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Non-Ferrous Metals

Non-Ferrous Metals • These are metals that contain no iron or a small amount of alloying

These are metals that contain no iron or a small amount of alloying iron, such as the

alloys of aluminium, copper, magnesium,

nickel, zinc and titanium.

Non-Ferrous Metals • These are metals that contain no iron or a small amount of alloying

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Copper - Properties

Copper - Properties • Very ductile (can be easily worked) • Corrosion resistant • Good conductor

Very ductile (can be easily worked)

Corrosion resistant

Good conductor of heat and electricity

(second to silver)

Easily joined by soldering, brazing and

welding

Relatively low strength (can be improved by alloying elements)

Copper - Properties • Very ductile (can be easily worked) • Corrosion resistant • Good conductor

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Copper - Applications

Copper - Applications • Copper is used in the electrical industries/industries for making: (i) telephone wires,

Copper is used in the electrical industries/industries for making:

  • (i) telephone wires,

(ii)

tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration applications,

(iii) cables,

(iv) busbars

  • (v) lightning rods

(vi) copper-alloy production

Busbars

Copper - Applications • Copper is used in the electrical industries/industries for making: (i) telephone wires,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper#Electronics_and_related_devices

Copper - Applications • Copper is used in the electrical industries/industries for making: (i) telephone wires,

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Brass (Cu-Zn Alloys)

Brass (Cu-Zn Alloys) • Brasses include Cu-Zn alloys and the alloys that contain Cu-Zn-other alloy elements

Brasses include Cu-Zn alloys and the alloys that contain Cu-Zn-other alloy elements

In this lecture, only Cu-Zn (up to 45%) is discussed.

Brass (Cu-Zn Alloys) • Brasses include Cu-Zn alloys and the alloys that contain Cu-Zn-other alloy elements

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Phase Diagram For Cu-Zn Alloys

Phase Diagram For Cu-Zn Alloys Temperature ( o C) Revision 1: April 2011 6
Temperature ( o C)
Temperature ( o C)
Phase Diagram For Cu-Zn Alloys Temperature ( o C) Revision 1: April 2011 6

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Microstructures (Cu-Zn Alloys)

Microstructures (Cu-Zn Alloys) •  phase: ductile solid solution; suitable for cold-working •  phase: ductile

phase:

ductile solid solution; suitable for cold-working

phase:

ductile solid solution but less ductile than ; tougher than therefore suitable for hot working

phase:

metallic compound which is very brittle

+ ’:

duplex structure

Microstructures (Cu-Zn Alloys) •  phase: ductile solid solution; suitable for cold-working •  phase: ductile

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Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) –cont’d

Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) –cont’d • Strength & elongation depend on the composition (i.e. % of zinc)

Strength & elongation depend on the composition (i.e. % of zinc)

  • - phase:

  • - + ’:

generally tough & ductile; widely used in deep drawing

hard & brittle; lacks ductility so needs to be hot-worked.

Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) –cont’d • Strength & elongation depend on the composition (i.e. % of zinc)

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Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) – cont’d

Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) – cont’d • Castings are porous (poor quality) • Strength can be improved

Castings are porous (poor quality)

Strength can be improved by cold-working but cannot be improved by heat treatment

Corrosion resistant

Properties (Cu-Zn Alloys) – cont’d • Castings are porous (poor quality) • Strength can be improved

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Mechanical Properties Of Cu-Zn Alloys

 +’ ’ U.T.S. (MPa) Elongation (%)
+’
’
U.T.S. (MPa)
Elongation (%)
Mechanical Properties Of Cu-Zn Alloys  +’ ’ U.T.S. (MPa) Elongation (%) Revision 1: April 2011

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Applications (Cu-Zn Alloys)

Applications (Cu-Zn Alloys) • Tubes and rods • Radiators • Machine parts • Electrical parts •

Tubes and rods

Radiators

Machine parts

Electrical parts

Heat exchangers

Door knobs

Brass locks

Applications (Cu-Zn Alloys) • Tubes and rods • Radiators • Machine parts • Electrical parts •

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Types Of Brasses And Their Applications

 

Copper

Zinc

Other Elements

Applications

(%)

(%)

(%)

Cartridge Brass

70

30

-

Most ductile of the copper- zinc alloys. Widely used in sheet

metal pressing for severe deep

drawing operations. Originally developed for making cartridge cases hence its name.

Standard Brass

65

35

-

Cheaper than cartridge brass

 

and less ductile. Suitable for

most engineering purposes.

Basic Brass

63

37

-

The cheapest of the cold-working brasses. It lacks ductility and is only capable of withstanding simple forming operations.

