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Introduction - 1

IAE COMPANY SUMMARY


Introduction
On March 11, 1983, five companies signed a 30 year collaboration agreement to produce an engine for the single isle aircraft market. The five companies were: Rolls Royce - United Kindom Pratt & Whitney - USA Japanese Aero Engines Corporation (JAEC) - Japan

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Motoren Turbinen Union (MTU) - Germany


Fiat Avio - Italy (Fiat has since withdrawn as a partner) The company is incorporated in Switzerland and its headquarters are located in Hartford, CT, USA. The engines are assembled by senior partners RR and P&W. The engine designation V comes from the roman numeral for five, due to the numbers of original partners. The 2500 portion of the name comes from the 25,000 lbs thrust rating of the first engine type.

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Introduction - 2

V2500 PARTNER SUMMARY


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Introduction - 3

V2500 PROPULSION SYSTEM


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Introduction - 4

PROPULSION SYSTEM Components


The major components of the nacelle are: Intake Cowl It permits the efficient intake of air to the engine while minimizing nacelle drag. The intake cowl contains the P2/T2 probe and the thermal anti-icing ducting and manifold. Fan Cowl Doors They protect and allow access to the units mounted on the fan case and external gearbox. The fan cowl doors are hinged to the aircraft pylon in four positions and are held open by support struts. There are four adjustable quick release latches that secure the fan cowl doors in the closed position. Thrust Reverser C-Ducts They allow access to the core engine. The two C-ducts are hinged to the aircraft pylon at four positions per C-duct and are secured in the closed position by six latches. They also provide for reverse thrust during landing. Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA) It exhausts both the fan stream and core engine gas flow through a common propulsive nozzle.

V2500 Propulsion System


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Introduction - 5

PROPULSION SYSTEM COMPONENTS


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Introduction - 6

AIRFRAME INTERFACE General


The airframe interfaces provides a link between the engine and aircraft systems. The components of the airframe interface are the: fuel supplies bleed air off-takes starter motor air supply hydraulic fluid supplies FADEC system interfaces front and rear engine mounts Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) electrical power

ECS Bleed Air Off-takes


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Introduction - 7

MOUNTABLE ENGINE COMPONENTS

Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA)


General The CNA forms the exhaust unit and completes the engine nacelle. There is no fixing to the bottom of the pylon. The CNA allows the mixing of the hot and cold stream gas flows to produce and maximize thrust. This mixing of the hot and cold gas streams within the CNA also helps to reduce the thermal shear effect of the gases exiting the CNA. This helps to quiet the noise produced by the gas stream.

Common Nozzle Assembly (CNA)


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Introduction - 8

COMMON NOZZLE ASSEMBLY (CNA)


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Introduction - 9

MOUNTABLE ENGINE COMPONENTS

Engine Mounts
Forward Engine Mount The forward and rear engine mounts suspend the engine from the aircraft strut. They transmit loads generated by the engine during aircraft operation. The forward engine mount is designed to transmit thrust loads, side loads, and vertical loads. The forward engine mount is installed at the rear of the intermediate case and adjacent to the core. The forward mount is secured to the intermediate case in three positions: A monoball type universal joint that gives the main support at the forward engine mount position Two thrust links that are attached to the cross beam of the mount and to support brackets on either side of the monoball location on the intermediate case

Forward Engine Mount


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Introduction - 10

FORWARD ENGINE MOUNT


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Introduction - 11

MOUNTABLE ENGINE COMPONENTS

Engine Mounts
Rear Engine Mount The forward and rear engine mounts suspend the engine from the aircraft strut. They transmit loads generated by the engine during aircraft operation. The rear engine mount is designed to transmit torsional loads, side loads, and vertical loads. The rear engine mount has a diagonal main link that gives resistance to torsional movement of the casing as a result of the hot gas passing through the turbines. Two side links provide extra vertical support and limit the engine side to side movement.

Rear Engine Mount


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Introduction - 12

Retaining Plate

REAR ENGINE MOUNT


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Introduction - 13

MOUNTABLE ENGINE COMPONENTS Fire Detection & Ventilation System


Zone 1 & 2 Ventilation System Ventilation is provided for the fan case compartment (Zone 1) and the core engine compartment (Zone 2). The ventilation system provides a cool airflow that keeps the fan and core compartments from getting too hot. This cooling helps prevent the engine components and accessories from overheating. Ventilation also provides airflow that prevents the accumulation of flammable vapors. Ram air for Zone 1 enters the zone through an inlet located on the upper left hand side of the air intake cowl. The air circulates through the fan compartment and exits at the exhaust located on the bottom rear center line of the fan cowl doors. Exhaust air from the active clearance control (ACC) system around the turbine area provides the ventilation of Zone 2. The air circulates through the core compartment and exits through the lower bifurcation of the C ducts.

