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SAN FC Basics

Hariom Sharma

2006 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice

Fibre Channel Basics

Terms and Definitions

FC Protocols
FC Layers FC Classes of service

WWN
Ports & Nodes

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What is Fibre Channel?

A high-speed communication protocol used for mass storage, based on an integrated set of standards developed by an ANSI committee. Fibre Channel can be used for mass storage devices.

HPs mass storage implementation uses a speeds of 1Gbps, 2Gbps, 4Gbps,8Gbps,16Gbps. Supports point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and fabric or switched topologies. Transfers data at speeds up to 10 times faster than SCSI and at distances up to 10km.

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Available Protocols
Transports existing protocols SCSI IP HIPPI IPI IEEE 802.2 Fibre Channel can transmit a number of existing protocols; however, HP supports only SCSI-3 over Fibre Channel for its mass storage devices.

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Fibre Channel Basics - Protocols


The Fibre Channel Protocol suit is based in a MultiLayered Architecture. These layers define standards and services provided by mechanisms built into the protocol. Fibre Channel uses 5 layers labeled FC-0 through FC-4

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Fibre Channel Basics - Layers


Fibre

Channel Functional Levels

FC-0 Level -- Physical FC-1 Level -- Encode / Decode FC-2 Level -- Framing protocol, Class of services, Flow control FC-3 Level -- Common services( Fabric discovery, Mgmt interface, encryption) FC-4 Level -- Protocol mapping

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Fibre Channel Basics - Layers

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FC Layers
Layer FC-4 The upper-layer protocol mapping

Protocols, such as SCSI-3, IP, HPPI, and single-byte command code sets (SBCCS) or rules.

Mapping rules provide clear instructions between ULP and the FC-3 and FC-2 levels to enhance interoperability among applications.

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FC Layers
Layer FC-3 FC-3 provides common services for multiple ports on a Fibre Channel node. The FC-3 level manages login information for all nodes and ports. Each port on the FC-3 level knows which ports are busy and why. Knowing which ports are busy enables the FC-3 level to route frames between two N_Ports. The FC-3 level is unaware of the topology of Fibre Channel or the signaling at the lower levels. This is handled by FC-1 and FC-2 levels.

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FC Layers
Layer FC-2

The FC-2 is the framing and signaling protocol that transfers frame formats, performs sequence and exchange management, controls the flow of data, and administers the topologies. Its responsibility is the process of moving frames between ports. This protocol is concerned with the construction and management of frames, sequences, and exchanges.

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FC Layers
Layer FC-1 FC-1 encodes and decodes data to transmit it through a physical media. It provides an 8-bit byte to 10-bit byte character encoding scheme. This scheme converts an 8-bit byte into 10-bit characters that are used to balance ones and zeros in a high-speed data transfer system.

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Framing classes of service


Fibre Channel defines several communication systems called classes of service. The selection of a class of service depends on the type of data being transmitted. Class 1 Class 2

Class 3
Class 4 Class 5 (Reserved) Class 6
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Framing classes of service Class -1


Connection is guaranteed, no interruptions are tolerated The frames can be delivered in the same order as they are transmitted. If the fabric is a part of this implementation of Class 1 service, the connection is treated as a special form of point-to-point protocol.

Dedicated connection Frame delivery acknowledgement Constant circuit and full bandwidth Frame arrival in order Costly, not widely implemented

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Framing classes of service Class 2


Class 2 service does not guarantee the delivery of the frames in the same order as they were transmitted.
The circuit is not dedicated. This class of service is connectionless. However, it provides for the reassembly of the frames at the receiver, acknowledgement of data frame retrieval, and notification of any transmission errors.
Features
No dedicated connection required Acknowledgement of frame delivery provided Frames can arrive out of order In-order delivery can be requested during login Notification of nondelivery of frames

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Framing classes of service Class 3


Class 3 supports unacknowledged delivery of data frames. Receiving N_Ports do not acknowledge receipt of valid data frames. Any recovery from errors or acknowledgement of successful data transmission is the responsibility of the ULP. It is the responsibility of the fabric to make a best effort to deliver frames to the intended destination, but does not issue a busy or reject frame if it is unable to make delivery to the destination N_Port.
Features
Connectionless Nonnotification of delivery Error recovery provided by ULPs Low overhead and high performance Used in loop environments

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Framing classes of service Class 4&6


Class 4:
Defines virtual circuits. Is connection oriented. Allows for the assignment of fractional bandwidth to virtual circuits. Allows for the assignment of different quality of service parameters.

Class 6:
Multicast originator sends a single transmission to multiple destinations. A multicast server accumulates responses.

A multicast server sends a single response.

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World Wide Names


Each Node has a fixed 64-bit Node_Name WWN assigned by the Manufacturer. The address can be considered analogous to a MAC address. This guarantee's uniqueness within a large switched networked

Unlike the MAC address, the WWN is not used to transport frames across the network

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WWN Continued

There are two WWNs assigned The N_Port Node WWN is assigned for the whole HBA The N_Port Port WWN will have a WWN assigned for each port on the HBA

The N_Port Port WWN is the WWN used when setting up Secure Manager on an XP Storage Array

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WWN .. cntd

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Node and Port

A Node is a fibre channel device


Host Disk drive Disk array Tape drive
Node
Port 0 Port 1

A port is a Fibre Channel access point


Physical and logical connection

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Link

A link is a unidirectional media pair

Node
Transmitter Port 0 Receiver

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Port Types Hosts and Devices


N_Port: An N_Port attaches to an F_Port in a Point to Point protocol. NL_Port: An N_Port that contains Arbitrated Loop functions associated with Arbitrated Loop topology (see FC-AL).

F_Port: The Link_Control_Facility within the Fabric (switch) which attaches to an N_Port.
FL_Port: An F_Port that contains Arbitrated Loop functions associated with Arbitrated Loop topology (FC-AL). E_Port: An E_Port is used for connecting fabrics (switches). The link is called Inter Switch Link (ISL).
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Port Types: N-ports and F-ports


Node Node

N-Port

N-Port

Node

N-Port

F-Port

SW

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Port Types: NL-ports and FL-ports


Node Node

NL-Port
Hub

NL-Port

FL-Port

SW

Node

NL-Port

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Port Types: E-ports


Node N-Port SW F-Port Node N-Port

SW F-Port E-Port

E-Port

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Fiber Switch

WWNN and WWNP

Thank you