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Guide to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz

APA Tutorial

This Powerpoint presentation is designed to provide you with the basics of APA format and other general writing guidelines. It is not to be considered a comprehensive source. For complete APA requirements, refer to the APA publication manual (6th Edition). You also may want to consult the resources provided at the end of this tutorial, such as the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Finding Sources

Peer-reviewed Articles

Peer-reviewed or refereed journals are publications that have their submitted articles evaluated by outside experts (peers) in the subject area (Bachand & Sawallis, 2003, p. 40).

Sample Databases
Management

Emerald JSTOR Multi-subject

Academic Search Complete Sage Premier Google Scholar

Database Generated Citations Caution: Database generated APA citations are NOT correct
You must consult APA guidelines

See example on next slide

Database Generated Citations Example


Database generated:
Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social Skills and Self-Efficacy for Exceptional Children. Exceptional Children, 51(3), 253-261. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Correct citation:
Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social skills and self-efficacy for exceptional children. Exceptional Children, 51(3), 253-261. doi:10.1108
Italic Note: APA 6th edition does not require listing the database source (APA, 2010, p. 192) Must list DOI if available (see slide no. 33)

Learning the Basics of APA Style

Basics

Double space entire paper including headings Two spaces after end punctuation in sentences (recommended) Use 10 pt to 12 pt Times New Roman or similar font 1 inch margins all around Indent paragraphs inch Number pages consecutively beginning with the title page
(Angeli et al., 2010)

Voice and Point of View

Example

Use an active voice not a passive voice


The participant statednotThe participants were asked

Example

Use third person point of view instead of first person point of view.
The study supported ... not.I found out

However, this depends on the journal and/or the instructor.


(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, pg. 77)

Language

Use clear and concise language: avoid interpretive language Studies do not prove, they support
Do not say, This study proved that ... Instead say, The study showed ...

Use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language


(APA, 2010, pg 65-67)

Avoiding Bias in Language


1.

Describe at the appropriate level of specificity.


Not specific: over 15 years of age Specific: 15- to 20-year-olds

2.

Be sensitive to labels.
Refer to people in a culturally sensitive manner that reflects their cultural preferences.

3.

Acknowledge participation.
State The children completed the survey instead of The survey was administered to the children
(APA, 2010, p. 71-73)

Avoiding Bias: Disabilities

Do not focus on disability unless it is crucial to a story.

Put people first, not their disability.


a child with a learning disability not a learning disabled child

Example

Emphasize abilities, not limitations. Do not use negative language. Do not write: Suffers from ______ Instead write: A child with _______
(APA, 2010, p. 73)

Example

Subject/Pronoun Agreement
The student (singular).his/her (singular) Students (plural)their (plural)

To avoid gender bias use the plural form (students)

The teacher who. NOTThe teacher that


(A teacher is a person, not an object. )
(Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2009)

Subject/Verb Agreement

Your subject and verb must agree in number (singular and plural).

The words data and phenomena are plural.


Example

Correct: The data indicate that.. Incorrect: The data indicates that.
Correct: The phenomena occur. Incorrect: The phenomena occurs.
(APA, 2010, p. 79)

Example

Grammar: Since vs. Because


Use since to refer only to time
Example

Three years have passed since the beginning of the study.

Use because right before an explanation of something


Example

The student had difficulty with reading comprehension because of his/her limited English proficiency.

(APA, 2010, p. 84)

Grammar: While vs. Although


Use while for simultaneous events only!
Example

The participants completed the survey while at school.

Use although to show contrast of ideas


Example

Although these findings support _____, the results are not typical.
(APA, 2010, p. 84)

Numbers Expressed in Numerals


Use numerals to express:

All numbers 10 and above Example 25 years old Numbers preceding a unit of measurement Example a 5-mg dose

Fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios, percentiles & quartiles Examples a ratio of 16:1 the 5th percentile
Time, dates, ages, scores and points on a scale Examples 1 hour 15 minutes scored 5 on a 8-point scale
(APA, 2010, p. 111-112)

Numbers Expressed in Words


Use words to express numbers below 10 Use words anytime a number begins a sentence, title, or heading Common fractions
Example

one fifth of the class


(APA, 2010, pg.112)

Formatting

Four Sections
Ask instructor about assignment requirements. An APA paper may include four major sections:

Title Page Abstract Main Body References

Title Page Header

The title page header includes:

Running Head in a mixture of capital and lowercase letters followed by the title of the paper in all capital letters aligned to the left. At the far right of the page header is the page number (numbered consecutively).

