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Chapter 3 International Financial Markets

Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Chapter Objectives

To describe the background and corporate use of the following international financial markets:

foreign exchange market international money market international credit market international bond market international stock markets
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Motives for Using International Financial Markets (1)


The markets for real or financial assets are prevented from full integration by barriers like tax differentials, tariffs, quotas, labor immobility, communication costs, cultural, and financial reporting differences. Yet, such market imperfections also create unique opportunities for specific geographic markets, helping these markets attract foreign creditors and investors.
th edition Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 7th 7edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Motives for Using International Financial Markets (2)


Investors invest in foreign markets:
to take advantage of favorable economic conditions; when they expect foreign currencies to appreciate against their own; and to gain the benefits of international diversification.

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Motives for Using International Financial Markets (3)


Creditors provide credit in foreign markets:
to capitalize on higher foreign interest rates when they expect foreign currencies to appreciate against their own, and to reap the benefits of diversification.

Borrowers borrow in foreign markets:


to capitalize on lower foreign interest rates, and when they expect foreign currencies to depreciate against their own.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Foreign Exchange Market


The foreign exchange market allows currencies to be exchanged in order to facilitate international trade or financial transactions. The system for exchanging foreign currencies has evolved from the gold standard, to agreements on fixed exchange rates, to a floating rate system.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Gold Standard
From 1876 to 1913, exchange rates were dictated by the gold standard. Each currency was convertible into gold at a specified rate. Thus, the exchange rate between two currencies was determined by their relative convertibility rates per ounce of gold. Each country used gold to back its currency.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Gold Standard
When World War I began in 1914, the gold standard was suspended. In 1930s, some countries attempted to peg their currency to the dollar or the British pound, but there were frequent revisions.

Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

In as the Bretton Woods Agreement) called for fixed exchange rates between currencies. This agreement lasted until 1971. During this period, governments would intervene to prevent exchange rates from moving more than 1 percent above or below their initially established levels. As a result of this conference, which led to the Smithsonian Agreement, the U.S. dollar was devalued relative to the other major currencies. The degree to which the dollar was devalued varied with each foreign currency. Not only was the dollars value reset, but exchange rates were also allowed to fl uctuate by 2.25 percent in either direction from the newly set rates.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Fixed Exchange Rates 1944, an international agreement (known

Floating Exchange Rate System


Even after the Smithsonian Agreement, governments still had difficulty maintaining exchange rates within the stated boundaries. By March 1973, the more widely traded currencies were allowed to fluctuate in accordance with market forces, and the official boundaries were eliminated.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Foreign Exchange Transactions (1)


The market for immediate exchange is known as the spot market. Trading between banks occurs in the interbank market. Within this market, brokers sometimes act as intermediaries.

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Foreign Exchange Transactions (2)


Spot Market Liquidity:The spot market for each currency can be described by its liquidity, which reflects the level of trading activity. The more willing buyers and sellers there are, the more liquid a market is. A currencys liquidity affects the ease with which an MNC can obtain or sell that currency.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Foreign Exchange Transactions (2)


The forward market enables an MNC to lock in the exchange rate at which it will buy or sell a certain quantity of currency on a specified future date. - Packages Ltd. has ordered supplies from European countries that are
denominated in euros. It expects the euro to increase in value over time and therefore desires to hedge its payables in euros. Packages buys forward contracts on euros to lock in the price that it will pay for euros at a future point in time. Meanwhile, it will receive Mexican pesos in the future and wants to hedge these receivables. Memphis sells forward contracts on pesos to lock in the Rupees that it will receive when it sells the pesos at a specified point in the future.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Foreign Exchange Transactions (3)


Banks provide foreign exchange services for a fee: a banks bid (buy) quote for a foreign currency will be less than its ask (sell) quote. bid/ask spread = ask rate bid rate ask rate Example Suppose bid price for = $1.52, ask price = $1.60. Spread = (1.60 1.52) = .05 or 5% 1.60

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Factors Affecting Spread


The spread on currency quotations is positively influenced by order costs, inventory costs, and currency risk, and negatively influenced by competition, and volume. Spread= f(Order costs + Inventory costs Competition Volume + Currency risk)
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations (1)


The exchange rate quotations published in newspapers normally reflect the ask prices for large transactions. Direct quotations represent the value of a foreign currency in terms of the home currency (e.g. or euro), while indirect quotations represent the number of units of a foreign currency per unit of home currency.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations (2)