Vent System
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Introduction - 14

ZONE 1 AND ZONE 2 VENTILATION SYSTEM


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Introduction - 15

MOUNTABLE ENGINE COMPONENTS

Fire Detection and Ventilation System


Fire Detection System The fire detection elements are located around the fan case and core engine. The fire protection gives indication to the flight deck of a possible fire condition on the engine. The fire detection system monitors the air temperature in Zone 1 and Zone 2. When the air temperature increases to a predetermined level the system provides flight deck warning. Zone 1 and Zone 2 fire detectors function independently of each other. Each zone has two detector units which are mounted as a pair, each unit gives an output signal when a fire or overheat condition occurs. The two detector units are attached to support tubes by clips. The V2500 uses a Systron Donner fire detection system. It has a gas filled core and relies upon heat exposure to increase the internal gas pressure, thus triggering sensors. Zone 2 has the nacelle air temperature sensor. Indication is to the flight deck when a temperature has been exceeded. This gives warnings of air leaks not actual fire warnings
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Introduction - 16

FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM


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Introduction - 17

GENERAL V2500 Models


The V2500 engine is designed primarily for the 150 seat, short to medium range aircraft. The engine is an axial flow, high by-pass ratio, twin spool turbo fan.
V2500-A1 V2525-D5 V2528-D5 V2522-A5 V2524-A5 V2527-A5 V2530A5 A321-100 V2533-A5

Applications

A320-200

MD-90-30

MD-90-50

A319

A319

A320-200

A321-200

Take-off rating (lb.) (equivalent @ 0.2 Mn) Certification date Bypass ratio Overall takeoff pressure ratio Min. cruise SFC** Total powerplant wt (lb.) Fan diameter (in.)

25,000 *

25,000

28,000

22,000

23,500

26,800

31,400

33,000

Jun 88 5.4 29.7

Nov 92 4.8 27.2

Nov 92 4.7 30.0

Dec 97 4.9 32.8

April 96 4.9 26.5

Nov 92 4.8 27.4

Nov 92 4.6 31.6

Aug 96 4.5 33.4

0.543 7400 63

0.543 7900 63.5

0.543 7900 63.5

0.543 7500 63.5

0.543 7500 63.5

0.543 7500 63.5

0.543 7500 63.5

0.545 7500 63.5

Identical powerplant

Identical powerplant Identical turbomachinery

* Additional thrust capacity available ** Mach 0.76, 35,000 ft., Ideal


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Introduction - 18

GENERAL Airflow/Thrust Production

PROPULSION UNIT OUTLINE


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Introduction - 19

GENERAL

Engine Module Arrangement


LP System 1 Fan stage with 22 blades Exhaust case P4.9/T4.9 probe mounts LP Compressor (3 stages A1; 4 stage A5) Five stage LP Turbine to drive the LP compressor HP System Ten-stage axial flow compressor Two stage HP turbine to drive the HP compressor Variable inlet guide vanes and stator vanes (5 stages A1; 4 stages A5) Variable handling bleed valves and customer service bleeds at stage 7 and 10 Annular, two piece combustor with 20 fuel atomizer type spray nozzles Gearbox The gearbox provides mountings for engine driven accessories and a drive for the pneumatic starter motor. The G/Box is driven through a radial drive via a tower shaft from HP Compressor shaft to fan case mounted angle and main gearboxes.
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Introduction - 20

ENGINE GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


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Introduction - 21

ENGINE MODULES

Engine Main Bearings


Bearing No. Features Single track ball bearing LP Shaft axial location bearing Takes the thrust loads of the LP shaft

Squeeze film oil damping Single track roller bearing Radial support for the front of the LP turbine shaft
Single track ball bearing HP shaft axial location bearing Mounted in a hydraulic damper Takes the thrust loads of the HP shaft Radial support for the front of the HP shaft

4 5

Single track roller bearing Radial support for turbine end of HP shaft Squeeze film oil damping Single track roller bearing Radial support for the turbine end of the LP shaft

No. 2 Bearing
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Introduction - 22

ENGINE MAIN BEARINGS


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Introduction - 23

ENGINE MODULES

Fan (Module 31)


General The 22 hollow fan blades are retained in the disc radially by the dovetail root and axially by the retaining ring. Twenty two (22) annulus fillers are installed between adjacent blades forming a platform between each blade. These fillers form the fan inner annulus. A rubber seal is bonded to each side of the annulus fillers to prevent air leakage between each blade and filler. The LP Compressor (fan) compresses air which flows into the engine through the nacelle intake cowl. The larger part of the compressed air goes through the fan duct which gives the primary part of the engine thrust. The smaller part of the compressed air is compressed again when it goes through the LP compressor booster stages. Inlet Cone The inlet cone and fairing smooth the airflow into the fan. The inlet cone is made of a glass, fabric laminate with an epoxy varnish and

polyurethane finish, the fairing is titanium. A rubber de-icing tip is bonded to the front of the inlet cone. The fairing provides an aerodynamic flow over the annulus fillers and into the LP Compressor.

LP Compressor (Fan)
Introduction - 24

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LP COMPRESSOR (FAN)
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Introduction - 25

COMBUSTOR SYSTEM
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Introduction - 26

ENGINE MODULES

Diffuser and Combustor (Module 42)


Combustion Chamber Assembly The main components of the combustor are the inner and outer liners. The outer liner is located by five locating pins which pass through the diffuser casing. The combustion chamber outer liner assembly has 20 fuel nozzle guides. The inner combustion liner is attached to the turbine nozzle guide vane assembly. When assembled, the two combustion chamber liner assemblies make a chamber for burning the mixture of fuel and air. The inner and outer liners are manufactured from sheet metal with 100 separate liner segments attached to the inner surface (50 per inner and outer liner). The segments can be replaced independently during engine overhaul.