Types Of Brasses And Their Applications Copper Zinc Other Elements Applications (%) (%) (%) Cartridge Brass

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Types Of Brasses And Their Applications – cont’d

Copper

(%)

Zinc

(%)

Other Elements

(%)

Applications

Muntz Metal

60

40

-

Not suitable for cold- working but hot-works well. Relatively cheap due to its

high zinc content. It is widely

used for extrusion and hot- stamping processes.

Free Cutting Brass

58

39

3 (lead)

Not suitable for cold-working but excellent for hot-working and high speed machining of low strength components.

Admiralty

Brass

70

29

1 (tin)

This is virtually cartridge brass with a little tin to prevent corrosion in the presence of salt water.

Types Of Brasses And Their Applications – cont’d Copper (%) Zinc (%) Other Elements (%) Applications

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Types Of Brasses And Their Applications – cont’d

 

Copper

Zinc

Other Elements

Applications

(%)

(%)

(%)

Naval Brass

62

37

1 (tin)

This is virtually Muntz metal plus a little tin to prevent

corrosion in the presence of

salt water.

Types Of Brasses And Their Applications – cont’d Copper Zinc Other Elements Applications (%) (%) (%)

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Tin Bronze

(Cu-Tin Alloys)

Tin Bronze (Cu-Tin Alloys) • These are alloys of copper and tin together with a deoxidiser

These are alloys of copper and tin together with a

deoxidiser (e.g. phosphorus and zinc). The deoxidiser

will prevent the tin content from oxidising during casting or hot-working.

Oxidation of the tin will weaken the bronze

Compare with brass, tin bronze is more expensive

Stronger, more corrosion and wear resistance

Most of the tin bronzes contain up to 0.05% phosphorous which is the left-over from the deoxidation process that is carried out before casting. Sometimes, however, phosphorus (up to 1%) is deliberately added as an alloying element and only then should the material be termed as phosphor bronze.

Tin Bronze (Cu-Tin Alloys) • These are alloys of copper and tin together with a deoxidiser

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Phase Diagram Of Cu-Sn Alloys

798 o C  +  586 o C  +  520 o C 
798
o C
 + 
586
o C
 + 
520
o C
 + 
10% TIN BRONZE
Temperature ( o C)

Part of copper-tin thermal

equilibrium diagram

Phase Diagram Of Cu-Sn Alloys 798 o C  +  586 o C  +

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Microstructures And Properties

(Cu-Sn Alloys)

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) • Low tin bronze (3<%Sn< 7) (a) alloy in  phase

Low tin bronze (3<%Sn< 7)

  • (a) alloy in phase is ductile and good to be cold-worked or work-hardening

  • (b) up to 1% phosphorous is always added to produce phosphor-bronze to improve strength and corrosion resistance

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) • Low tin bronze (3<%Sn< 7) (a) alloy in  phase

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Microstructures And Properties

(Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • Medium tin bronze (10<%Sn <18) - Alloy is

Medium tin bronze (10<%Sn <18)

  • - Alloy is suitable for casting but not suitable for cold-working.

  • - Up to 1% phosphorus is added to produce phosphor bronze and to improve its fluidity, strength, corrosion resistance and anti-friction properties but with a decrease in toughness.

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • Medium tin bronze (10<%Sn <18) - Alloy is

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Microstructures And Properties

(Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • When zinc is added to the alloy for

When zinc is added to the alloy for casting, it is called Gun Metal. The zinc will:

(i)

improve fluidity,

(ii)

reduce cost because it replaces some of the tin (Sn),

(iii)

give the alloy excellent pressure-tight, corrosion-resistant but it does not have the anti-friction properties of phosphor bronze,

(iv) give advantage for large casting products such as hydraulic and steam

valve body castings, castings for

marine use.

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • When zinc is added to the alloy for

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Microstructures And Properties

(Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • 13<%Sn <18 - Alloy is duplex structure and

13<%Sn <18

  • - Alloy is duplex structure and it is called duplex

bronze. phase:

phase:

tough/ductile matrix fine particles hard/brittle

  • - Alloy has hard-wearing structure and low coefficient of friction.

  • - Sound pressure-tight casting free from porosity.

Microstructures And Properties (Cu-Sn Alloys) – cont’d • 13<%Sn <18 - Alloy is duplex structure and

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Applications Of Cu-Sn Alloys

Applications Of Cu-Sn Alloys • Drawn phosphor bronze is used in the work- hardened condition for

Drawn phosphor bronze is used in the work- hardened condition for turned components

that require strength and corrosion

resistance such as valve spindles;

Cast phosphor bronze is usually cast into rods and tubes for making bearing bushes and worm wheels.

Applications Of Cu-Sn Alloys • Drawn phosphor bronze is used in the work- hardened condition for

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Aluminium Properties And Applications

Aluminium – Properties And Applications • Properties (i) Excellent resistance to normal atmospheric corrosion, (ii) Good

Properties

  • (i) Excellent resistance to normal atmospheric corrosion,

(ii)

Good thermal and electrical

conductivity (second to copper), (iii) High malleability and ductility,

(iv) Low strength and hardness

(Strength of aluminium can be improved by adding alloying elements).