Notation Rs. 105 to the $1 can be written as: Rs. 105/$ or

Rs. 105:$1 or Rs/$=105

and treated as Rs. 105 = $1


Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations (3)


Indirect quotation = 1

Direct quotation
So with the Rs. as the home currency Rs. 105: $1 = $ (1/105) : Rs.1

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations (4)


Direct Quote PKR/$=105-105.5 In direct quote bid rate will be low and ask rate will be high because of multiplication effect. Indirect Quote $/PKR= .009238-.009519 In indirect quote bid rate will be high and ask rate will be low because of division effect.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations (5)


A cross-exchange rate reflects the amount of one foreign currency per unit of another foreign currency.

Example

Direct quote: $1.5:1, $.009:1 Indirect quote: 0.67:$1, 111.11:$1 value of in $ Value of in = value of in $ $1.50:1 = $.009:1

= 166.67:1
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Currency Futures and Options Market


Currency futures contracts specify a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date. Futures contracts are somewhat similar to forward contracts except that they are sold on an exchange whereas forward contracts are offered by commercial banks.

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Currency Options Market


Currency call (put) options give the right to buy (sell) a specific currency at a specific price (called the strike or exercise price) within a specific period of time.

Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

International Money Market


A domestic money market in each country serves to transfer short-term funds denominated in the local currency from local surplus units (savers) to local deficit units (borrowers). The growth in international business has caused corporations or governments in a particular country to need short-term funds denominated in a currency that is different from their home currency. As a result International Money Markets came into existence. These markets serve corporations and governments to borrow short term funds in other currencies.

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Money Market


First, they may need to borrow funds to pay for imports denominated in a foreign currency. Second, even if they need funds to support local operations, they may consider borrowing in a currency in which the interest rate is lower. This strategy is especially desirable if the firms will have receivables denominated in that currency in the future. Third, they may consider borrowing in a currency that will depreciate against their home currency, as they would be able to repay the loan at a more favorable exchange rate over time. Investors invest in International Money Market due to opposite reasons.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Components of the International Money Market


European Money Market Asian Money Market

Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

European Money Market


Both the European and Asian money markets originated as markets involving mostly dollar-denominated deposits. The Eurocurrency market (market for Eurodollars) developed during the 1960s and 1970s, stimulated by regulatory changes in the U.S. and the growing importance of OPEC.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

European Money Market


The origins of the European money market can be traced to the Eurocurrency market that developed during the 1960s and 1970s. As MNCs expanded their operations during that period, international financial intermediation emerged to accommodate their needs. Because the U.S. dollar was widely used even by foreign countries as a medium for international trade, there was a consistent need for dollars in Europe and elsewhere. To conduct international trade with European countries, corporations in the United States deposited U.S. dollars in European banks. These dollar deposits in banks in Europe came to be known as Eurodollars, and the market for Eurodollars came to be known as the Eurocurrency market.

Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

Asian Money Market


Like the European money market, the Asian money market originated as a market involving mostly dollardenominated deposits. Hence, it was originally known as the Asian dollar market. The market emerged to accommodate the needs of businesses that were using the U.S. dollar (and some other foreign currencies) as a medium of exchange for international trade. These businesses could not rely on banks in Europe because of the distance and different time zones. Today, the Asian money market, as it is now called, is centered in Hong Kong and Singapore, where large banks accept deposits and make loans in various foreign currencies.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

International Money Market (3)


The growing standardization of global banking regulations has contributed towards the globalization of the industry.
The Single European Act opened up the European banking industry and increased its efficiency. The Basel Accord outlined risk-weighted capital adequacy requirements for banks. The proposed Basel II Accord attempts to account for operational risk.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Credit Market


MNCs sometimes obtain medium-term funds through banks located in foreign markets. The loans can be denominated in dollars or many other currencies Eurocredit loans refer to loans of one year or longer extended by banks in Europe to foreign MNCs or government agencies. Floating rate loans, such as those based on the LIBOR, are common, since bank asset and liability maturities may not match.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Credit Market


The international credit market is well developed in Asia and is developing in South America. Periodically, some regions are affected by an economic crisis, which increases the credit risk. Financial institutions tend to reduce their participation in those markets when credit risk increases.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