Diffuser Case Assembly


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Introduction - 27

COMBUSTOR CROSS SECTION


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Introduction - 28

ENGINE MODULES

External Gearbox (Module 60)


General

The external gearbox assembly, which includes the high speed gearbox and angle gearbox, is installed at the bottom of the intermediate module. It houses and drives multiple engine and airframe accessories and is directly driven from the HPC. It has four support links that have spherical bearings at each end to allow mount flexibility.
The high speed (HS) gearbox is installed to the intermediate case flange by three joint links and the angle gearbox support is attached by one link. The angle gearbox support is a casting and houses the layshaft and it rigidly connects the angle gearbox to the main gearbox. Accessories mounted on the gearbox have drives sealed by carbon seal assembly. A manual HP system crank (turning) port is located on the front face of the gearbox between the starter and EEC alternator.

High Speed Gearbox Assembly


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Introduction - 29

EXTERNAL GEARBOX ATTACHMENT LINKS


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Introduction - 30

GEARBOX LUBRICATION
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Introduction - 31

ENGINE MODULES

External Gearbox (Module 60)


General (Cont.)
Front face mount pads are used to install the following: Starter Deoiler Hydraulic pump Oil pressure pump and filter

Permanent magnet alternator (PMA)


Rear face mount pads are used to install the following: Oil scavenge pump unit Integrated drive generator system (IDGS) Fuel pumps (and fuel metering unit [FMU])

Deoiler and Starter Mount Pad


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Introduction - 32

HIGH SPEED GEARBOX


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Introduction - 33

FADEC SYSTEM
General
The V2500 uses a Full Authority Digital Electronic Engine Control (FADEC) system. The primary component of the FADEC system is the EEC unit. The FADEC System contains: Electrical harnesses Engine and Aircraft sensors and data input and feedback devices Electronic engine control (EEC) unit and the output devices, which include solenoids, fuel servo operated actuators and pneumatic servo operated devices The FADEC calculates the power setting (EPR), the acceleration and deceleration times, the idle speed governing, and the overspeed limits (N1 and N2). It provides control for the following functions: Fuel flow Thrust reverser Active clearance control (ACC) Variable stator vane system (VSV)

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Automatic engine starting Compressor handling bleed valves Booster stage bleed valve (BSBV) Oil and fuel temperature management Turbine cooling (10th stage make-up air system)

EEC
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Introduction - 34

EEC

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

General
The primary component of the FADEC system is the EEC unit which is a fan case mounted unit. The EEC is a dual channel control unit that uses a split housing design. It is shielded and grounded to protect against EMI mainly lightning strikes. The EEC has two identical electronic circuits that are identified as Channel A and Channel B. Each channel is supplied with identical data from the aircraft and the engine. Each of the EEC channels can exercise full control of all engine functions. Control alternates between Channel A and Channel B for consecutive flight, the selection of the controlling channel being made automatically by the EEC itself. The channel not in control is the back up channel.

EEC
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Introduction - 35

ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL


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Introduction - 36

EEC

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Failures and Redundancy


Improved reliability of the FADEC system is achieved by using dual sensors, dual control channels, dual selectors and dual feedback. Dual sensors supply all EEC inputs except pressures. Single pressure transducers within the EEC provide signals to each channel A and B. Each channel has its own power supply, processor, program memory and input/output functions. The mode of operation and the selection of the channel in control is decided by the availability of input signal and output controls. Each channel normally uses its own input signals but can use input signals from the other channel. An output fault in one channel will cause the other channel to have control. If there are faults in both channels, a predetermined hierarchy decides which channel is more capable of control. If both channels are lost, or if there is a loss of electrical power, the systems are designed to go to the fail safe positions. If complete failure of both EEC channels occurs will the engine is automatically set to idle power.
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EEC
Introduction - 37

EEC CONNECTIONS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Data Entry Plug (DEP)


The DEP provides discrete data inputs to the EEC. Located on Junction 6 of the EEC, the DEP transmits the following unique engine data to Channel A and B: Engine Serial Number EPR Modifier (Used for power setting) Engine Rating (Selected from multiple rating options)

The DEP links the coded data inputs through the EEC by the use of shorting jumper leads which are used to select the plug pins in a unique combination.
The DEP must always stay with the engine if the EEC is replaced.

EEC
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Introduction - 38

EEC CONNECTIONS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Permanent Magnet Alternator (PMA)


The electrical supplies for the EEC are normally provided by the permanent magnet alternator (PMA), also referred to as the dedicated generator. The PMA has independent sets of stator windings and supplies two independent AC outputs to the EEC. It also supplies the N2 signal, by the frequency of a single phase winding in the stator housing, to the EEC.

