using s +d " t rearranged for t t + d " s + T + circumference " linear speed T + 2.5 " 12 + '.21s

The angular *elocit( for the )heels 1sing T + 2 " \$ rearranged for + 2 " T + 2 " '.21 + 3' rads=1

The angle the )heel turns through in +&,s in i radians ii degrees 1sing + " t + t + 3' > '.1 + 3 rad + 3 > %3&'(" 2 ) + 1A2( re=arranged for