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Multiple Intelligences

Introduction
New definition of intelligence The eight multiple intelligences The importance of multiple intelligences in education Activities that teachers can implement in their classrooms

This theory was created by Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983.

Multiple intelligences
It is no longer a question of how intelligent people are; it is how their intelligence works. (Svava, 2008, p.2).

The intelligence is more complex than the results of the I.Q test. Each person has at least seven intelligences. They are not equally developed (LarsenFreeman, 2000, p. 170).

Initially, Gardner named seven intelligences. 1.Verbal-linguistic 2.Logical - mathematical 3.Spatial-visual 4.Bodily-kinesthetic 5.Musical 6.Intrapersonal 7.Interpersonal 8.Naturalist (In 1999 he added an eighth intelligence.)

Verbal / Linguistic Intelligence


This intelligence refers to the ability to use words effectively both orally and in writing. It includes abilities such as the ability to remember information, convince others to help you, and to talk about language itself (Christison, 2005, p.5). Reading Activities Writing Activities Speaking Activities

Naturalist Intelligence
It relates to the ability to find patterns and recognize and classify plants, minerals, and animals, including rocks and all varieties of flora and fauna. It is also the ability to recognize cultural artifacts like cars or sneakers (Christison, 2005, p.6). Focus the attention on the world outside the classroom Identify parts of real plants Participate in field trips to learn about plants or animals

Visual / Spatial Intelligence


It focuses on the ability to have sensitivity to form, space, color, line, and shape. It includes the ability to graphically represent visual or spatial ideas (Christison, 2005, p.5). Visual Mapping Activities Creating charts and bulletin boards. Drawing and labeling pictures. Imagining scenes Reading maps

Interpersonal intelligence
They work well with people and they are sensitive to slight variations in peoples moods, attitudes, and desires.

Body language Moods Voice

Logical/mathematical
It is the ability to use numbers effectively, to see abstract patterns, and to reason well. (LarsenFreeman, 2000, p. 169).

Calculations Experiments Inductive and deductive reasoning

Bodily / Kinesthetic
This intelligent consists in the ability to use one's body to express oneself and to solve problems. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000, p. 169).

Hands-on activities Field trips Pantomime

Musical / rhythmic
These intelligent consists in an ability to recognize tonal patterns and a sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, melody. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000, p. 169).

Singing Playing music Jazz chants

Intrapersonal
These intelligent consists in the ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline. (LarsenFreeman, 2000, p. 169).

Self-evaluation Journal keeping Options for homework

Activities
Svava (2008) has said that they should be appealing and include different intelligences. Larsen-Freeman (2000) has indicated that teachers can categorize the activities they use according to the MI.

Taxonomy of Language-Learning Activities for Multiple Intelligences (Christison, 1997, p.7-8)


Linguistic / Verbal Intelligence: Lectures, group discussions, books, worksheets, word games, listening to cassettes or talking books, class newspapers, collections of writing, student speeches, storytelling, debates, journal keeping, memorizing, and using word processors.

Logical / Mathematical Intelligence: Scientific demonstrations, logic problems, puzzles, science thinking, calculations, story problems, creating codes, and logical-sequential presentation of subject matter.

Spatial / Visual Intelligence: Charts, maps, diagrams, videos, slides, movies, pictures, imaginative storytelling, graphic organizers, telescopes, microscopes, visualization, photography, mind maps, painting or collage, optical illusions, and student drawings.

Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence: Creative movement, role plays, hands-on activities, mime, and field trips.

Musical Intelligence Playing recorded music, playing live music (piano, guitar), music appreciation, student-made instruments, and singing.

Interpersonal Intelligence Cooperative groups, peer teaching, group brainstorming, board games, pair work, conflict mediation.

Intrapersonal Intelligence: Independent student work, individualized projects, options for homework, checklists, inventories, personal journals, reflective learning, self-teaching, self-esteem journals, goal setting.

Naturalist Intelligence Categorizations, classifications, making lists, comparing, contrasting, and learning the elements of something.

Listening and speaking


Objective:
Identifying the meaning of the song as well as the correct pronunciation of some words.

Instructions
1. Students listen to the song Stronger and discuss with a partner what feelings are expressed in the song. 2. Students will listen again and paste the words they hear on the wall. Answers will be checked. 3. Students discuss a question related to the song.

Teachers who use the Multiple Intelligence theory see the benefits such as active learners and successful students (Nolan, 2003, p.119 as cited in Svava, 2008, p.5).

References
Christison, M. A. (1997). An introduction to multiple intelligences theory and second language learning. Prentice Hall / Regents. Christison, M. A. (2005). Multiple Intelligence and Language Learning. San Francisco: Alta Book Center Publishers. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W., & Perini, M. J. (2000). So each may learn: Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Svava, A. (2008). The Multiple Intelligence Theory in EnglishLanguage Teaching . Recovered from http://skemman.is/stream/get/1946/1485/4473/1/adal_adal.pdf