28V DC is required for some specific functions, which include the thrust reverser, fuel on/off and ground test power for EEC maintenance. In the event of a dedicated alternator total failure, the EEC is supplied from the aircraft 28V DC power.
The cooling shroud must be oriented correctly for the differing variant engines, therefore it must be clamped with the arrow on the shroud aligned with the number 1 indicated position for the A1 and A5 applications.

PMA Cooling Shroud


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Introduction - 39

FUEL SYSTEM
General
The components on the left hand side of the engine: Fuel pump Fuel Metering Unit Fuel Flow Meter Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler Fuel Diverter and Return to Tank Valve BSBV Actuator

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Injectors
VSV Actuators

FUEL FILTER HOUSING


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Introduction - 40

LEFT SIDE A5 (APPROXIMATE LOCATIONS)


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Introduction - 41

RIGHT SIDE A5 (APPROXIMATE LOCATIONS)


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Introduction - 42

FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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Introduction - 43

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Pump
General The fuel pump ensures the fuel system receives fuel at a determined pressure in order to allow the atomization of fuel in the combustion chamber. The combined fuel pump unit consists of low pressure and high pressure stages that are driven from a common gearbox, output shaft. LP Stage The LP stage is a shrouded, radial flow, centrifugal impeller, with an axial inducer. It boosts fuel pressure to maintain adequate fuel flow through FCOC and LP fuel filter and provides fuel to the inlet of the HP stage pump at a pressure that prevents cavitation. HP Stage It is a two gear (spur gear) pump that provides mounting for fuel metering unit (FMU). It has an integral relief valve. It increases the fuel pressure to make sure there is adequate fuel flow and good atomization at all engine operating conditions.

Fuel Pump
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Introduction - 44

FUEL PUMP
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Introduction - 45

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC)


General The FCOC and LP fuel filter share the same housing. Also referred to as the fuel/oil heat exchanger, it is a single pass for the fuel flow and a multi pass for the oil flow. It transfers heat from the oil system to the fuel system to reduce the temperature of the engine lubricating oil under normal conditions. It also prevents fuel icing. The FCOC provides mount locations for the fuel diverter and back to tank valve, fuel temperature thermocouple, fuel differential pressure switch, oil system bypass valve, and the fuel/oil leak indicator.

FCOC
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Introduction - 46

FUEL COOLED OIL COOLER (FCOC)


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Introduction - 47

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Metering Unit (FMU)


For fuel control, the FMU provides fuel metering to the combustion chamber, control of the opening and closing off of the fuel supply to the combustion chamber, and overspeed protection. It is the interface between the EEC and the fuel system. All of the fuel delivered by the HP fuel pumps, which is more than the engine requires, is passed through the FMU.

The FMU meters the fuel supply to the fuel spray nozzles under the control of the EEC.
Excessive HP fuel supplies that are not required, other than that for actuator control and metered fuel to the combustor, is returned to the LP system through the spill valve.

FMU
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Introduction - 48

FUEL METERING UNIT (FMU)


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Introduction - 49

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Metering Unit (FMU)


Fuel flow to the engine is controlled by the position of the fuel metering valve (FMV) within the FMU. The EEC commands a torque motor in the FMU to position the FMV. Resolvers sense the position of the FMV and send feedback to the EEC. The FMU also houses the overspeed valve and the pressure raising and shut off valve. The overspeed valve, under the control of the EEC, provides overspeed protection for the LP (N1) and HP (N2) rotors. The pressure raising and shut off valve provides a means of isolating the fuel supplies to start and stop the engine and ensures adequate pressure for atomization. Note: There are no mechanical inputs to, or outputs from the FMU.

FMU
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Introduction - 50

FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER


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Introduction - 51

FUEL DISTRIBUTION MANIFOLD


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Introduction - 52

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Spray Nozzles (FSN)


Fuel Spray Nozzles (FSN)
The FSNs have the following features: Inlet fitting houses fuel filter

20 identical fuel spray nozzles


Transfer tubes for improved fuel leak prevention Internal and external heat shields to reduce coking The fuel spray nozzles are equally spaced around the circumference of the combustor diffuser casing. To inject the fuel into the combustion chamber in a form suitable for combustion by atomizing the fuel, mixing it with HPC delivery air, and controlling the spray pattern.

Fuel Spray Nozzle Flange & B-Nut Connection


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Introduction - 53

FUEL SPRAY NOZZLES


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Introduction - 54

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Diverter and Back to Tank Valve


Together, the fuel diverter and back to tank valve form a single unit. Command signals of the EEC control the two valves. The two valves in turn manage the flow of high and low pressure fuel. This is done to optimize the heat exchange process that takes place between the fuel and oil. The fuel diverter valve is a two position valve and is operated by a dual coil solenoid. The control signals to energize/de-energize the solenoid come from the EEC. The back to tank valve is a modulating valve controlled by the EEC and will divert a proportion of the LP fuel back to the aircraft tanks. A modulating torque motor is the interface between the EEC and will direct HP servo fuel to position the valve. The valve is fully closed in the fail safe position, which means that no fuel is returned to the tank.