Running Head: APA FORMAT


Page # Colon Running Head Title

(Note: The title page header includes Running Head and is different than the other pages) (Angeli et al., 2010)

Page Header
Page header is noted on the top of every page

Every page after the title page has a page header that includes the title of the paper in all capital letters aligned to the left and the page number (numbered consecutively) aligned to the right

APA FORMAT
Title

2
Page #

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Title Page
Running head Running head: APA FORMAT Title of paper (capital letters) 1 Page number

Title of paper Authors name Institutional Affiliation


State University of New York at New Paltz

APA Format
Kathleen Golly

(APA, 2010, p. 41)

Abstract

Page header:
2

TITLE OF PAPER

Abstract (centered, at the top of the page) Brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paper Accurate, concise, and specific language.

Ask course instructor if abstract is required *


(APA, 2010, pg. 41)

Headings
Different levels of headings Use consecutively

Level 1 Format Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period.

4
5

Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.


indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.
(APA, 2010, p. 62)

Sample Headings
Methods (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2) Participant Population (Level 2) Teachers. (Level 3)

Students. (Level 3)
Results (Level 1) Spatial Ability (Level 2) Test one. (Level 3) Teachers with training (Level 4)

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Citing Sources

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the representation, intentional or unintentional, of someone else's words or ideas as one's own (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 4).

Penalties for Plagiarism


Plagiarizing is a form of larceny punishable by a fine and may result in academic disciplinary action.

The academic penalty may range, for instance, from a reprimand accompanied by guidance about how to avoid plagiarism in the future to failure for the course (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 5).

How to Avoid Plagiarism

You must correctly cite the use of another persons words or ideas in your paper. You must cite all direct quotes, paraphrases, and the use of other peoples ideas in your paper. If you use only an authors ideas and change the words, you must clearly identify the source of the ideas.

(State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d.)

In-text Citations: Paraphrases

You must cite anything that is not your original idea or words Cite all paraphrases in the body of your paper (Authors last name, year).
The study supported the finding that children learn best through multisensory approaches (Smith, 2002). Punctuation mark outside parentheses

Example

In-text Citations: Direct Quotes


You must cite anything that is not your original idea or words. Cite all direct quotes in the body of your paper. Write a lead-in phrase for direct quotes.

Lead in phrase __________ (Last name, year, p. #). OR Lead in phrase Last name (year) _________________ (p. #).

Do Example

not start a sentence with a direct quote.


According to Smith (2000) ___________(p. 15).

(APA, 2010, p. 171-172)

Direct Quote Formatting Examples


Include page number

Smith (2002) stated ___________(p. 11).

OR
Children learn best by ______________ (Smith, 2002, p.11).
Include page number

OR

Citation right after quote

Children learn best through ______ (Smith, 2002, p. 11) and hands-on learning experiences.

Direct Quotes: Forty Words or Less

Use quotation marks

Keep the quote within the paragraph


According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty
using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources" (p.199).

Example

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Direct Quotes: Forty Words or More


No quotation marks Indent entire quote inch from the left margin Do not indent the first line more than the rest of the quote Maintain double spacing Parenthetical citation comes after punctuation mark

Jones' (1998) study found the following:


Example

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to
et al., ask their teacher(Angeli for help. (p. 2010) 199)

In-text Citations
Type of citation One work by one author One work by two authors One work by three authors One work by four authors One work by five authors One work by six or more authors Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors Groups (no abbreviation) as authors First citation in text Walker (2007) Walker and Allen (2004) Gilsenan, Ramirez, and Smith (1999) Gilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, and Smith (2008) Gilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, and Smith (2003) Smith et al. (2005) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) Subsequent citations in text Walker (2007) Walker and Allen (2004) Gilsenan et al. (1999) Gilsenan et al. (2008) Gilsenan et al. (2003) Smith et al. (2005) Parenthetical format, first citation in text (Walker, 2007) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, & Smith, 1999) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, & Smith, 2008) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, & Smith, 2003) (Smith et al., 2005) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text (Walker, 2007) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Gilsenan et al., 1999) (Gilsenan et al., 2008) (Gilsenan et al., 2003) (Smith et al., 2005)

NIMN (2003)

(NIMH, 2003) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

University of University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh (2005) (2005) (Angeli et al., 2010)

In-text Citations
Remember to include page numbers for all direct quotes For 1-2 authors: List both last names every time! For 3-5 authors: List all last names the first time, then use the first authors last name followed by et al. for subsequent entries For 6+ authors: List the first authors last name and et al. (List all authors on the reference page)

In-text Citations: No Authors


Unknown author: Cite by the title. -Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined -Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Example (Behavior Management, 2005).

Organization as author: - Write out the organizations full name the first time Example with any abbreviation in brackets (National Education Association [NEA], 2011). - Subsequent citations: use abbreviation Example (NEA, 2011).

Reference General Guidelines

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or book title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
Social skills and self-efficacy for exceptional children

Example

Note: Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Reference General Guidelines

If multiple sources by the exact same author(s) list them by date (earliest first) on the reference page

Capitalize all major words in journal titles.


