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# cphys351:1

## Chapter 3: Wave Properties of Particles

De Broglie Waves
photons

E = pc
v = c
E = hv

p =
h

E = hv
For a massive particle :
=
h
mv
cphys351:2
Example 3.1 Find the de Broglie wavelengths of a 46 g golf ball with a velocity of 30
m/s and an electron with a velocity of 10
7
m/s.
Example 3.2 Find the kinetic energy pf a proton whose de Broglie wavelength is 1.00 fm
(10
-15
m), which is roughly the proton diameter.
cphys351:3
Waves of what?
normal waves
are a disturbance in space
carry energy from one place to another
often (but not always) will (approximately) obey the
classical wave equation
matter waves
disturbance is the wave function +(x, y, z, t )
probability amplitude +
probability density p(x, y, z, t ) =|+|
2
cphys351:4
wave properties:

phase velocity
v
p
= v
for a massive particle
v
p
=
h
mv
mc
2
h
= c
c
v
> c
for a massless particle
v
p
=
h
p
E
h
=
1
p
pc
1
= c
phase velocity does not describe particle motion
cphys351:5

oscillations at a particular point
+ = Acos2tvt
travelling waves (1- d)
+ = Acos2tv t
x
v
p
|
\

|
.
|
in more standard forms
+ = Acos2t vt
x

|
\

|
.
|
or + = Acos et kx
( )
e = 2tv (angular frequency)
k =
2t

(wave number)
in 3 d : + = Acos et k r
( )
Generic wave properties
cphys351:6
phase and group velocities
simple plane wave inadequate to describe particle motion
problems with phase velocity and infinite wave train
represent particle with wave packet (wave group)
simplified version: superposition of two waves of slightly
different wavelength
-if wave velocity is independent of wavlength, each wave (and
thus the packet) travel at the same speed
-if wave velocity is depends upon wavlength, each wave travels at
a different speed, in turn different from the wave packet speed.
cphys351:7

+
1
= Acos et kx
( )
+
2
= Acos e + Ae
( )
t k + Ak
( )
x
| |
+ = +
1
+ +
2
+ = 2Acos
1
2
2e + Ae
( )
t 2k + Ak
( )
x
| |
cos
1
2
Ae
( )
t Ak
( )
x
| |
with Ae << e, << k
+ ~ 2Acos
Ae
2
t
Ak
2
x

(

(
cos et kx
| |
phase velocity= wave velocity of carrier: v
p
=
e
k
group velocity= wave velocity of envelope: v
g
=
Ae
Ak
for more than two wave contiributions: v
g
=
de
dk
cphys351:8
de Broglie waves for massive particles
( )
( )
v v
c v h
c m
dv dk
c v h
v c m
dv d
dv dk
dv d
dk
d
v
c v
v m
h
mv
h
k
c v h
c m
h
E
g
g
=

t =

t = e
e
=
e
=

t
=
t
=

t
=

t = t = tv = e
2 3
2
2
0
2 3
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
) ( 1
2
) ( 1
2
) ( 1
2 2 2
) ( 1
2 2 2
cphys351:9
Example 3.3 An electron has a de Broglie wavelength of 2.00 pm Find its kinetic
energy, as well as the phase and group velocity of the waves.
cphys351:10
Particle Diffraction:
The Davisson-Germer experiment
scattering of electrons from annealed
surface (single crystal)
classically, diffuse scattering
waves produce constructive/destructive
interference ala x-ray diffraction
e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

g
u
n

electron
detector

n = 2dsinu
=
h
mv
KE = qV ~
1
2
mv
2
Example: 54 eV electrons are scattered off of a surface with a strong maximum at an angle
of 50
o
with respect the incoming beam of electrons. If the spacing between the atomic
planes is .091 nm, what is the wavelength of the electrons from diffraction theory? What
is the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons?
smaller wavelength => finer resolution as in electron microscope
cphys351:11
Particle in a box

Wave Function
+(x) = Asin(kx)sinet
k =
2t

e = 2tf
Boundaries + = 0
n = 2L n = 1,2,
p
n
=
h

n
=
nh
2L
E
n
=
n
2
h
2
8mL
2
n =1,2,
L
Examples: electron in 0.10 nm box, neutron in
1.00 fm box, Gallis in room
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The Uncertainty Principle: limits on probabilities with wave packets
probability density |+|
2

maximum near center of wave packet (or near average)
non-zero near maximum=> uncertainty in position Ax
combination of several wavelengths => uncertainty in wave
number => uncertainty in momentum Ap
uncertainty principle: decreasing Ax (Ap)will eventually
drive up Ap (Ax).
It is impossible to know both the exact position and
exact momentum of an object at the same time.
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Wave function as a superpopsition of cosine waves:
at a particular instant in time

+ x
( )
= g(k)coskx
0

}
dk more generally: + x
( )
= g(k)e
ikx

}
dk
- Fourier Transform
AxAk >
1
2
- analogous to minimum bandwidth/minimum pulsewidth
p =
h

, k =
2t

k =
2t
h
p Ak =
2t
h
Ap =
1
Ap

h
2t
("h bar")
AxAk = Ax
1
Ap >
1
2
AxAp >
2
cphys351:14
Example 3.6: A measurement establishes the position of a proton with an accuracy of
+/-.001nm. Find the uncertainty in the protons position 1.00 s later. assume v<<c.
Uncertainty principle II: measurement as interaction
observe a particle by bouncing photons off of the particle

Ap ~ h
photon
Ax ~
photon
AxAp ~ h
BUT: this uncertainty is an intrinsic limit, not an artifact of
measurement!!!
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Applications of the uncertainty principle
Example 3.7: A typical atomic nucleus is about 5 fm in radius. Use the uncertainty
principle to estimate a lower limit for the energy of an electron confined to the nucleus.
Example 3.8: A a hydrogen atom is about .053 nm in radius. Use the uncertainty
principle to estimate a lower limit for the energy of an electron confined to the atom
cphys351:16
Energy-Time uncertainty

Av >
1
At
E = hv
AEAt > h
More precisely
AEAt >
2
Example 3.9: An excited atom gives up its excess energy by emitting a photon of a
characteristic frequency. The average time between the excitation of the atom and the
emission of the photon is 10.0 ns. What is the inherent uncertainty in the frequency of the
photon?
Chapter 3 problems: 2,3,4,5,7,9,16,17,22,24,27,28,35,37,38