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Introduction - 55

FUEL COOLED OIL COOLER (FCOC)


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Introduction - 56

AIR SYSTEM
General
The air system, controlled by the EEC, is comprised of two air bleed systems and a variable stator vane (VSV) system. The three systems are: HP compressor air bleeds system on stages 7 and 10 LP compressor air bleed system located at engine station 2.5 and known as the booster stage bleed valve (BSBV) The variable stator vane (VSV) system which controls variable inlet guide vanes, at the inlet to the HP compressor, and 4 stages of variable stator vanes on the A1 and 3 stages on the A5 engines. The three systems are used to improve engine stability and performance which provide: Improved engine starting characteristics Surge Recovery - re-stabilizing the engine if surge occurs Stable airflow through the compressor at off design conditions Smooth, surge free, accelerations and decelerations (transient conditions)

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

HP Compressor Air Bleeds


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Introduction - 57

AIRFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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Introduction - 58

BOOSTER STAGE BLEED VALVE SYSTEM V2500-A5 (BSBV)


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Introduction - 59

BSBV ACTUATORS
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Introduction - 60

VSV HARDWARE A5
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Introduction - 61

HANDLING BLEED VALVES

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

General
Handling bleed valves are fitted to the HP compressor to improve engine start and prevent engine surge. All the bleed valves are spring loaded to the open position and will always be in the correct position (open) for starting. The bleed valves are arranged radially around the HP compressor case. Silencers are used on some bleed valves. A total of four bleed valves are used, three on stage 7 and one on stage 10.

Handling Bleed Valves (3 of 4)


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Introduction - 62

HANDLING BLEED VALVES

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

General
The handling bleed valves are two position only fully open or fully closed. They are operated pneumatically by their respective solenoid control valve. The solenoid control valves are scheduled by the EEC as a function of N2 and T2.6 (N2 corrected). When the handling bleed valves are open, HP compressor air bleeds into the fan duct through ports in the inner barrel of the C ducts. The servo air used to operate the bleed valves is HP compressor delivery air known as P3 or Pb. The EEC will close the remaining valves at the correct time during acceleration. The handling bleed valves are closed by the EEC, which energizes the solenoid control valves. Energizing the solenoid control valve vents the P3 servo air from the opening chamber of the bleed valve to close the valve. Valve 7B is only open for engine start and closed before idle is reached. During engine deceleration, the opposite operation occurs and the handling bleed valve opens as required to maintain surge margin.

Handling Bleed Valves Solenoids


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Introduction - 63

ENGINE SECONDARY AIR SYSTEMS


General
The engine secondary air systems are: 10th stage make up air system

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Aircraft services bleed system


Active clearance control (ACC) system Air cooled air cooler (ACAC) for the No. 4 bearing cooling and sealing

Aircraft Services Air Off-takes System


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Introduction - 64

ENGINE SECONDARY AIR SYSTEMS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Active Clearance Control (ACC)


The ACC has the following components: Mechanical push-pull rod LPT and HPT cooling manifolds Hydro-mechanical actuator with LVDT feedback Modulating air control valve unit with dual valves The ACC controls blade tip clearances which improve engine performance of the HPT and LPT. It directs a controlled flow of fan bypass air to cool the turbine cases to reduce their thermal growth. This minimizes the increase in the turbine blade tip clearances which would occur during the climb and cruise phases. The EEC signals the fuel driven actuator which controls the modulating air control valves based on N2 and altitude. The EEC receives feedback of the actuator position by an LVDT.

ACC Valve
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Introduction - 65

ENGINE SECONDARY AIR SYSTEMS


Aircraft Services Air Off-takes System
The aircraft services air offtake system provides the following aircraft systems with engine ducted air supply for: Engine cross bleed starting Wing leading edge anti icing Hydraulic system pressurization Cabin pressurization and conditioning The bleed air offtakes are taken from HPC stage 7 for high power conditions and HPC stage 10 for low power conditions. HPC air is taken from the engine and ducted towards the aircraft services. The HPC stage 7 offtake has a non return valve (NRV) installed before the two offtakes (stages 7 and 10) join. The NRV protects against HPC stage 10 air from reverse flow back into the HPC stage 7 engine air. The HPC stage 10 offtake has a control valve called the high pressure valve (HPV).

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

After the two offtakes come together as one there is a Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV). A switch located in the flight deck controls the PRV.

Aircraft Services Air Off-takes System


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Introduction - 66

ENGINE SECONDARY AIR SYSTEMS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Air Cooled Air Cooler (ACAC)


The ACAC pre-cools the HPC 12th stage air prior to the air being passed to the No. 4 bearing compartment where it is used to cool and seal the No. 4 bearing. This cooled HPC12 air is also known as the buffer air. The ACAC is a fin and tube type design and uses fan bypass air as the cooling medium. The HPC12 stage air enters the ACAC and the heat exchange process takes place between the fan bypass air and the hot HPC12 air. The cooled HPC12 air leaves the ACAC and is distributed to the No. 4 bearing compartment through three tubes which enter the diffuser casing at the 12 oclock, 3 oclock, and 9 oclock positions. The fan bypass air is ejected overboard to the atmosphere.