Aluminium – Properties And Applications • Properties (i) Excellent resistance to normal atmospheric corrosion, (ii) Good

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Aluminium Properties And Applications – cont’d

Aluminium – Properties And Applications – cont’d • Applications (i) Food-packaging (e.g. bottle caps, drink cans,

Applications

(i)

Food-packaging (e.g. bottle caps, drink cans, packaging foil, trays, storage boxes, etc)

(ii)

Cooking utensils (e.g. kettles, sauce pans, etc)

(iii)

Electrical conductors - powerlines

(iv)

Indoor and outdoor furniture

(v)

Automobiles (e.g. wheel rims, carburettor housings, alternator housings, etc)

(vi)

Construction (e.g. pipes, sheets, tubing, tanks, bars, wire, windows, doors, rods, railings, ladders, shutters, etc)

Note:

Aluminium cannot be used as a structural material because of its low strength.

Aluminium – Properties And Applications – cont’d • Applications (i) Food-packaging (e.g. bottle caps, drink cans,

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Aluminium-Copper Alloys

Aluminium-Copper Alloys MOLTEN SOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM AND COPPER  + LIQUID 548 o C 5.7% 
MOLTEN SOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM AND COPPER  + LIQUID 548 o C 5.7%   +
MOLTEN SOLUTION OF
ALUMINIUM AND COPPER
 + LIQUID
548
o C
5.7%
 + COMPOUND (CuAl 2 )
COMPOSITION
OF DURALUMIN
TEMPERATURE

(Materials for Engineering Technician R.A. Higgins)

Aluminium-Copper Alloys MOLTEN SOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM AND COPPER  + LIQUID 548 o C 5.7% 

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Part of phase

diagram of Al-Cu alloys

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Equilibrium cooling of duralumin (Al-4%Cu) (Materials for Engineering

Equilibrium cooling of duralumin (Al-4%Cu)

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Equilibrium cooling of duralumin (Al-4%Cu) (Materials for Engineering

(Materials for Engineering Technician R.A. Higgins)

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Equilibrium cooling of duralumin (Al-4%Cu) (Materials for Engineering

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Structural changes taking place

during heat

treatment of Al-Cu alloy.

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Equilibrium cooling (slow) of duralumin (Al-4%Cu) (i) T

Equilibrium cooling (slow) of duralumin (Al-4%Cu)

  • (i) T = T 1 , T < T 2 ,

(ii)

phase is in un-saturated state. phase remains in saturated

state with some precipitation

occurring.

(iii) T = T 3

(room temp.), phase + coarse

precipitate phase (CuAl 2 )

Properties: At temperature, T 3 , alloy is soft and has low tensile strength.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Equilibrium cooling (slow) of duralumin (Al-4%Cu) (i) T

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Age hardening and precipitation hardening Age Hardening -

Age hardening and precipitation hardening

Age Hardening

  • - Involves two steps

    • (i) solution treatment

(ii) ageing.

This is a special dispersion strengthening heat treatment.

  • - In age hardening, a coherent precipitate form will provide a substantial strengthening effect.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Age hardening and precipitation hardening Age Hardening -

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Solution Treatment - Alloy is heated to a

Solution Treatment

  • - Alloy is heated to a temperature above the solvus

temperature (T 2 in phase diagram) and held until a homogeneous solid solution () is produced.

- Alloy is quenched (fast cooling) from temperature T 1

  • phase is supersaturated and precipitation is prevented.

  • at room temperature, structure is supersaturated crystals. Properties higher tensile strength than slow- cooled (solid solution strengthening) ones but still ductile.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Solution Treatment - Alloy is heated to a

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

• Ageing
Ageing
  • - Two types

    • (i) natural ageing

(ii) artificial ageing

  • - Natural ageing Precipitation occurs at room temperature for a relatively long period of time.

  • - Artificial ageing

Precipitation is sped up by heating to a higher temperature but below the solvus temperature (T 2 ) for a relatively short time.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Ageing - Two types (i) natural ageing (ii)

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Solution Treatment and Ageing will result in: 

Solution Treatment and Ageing will result in:

  • Precipitation in the form of fine particles of CuAl 2 which is hard and brittle.

  • Increase in tensile strength and hardness.

  • Increase in possibility of cracking during cold-

working.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Cu Alloys) – cont’d • Solution Treatment and Ageing will result in: 

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Effect Of Temperature and Time On The Strength Of Al-Cu Alloys

Effect Of Temperature and Time On The Strength Of Al-Cu Alloys • Ageing Temperature - As

Ageing Temperature

  • - As temperature decreases, longer time is needed to obtain maximum strength.