International Credit Market


Sometimes a single bank is unwilling or unable to lend the amount needed by a particular MNC or government agency. A lead bank may then organize a syndicate of banks to underwrite the loan. Borrowers that receive a syndicated loan typically incur front-end management and commitment fees (.25 0r .50) , in addition to the interest on the loan. Syndicated loans can be denominated in a variety of currencies. The interest rate depends on the currency denominating the loan, the maturity of the loan, and the creditworthiness of the borrower.
th edition Cost and Management International Accounting: Financial An Management, Introduction, 7d7edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Bond Market


MNCs can also access long-term funds in foreign markets by issuing bonds. The Market for these bonds is called International Bond Market. MNCs issue bonds in IBM for three reasons. First, issuers recognize that they may be able to attract a stronger demand by issuing their bonds in a particular foreign country rather than in their home country. Second, MNCs may prefer to finance a specific foreign project in a particular currency and therefore may attempt to obtain funds where that currency is widely used. Third, financing in a foreign currency with a lower interest rate may enable an MNC to reduce its cost of financing, although it may be exposed to exchange rate risk. Institutional investors such as commercial banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds from many countries are major participants in the international bond market.
Cost and Management Accounting: An Introduction, 7th edition Colin Drury ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA

International Bond Market


There are two types of international bonds: 1. Foreign Bonds: A foreign bond is issued by a borrower foreign to the country where the bond is placed. For example a Pakistani company may issue a bond denominated in Japanese yen, which is sold to investors in Japan. In some cases, a firm may issue a variety of bonds in various countries. The currency denominating each type of bond is determined by the country where it is sold. These foreign bonds are sometimes specifically referred to as parallel bonds.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Bond Market


2. Eurobonds: Eurobonds are bonds that are sold in countries other than the country of the currency denominating the bonds. For example a Pakistani company may issue a bond denominated in Japanese yen, which is sold to investors in China. Eurobonds have several distinctive features. They are usually issued in bearer form, which means that there are no records kept regarding ownership. Coupon payments are made yearly. Some Eurobonds carry a convertibility clause allowing them to be converted into a specified number of shares of common stock.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Bond Market


70 to 75% of Eurobonds are denominated in the U.S. dollar. Eurobonds are underwritten by a multinational syndicate of investment banks and simultaneously placed in many countries. In the secondary market, the market makers are often the same underwriters who sell the primary issues.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Stock Markets


In addition to issuing stock locally, MNCs can also obtain funds by issuing stock in international markets. This will enhance the firms image and name recognition, and diversify their shareholder base. A stock offering may also be more easily processed when it is issued in several markets.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Stock Markets


Stock issued in the Pakistan by non-Pakistani firms or governments are called Yankee stock offerings. Many of such recent stock offerings resulted from privatization programs. MNCs need to have their stock listed on an exchange in any country where they issue shares. Investors in a foreign country are only willing to purchase stock if they can easily sell their holdings of the stock locally in the secondary market. The stock is denominated in the currency of the country where it is placed. For example, Coca-Cola stock issued to investors in Germany is denominated in euros.

Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

International Stock Markets (3)


The locations of an MNCs operations can influence the decision about where to place its stock, in view of the cash flows needed to cover dividend payments. Market characteristics are important too. Stock markets may differ in size, trading activity level, and proportion of individual versus institutional share ownership.
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Comparison of International Financial Markets


The foreign cash flow movements of a typical MNC can be classified into:
1. Foreign tradeexports and imports 2. Direct foreign investment (DFI)acquisition of foreign real assets 3. Short-term investment or financing in foreign securities 4. Longer-term financing in the international

bond or stock markets


Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA

Foreign Cash Flow Chart of an MNC


MNC Parent Export/Import

Foreign Exchange Transactions

Foreign Business Clients

Dividend Remittance & Financing

Short-Term Investment & Financing

Medium- & Long-Term Financing

Foreign Exchange Markets

Long-Term Financing International Credit Markets

Export/ Import

International Money Markets Short-Term Investment & Financing

International Stock Markets

Foreign Subsidiaries

Medium- & Long-Term Financing


Long-Term Financing
Cost and Management International Accounting: FinancialAn Management, Introduction, 2nd 7th edition edition Jeff Colin Madura Drury and Roland Fox ISBN 978-1-40803-213-9 ISBN 978-1-4080-3229-9 2011 Cengage 2011 Cengage Learning Learning EMEAEMEA