ACAC
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Introduction - 67

AIR COOLED AIR COOLER


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Introduction - 68

SHAFT SPEED INDICATING SYSTEM


General
The speed indicating system provides N1 and N2 shaft speeds. The N1 and N2 speeds are used for the ECAM display and the EEC control. The trim balance probe is used for fan balance. The N1 speed probes provides N1 speed signals. They are located in the front bearing compartment attached to the No. 2 bearing support. A trim balance probe is also attached to the No. 2 bearing support. The dedicated EEC generator, on the front of the main gearbox, provides the N2 speed signal.

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

EEC Alternator (N2 Speed)


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Introduction - 69

SHAFT SPEED INDICATING SYSTEM


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Introduction - 70

SHAFT SPEED INDICATING SYSTEM

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

N1 and N2 Systems
N1 System The N1 indication is supplied by three pulse probes. The pulse probes operate by monitoring the passage of a phonic wheel. The phonic wheel passage across the pulse probe generates an output signal relative to a percentage of a revolution. For example, the phonic wheel has 60 teeth, then 60 pulses represent a complete revolution of the N1 shaft.

N2 System
The N2 indication is supplied by a dual output signal from channel B of the dedicated generator. One output goes to the channel B side of the EEC, and the other goes to the engine vibration monitor unit (EVMU). Fan Trim Balance This probe monitors fan unbalance and cannot be used to give N1 speed indication. A datum tooth on the phonic wheel, that is in line with the number one fan blade, allows the probe to detect the angular position of fan unbalance. The phonic wheel is part of the stub shaft assembly.
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No 2 Bearing Support with N1 Speed and Trim Balance Probes


Introduction - 71

N1 SYSTEM SPEED PROBES


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Introduction - 72

SHAFT SPEED INDICATING SYSTEM

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Speed Probe Harnesses


If a signal failure of N1 occurs, in either channel, a spare N1 probe can be connected. Remove the hose from the upper ignition unit. This will allow access to be gained to the terminal connections. The terminal connectors for the probes are numbered and are in pairs: EEC Channel A speed probe No. 1 is connected to terminals No. 1 and 2 EEC Channel B speed probe No. 3 is connected to terminals No. 5 and 6 Spare N1 speed probe No. 2 is connected to terminals No. 3 and 4 The trim balance probe is connected to terminals No. 7 and 8

N1 Speed and Trim Probe Terminals


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Introduction - 73

N1 SPEED PROBE TERMINAL BLOCK CHANGEOVER


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EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) SYSTEM

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

General
The EGT is measured by 4 thermocouples which are located in the support struts of the turbine exhaust case (engine station 4.9). The four thermocouples are connected by a harness to a junction box at the bottom of the turbine exhaust case. The junction box is connected by a harness to both channels of the EEC. The materials used for the thermocouples and harnesses are Chromel (CR) and Alumel (AL). The EGT is displayed to the flight deck via the ECAM system to give the flight crew and indication of the engine temperature. This allows the engines to be operated within the temperature limitations as advised by IAE. Make sure that the small and large nuts that secure the EGT leads to the junction box and thermocouple probes are secured and torqued per engine manual to prevent EGT fault messages.

EGT Junction Box


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EGT INDICATING SYSTEM


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ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO (EPR) SYSTEM

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

General
EPR (P4.9/P2) is used to set and control the engine thrust. The EPR system uses a P2/T2 probe located in the intake cowl, at approximately 12 oclock, to measure P2. It also uses the P4.9 pressure rakes, located in the exhaust duct of the LPT, to measure P4.9. The EEC uses these two pressures to calculate EPR. EPR is the ratio of: P4.9 / P2. Channels A and B of the EEC carry out this operation independently. The EEC processes the pressure signals and transmits the actual EPR value to the ECAM for display on the upper screen on the flight deck as an engine thrust parameter.

EEC P2 and P5 Pressure Ports


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Introduction - 77

ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO (EPR) SYSTEM


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Introduction - 78

ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO (EPR) SYSTEM

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

P2/T2 Sensor and P4.9 Rake


P2/T2 Sensor The P2/T2 is a dual purpose probe which measures the total air temperature and pressure in the inlet air stream. The temperature and pressure signals are sent to the EEC. Each channel of the EEC monitors one of the elements. The pressure signal is sent to a pressure transducer in the EEC. The sensor is electrically heated to provide anti-ice protection. Note: The probe anti icing heater uses 115V AC from the aircraft electrical system. P4.9 Rake The P4.9 rakes, located in the turbine exhaust case (TEC) guide vanes, send a pressure signal down a common manifold to a transducer in the EEC.

TEC Strut with P4.9 Rake


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Introduction - 79

P2/T2 PROBE
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Introduction - 80

VIBRATION TRANSDUCER (ACCELEROMETER)


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Introduction - 81

OIL SYSTEM
V2500 Simplified Oil System
The oil system provides reliable lubrication, cooling, and cleaning of all bearings and gears in all operating conditions. Oil cooling is controlled by a heat management system which maintains engine oil, IDG oil and fuel temperatures at acceptable levels. The engine oil system can be divided into three sections: Pressure Feed, Scavenge, and Venting The Pressure Feed system uses the pressure pump to generate oil flow. The pressure pump moves the oil through the pressure filter and onto the air cooled oil cooler (ACOC). The oil flows from the ACOC to the fuel cooled oil cooler (FCOC). From the FCOC the oil is then distributed to the engine bearings, main gearbox, and angle gearbox. The Scavenge system returns the oil that is in the bearing chambers and gearbox to the oil tank for cooling and recirculation. There are six scavenge pumps that are designed to suck oil out of the bearing compartments and gearboxes. The oil flows by the magnetic chip detectors, through a scavenge filter, and then by a master chip detector before it enters the oil tank.