Ageing Time

  • - The tensile strength will increase with ageing time to a maximum value (coherent precipitate) and then decrease with increase in time (over-age

result from non-coherent precipitate).

Effect Of Temperature and Time On The Strength Of Al-Cu Alloys • Ageing Temperature - As

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Effects Of Temperature And Time On Strength Of Al-Cu Alloys

(160 o C, 10 hours)
(160 o C, 10 hours)

(Materials for the Engineering Technician R.A. Higgins)

Effects Of Temperature And Time On Strength Of Al-Cu Alloys (160 o C, 10 hours) (Materials

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Applications Of Al-Cu Alloys

Applications Of Al-Cu Alloys • Al-Cu alloys are used as follows: (i) In aircraft, as stressed

Al-Cu alloys are used as follows:

(i)

In aircraft, as stressed parts and other structures.

(ii)

Engine parts such as connecting rods,

etc.

(iii)

Military equipment requiring high strength-to-weight ratio

Applications Of Al-Cu Alloys • Al-Cu alloys are used as follows: (i) In aircraft, as stressed

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Aluminium-Silicon Alloys (Al-Si)

Aluminium-Silicon Alloys (Al-Si) Unmodified and modified Al-Si phase diagrams Note: Addition of silicon to Al will

Unmodified and modified Al-Si phase diagrams

Note:

Addition of silicon to Al will increase fluidity during casting and reduces shrinkage.

Aluminium-Silicon Alloys (Al-Si) Unmodified and modified Al-Si phase diagrams Note: Addition of silicon to Al will

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Si Alloys)

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si Alloys) • Unmodified structures  Eutectic alloy:  phase + Si (coarse

Unmodified structures

  • Eutectic alloy:

phase + Si (coarse eutectic structure)

  • Hyper-eutectic alloy:

coarse eutectic structure

+ coarse Si crystals.

  • Properties:

poor mechanical properties as well as brittle.

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si Alloys) • Unmodified structures  Eutectic alloy:  phase + Si (coarse

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Si Alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si Alloys) – cont’d • Modified structures  Modification by adding 0.005% –

Modified structures

  • Modification by adding 0.005% 0.15% sodium (Na) to Al-Si alloy before casting.

  • Structures consist of primary + fine eutectic structure (fine grains)

Na will cause Si to nucleate but prevents its growth. The structure will therefore be a solid solution in a fine eutectic matrix.

  • Properties:

higher strength, better ductility (fine grain size) and corrosion resistance

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si Alloys) – cont’d • Modified structures  Modification by adding 0.005% –

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Microstructures And Properties

(Al-Si alloys) – cont’d

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si alloys) – cont’d • Effects of modification (i) Raises eutectic composition and

Effects of modification

  • (i) Raises eutectic composition and decreases eutectic temperature (E.g. modified Al-13%Si alloy becomes a hypoeutectic

alloy).

(ii) Lower melting temperature (T m )and freezing range, lower shrinkage and therefore very suitable for die casting (lower T m will improve fluidity).

Microstructures And Properties (Al-Si alloys) – cont’d • Effects of modification (i) Raises eutectic composition and

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Applications Of Al-Si Alloys

Applications Of Al-Si Alloys • Al-Si alloys are used for the following: (i) Radiators (ii) Sumps

Al-Si alloys are used for the following:

(i)

Radiators

(ii)

Sumps

(iii)

Gear boxes

Applications Of Al-Si Alloys • Al-Si alloys are used for the following: (i) Radiators (ii) Sumps

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Titanium-Based Alloys

(Properties And Applications)

Titanium-Based Alloys (Properties And Applications) • Properties (i) High strength (even at high temperature) (ii) High

Properties

(i)

High strength (even at high temperature)

(ii)

High corrosion resistance

(iii)

High specific strength (strength/weight ratio)

(iv)

High melting point (about 1668 o C)

Applications

(i)

Jet engines

(ii)

Aircraft and spacecraft parts

(iii)

Heat exchangers

(iv)

Condensers (in power plants and refineries)

Titanium-Based Alloys (Properties And Applications) • Properties (i) High strength (even at high temperature) (ii) High

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Magnesium-Based Alloys

(Properties And Applications)

Magnesium-Based Alloys (Properties And Applications) • Properties (i) Lower relative density (ii) Strength can be improved

Properties

 
  • (i) Lower relative density

(ii)

Strength can be improved by precipitation- hardening treatments.

Applications

  • (i) Castings and forging in the aircraft and automobile industries

    • Landing wheels

    • Petrol tanks

    • Oil tanks

    • Engine parts piston and jet engines

    • Gearbox casings of racing cars

Magnesium-Based Alloys (Properties And Applications) • Properties (i) Lower relative density (ii) Strength can be improved

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