Example

Journal of Learning Disabilities

References
1. First: Decide what type of source it is 2. Next: Refer to Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition) 3. Locate sample citation and copy format exactly

OR
1. Decide what type of source it is 2. Use the automatic citation feature of the database AND 3. Adjust the citation based on the Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition)

Common Reference Examples


Basic Format for Books:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital

letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Article from Database:


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, 8(3), 120-125. doi: 000000001123

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Common Reference Examples


Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Nonperiodical Web Page


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of

document. Retrieved from http://Web address

(See APA manual or Purdue OWL for more detailed explanations and additional reference types)
(Angeli et al., 2010)

How to Cite DOIs


DOI: Digital Object Identifier APA now requires that you cite DOIs when available. You do not need to cite the database from which the article was retrieved Some journal articles have DOIs and some do not Example

Mosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstract
in education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1), 29-34. doi:10.1037/1054-5844.23.4 (APA, 2010, pg.188-192)

How to locate DOIs

DOIs are usually located on the first page of an article often in the upper right hand corner near the copyright information. Sage Premier consistently lists DOIs on the title page of the journal article. If you cannot find the DOI, check the article title in the SAGE premier database and try to locate the DOI that way.
(APA, 2010, pg. 189)

Now You Try


Go to Sage Premier. Browse journals by discipline. Click on education under social sciences. Select The Journal of Special Education. Search for CBM. Locate the article The predictive validity of CBM writing indices for eighth-grade students. The DOI is located on the first page. (see next slide)

The Journal of Special Education


http://sed.sagepub.com/

______________________________________________________
The Predictive Validity of CBM Writing Indices for Eighth-Grade Students Janelle M. Amato and Marley W. Watkins J Spec Educ 2011 44: 195 originally published online 27 March 2009 DOI: 10.1177/0022466909333516 The online version of this article can be found at: http://sed.sagepub.com/content/44/4/195 _____________________________________________________________

Published by: Hammill Institute on Disabilities

and http://www.sagepublications.com

No DOIs

Some articles do not have DOIs If you accessed the article from an online periodical or online journal that is only available online and not in print, you should provide the website for the homepage of the journal.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online

Example
Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

If you accessed the article from a database, you do not need to provide the website for the database.
Mosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstract

Example

in education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1), 29-34.


(Angeli et al., 2010)

Reference Page

The reference list must be double-spaced, and entries should have a hanging indent (see example on next page)

Entries must be listed in alphabetical order


The word References should be centered at the top of the page
(APA, 2010, p. 178)

Reference Page Sample


APA FORMAT References American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the
Hanging indent

23

American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L.,
& Brizee, A. (2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01

(Angeli et al., 2010)

Advanced APA

Tables vs. Figures

A table shows numerical values or textual information arranged in an orderly display of columns and rows (APA, 2010, p. 125).

A figure can be a chart, a photograph, a graph, a scatter plot, a drawing or any other illustration.
(APA, 2010, p. 125).

Tables
Example: Double space

Table 1

Word list: Summary of performance

Use only horizontal lines when needed for clarity Do not use vertical lines Title of table in italics Number tables consecutively May include a note under table if information is needed to understand . (APA, 2010, table p. 129)

Grade 1 2 3

Sight 19 16 12

Analysis 0 1 4

Total

Level

19 Independent 17 Instructional 16 Instructional

Note: Sight indicates the number of words read correctly on the first try. Analysis indicates the number of missed words that were corrected when reread a second time. Total indicates the total number of words read correctly.

Figures
Example:
Double space Figure 1 Graphic Similarity of Substitution Miscues
Graphic Similarity of Miscues
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Beginning Middle Graphic Similarity

Title of figure in italics Number figures consecutively Include a note at the bottom if information is needed for clarity (Angeli et al., 2010)

Percent

End

Note. This figure shows the graphic similarity in the beginning, middle, and end of substitution miscues.

Additional Resources
1. APA Formatting and Style Guide. Provides detailed explanation and examples of all components of APA. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

2. Free tutorial on APA. Includes specific examples. http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx 3. Specific examples of references. Explains DOIs. http://www.library.uncc.edu/display/?dept=reference &format=open page=1094

References
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01 Bachand, R. G., & Sawallis, P. P. (2003). Accuracy in the identification of scholarly and peerreviewed journals and the peer-review process across disciplines. Serials Librarian, 45(2), 39-59. Retrieved from http://serialslibrarian.us/ Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P., Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2009). Editorial: Evidence-based

guidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions.
Research in the Schools, 16(2), 1. Retrieved from http://www.msstate.edu/ State University of New York at New Paltz (n.d.). Academic integrity. In Academic policies and procedures. Retrieved from http://www.newpaltz.edu/advising/policies_integrity.html