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

The Venting system is designed to allow the air and oil mix that develops in the bearing compartments and gearbox to escape to the deoiler. The No. 4 bearing relies on the build up of air pressure in the bearing compartment to force the air and oil through the No. 4 bearing scavenge valve, and then into the deoiler.
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Oil Tank
Introduction - 82

V2500 SIMPLIFIED OIL SYSTEM


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OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

High Speed Gearbox


The high speed (HS) gearbox gears and bearings are lubricated by oil jets that direct the oil onto the gears and splash lubrication caused by the motion of the gears. Scavenge oil recovery from the HS gearbox is done with two scavenge pumps. One pump recovers oil from the left side and the other from the right side of the HS gearbox. Two scavenge outlet strainers are positioned internal to the HS gearbox at the scavenge oil outlet openings of the HS gearbox. A vent air outlet allows the vent air in the HS gearbox to escape to the deoiler.

High Speed Gearbox


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Introduction - 84

EXTERNAL GEARBOX
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Introduction - 85

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Oil Pressure Pump and Filter Assembly


The pressure pump and filter are one assembly. The pressure pump (gear-type) sends pressurized oil to the bearing compartments, main gearbox, and angle gearbox. The pressure filter (125 micron filtration) gives initial filtration of the oil before it is sent to the bearings and gears.

Oil Pressure Pump and Filter Assembly


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Introduction - 86

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Air Cooled Oil Cooler (ACOC)


The ACOC acts as a second cooler for the oil system. It is a corrugated fin and tube with a double pass design that has an oil bypass valve. The ACOC valve is a modulating electro-hydraulically operating valve. The valve is normally closed when the engine fuel and oil temperatures are operating within their required temperature ranges. If the fuel and oil systems experience high temperatures, the EEC will start to open the ACOC valve to cool the oil. Note: The oil continuously flows through the ACOC. This is regardless of whether the valve is open or closed.

ACOC
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Introduction - 87

AIR COOLED OIL COOLER (ACOC)


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OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC)


The FCOC, also known as the Fuel / Oil Heat Exchanger, cools the engine oil and heats the fuel for most conditions.. The FCOC is a single pass fuel flow and a multi pass oil flow cooler.

It forms an integral unit with the low pressure fuel filter.


A differential pressure relief valve permits oil bypass if oil is congealed or cooler blocked.

FCOC
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Introduction - 89

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Scavenge Pump Unit


The scavenge pump unit returns scavenge oil to the tank. The scavenge pump assembly consists of six gear-type pumps. The pumps are designed to retrieve the oil from the gearbox, angle gearbox, deoiler (center bearing compartment), and bearing chambers and return the oil back to the tank. Since all the scavenge pumps turn at the same speed ( 22% N2 ), pump capacity is determined by the gear width of the individual pumps.

Scavenge Pump Unit


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Introduction - 90

SCAVENGE PUMPS UNIT


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Introduction - 91

DEOILER
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Introduction - 92

NO. 4 BEARING SCAVENGE VALVE


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SCAVENGE FILTER HOUSING


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Introduction - 94

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

Magnetic Chip Detector (MCD)


The MCDs are at different locations on and around the high speed gearbox. MCD Master No. 1, 2, 3 Bearing LH HS Gearbox Angle Gearbox No. 5 Bearing RH HS Gearbox No. 4 Bearing Location Scavenge Oil Filter Housing assembly on the aft side of oil tank Inlet Tube to Oil Scavenge Pump (LH side of AGB) Rear LH side of HS Gearbox LH side of Angle Gearbox Inlet Tube to Oil Scavenge Pump (RH side of AGB) Rear RH side of HS Gearbox Deoiler Housing on front right side of HS Gearbox

Master MCD
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Introduction - 95

MAGNETIC CHIP DETECTORS


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Introduction - 96

MAGNETIC CHIP DETECTORS


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OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

DOP Transmitter and LOP Warning Switch


The differential oil pressure (DOP) transmitter measures the oil pressure differential between pressure oil and scavenge oil. The low oil pressure (LOP) switch indicates low differential oil pressure.

The pressure transmitter and low oil pressure switch differential pressures are sampled from:
Pressure feed to the No. 4 bearing Scavenge oil from the No. 4 bearing

DOP Transmitter and LOP Warning Switch


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Introduction - 98

DOP TRANSMITTER AND LOP WARNING SWITCH


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Introduction - 99

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


General
The heat management system provides cooling of the engine oil and fuel. This must be done while minimizing the fan air offtake. The three sources of cooling are LP fuel passing to the engine fuel system, LP fuel returned to the aircraft fuel tank, and fan air. There are different modes of operation that vary the cooling capacity of the system. The EEC controls valve operation based on oil and fuel temperatures to set the different modes. In normal mode, all of the heat from the engine oil system and the IDG oil system is absorbed by the LP fuel flows. Some of the fuel is returned to the aircraft tanks where the heat is absorbed or dissipated within the tank. This mode is maintained if the following conditions are satisfied: Engine not a high power setting (example: take off and early part of climb [not below 25,000 ft.]) Cooling spill fuel temperature less than 100 deg. C Fuel temperature at pump inlet less than 54 deg. C

V2500 Engine General Familiarization

FCOC
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Introduction - 100

HEAT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM GENERAL


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ENGINE STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEM


General
The starting system allows the engine to achieve idle power conditions. To help achieve idle power conditions, the starting system relies on a pneumatic starter, pneumatic ducts, starter air control valve, and a dual ignition system . The ignition system gives the electrical spark that is required to ignite the fuel air mix in the combustor. The ignition system is used for engine starting on ground, in flight, and to prevent a flame out by providing a continuous spark during engine operation. Engine start can be done either manually or automatically. In either method, the EEC has control of the start sequence up to 50% N2. Above 50% N2 the command for engine shut down is done from the master lever only. When the engine starts, an electrical signal is sent to open the starting air valve. The starting valve opens and admits the air supply into the starter motor. The starter motor rotates the high speed external gearbox which rotates the radial drive shaft (tower shaft) which rotates the HP system (N2). As the speed of the rotation of the HP system increases, the LP system starts to rotate. At approximately 60% N2, the engine is at minimum power conditions (low idle).

Engine Ignition System


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Introduction - 102

ENGINE STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEM


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ENGINE STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEM

Starter Air Duct


The engine starting and ignition system allows supply air to the starter motor. Air supplies for the pneumatic starter motor can be given by the aircraft APU, the cross bleed from the other engine if already running, or the ground starter trolley. Minimum duct pressure for engine start should be between 30 and 40 psi. All ducting in the system is for high pressure and high temperature operation. Gimbal joints (NS) are incorporated to permit movement during maintenance. E-type seals located between all mating flanges prevent air leakage. Vee-band coupling clamps secure mating flanges.

Starter Duct
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Introduction - 104

STARTER DUCT INSTALLATION


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Introduction - 105

ENGINE STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEM

Starter Air Control Valve


The starter air control valve is a pneumatically operated solenoid controlled, shut-off valve. It controls the airflow from the air ducting to the starter motor. The valve is commanded from the flight deck through the EEC. In case of valve malfunction, the starter air valve can be opened/closed manually with the use of a 0.375 in. square drive. The valve has a Microswitch position indicator for valve positional status that displays on the flightdeck

Starter Air Control Valve


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Introduction - 106

STARTER AIR CONTROL VALVE


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ENGINE STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEM

Pneumatic Starter Motor


The starter is a pneumatically driven turbine unit that accelerates the HP rotor to the required speed for engine starting. It provides an initial rotational input to the main gearbox in order to assist the engine to achieve a stable idle power condition. When the starter output drive shaft rotational speed increases above a predetermined rpm, centrifugal force overcomes the tension of the clutch leaf springs. This allows the pawls to be pulled clear of the gear hub ratchet teeth to disengage the output drive shaft from the turbine. The starter motor gears and bearings are lubricated by an integral lubrication system. A quick attach/disconnect adapter (QAD) attaches the starter motor to the external gearbox. A quick detach Vee clamp connects the starter motor to the adapter.

Engine Starter
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Introduction - 108

ENGINE STARTER INSTALLATION


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Introduction - 109

ENGINE IGNITION SYSTEM


General
The ignition system supplies a high energy spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber. Two independent ignition systems are provided. The system has a ignition relay box, two ignition exciter boxes, two igniter plugs, and two air cooled high tension connector leads.

The relay box is located on the right hand side of the engine fan case and the high energy ignition units (HEIUs) are located on the right hand side of the core engine. The igniter plugs are located on the combustion diffuser casing.
The ignition exciters provide approximately 22.26 Kv and the igniter discharge rate is 1.5/2.5 sparks per second at fuel spray nozzle positions No. 7 and 8. The ignition system can operate in various modes including dual igniter select, single igniter select, and continuous ignition select. Dual ignition is selected for all in flight starts and manual start attempts. Single alternate igniter is selected for autostarts. Continuous ignition is automatically selected during engine antiice, takeoff, approach, landing, and EEC failure. Continuous ignition may also be selected manually.

Engine Ignition System


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Introduction - 110

IGNITION SYSTEM
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ENGINE IGNITION SYSTEM

Ignition Relay Box


The ignition relay box is used for connection and the isolation of the high energy ignition units. The ignition system uses 115V AC supplied from the AC 115V normal and standby bus bars to the relay box. The 115V relays, which are used to connect/isolate the supplies, are located in the relay box and are controlled by signals from the EEC. The same relay box also houses the relay that controls the 115V AC supplies for P2/T2 probe heating.

Relay Box
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Introduction - 112

RELAY BOX
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Introduction - 113