Anda di halaman 1dari 19

Chapter

Motivation Concepts

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

What Is Motivation?

Direction

Intensity

Persistence

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

What Is Motivation?
Motivation
The phenomena that changes the individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

Key Elements 1. Intensity: How hard a person tries 2. Direction: Toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: How long a person tries

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)


Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Lower-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs

Higher-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

Self Esteem

Social
Safety Physiological
E X H I B I T 71 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Assumptions of Maslows Hierarchy


Movement Up the Pyramid
Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order.

Maslow Application
A homeless person will not be motivated to

Achieve recognition!

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Having Little Ambition

Theory X
Managers See Workers as

Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Self-Directed

Theory Y
Managers See Workers as

Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

David McClellands Theory of Needs


Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to Researchers focused most on need achieve in relation to a set for achievement People perform the best with 0.5 to of standards, to strive chances of success succeed

Need for Affiliation


The desire for friendly and close personal relationships

Need for Power


The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise

Bottom Line Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior.

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Self Determination Theory


People Prefer to feel they have control over their work Motivation will decrease if a previously enjoyable task is made an obligation.

Research on Self Determination theory has given rise to Cognitive Evaluation theory

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory


Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation

The theory may be relevant only to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.
Intrinsic Reward: An outcome that gives an individual personal satisfaction such as that derived from a job well done. Extrinsic Reward: A reward, such as food, that is tangible and visible to others, and external

Hint: For this theory, think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you dont want to do it!

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)


specific and difficult goals, lead to higher performance. Difficult goals motivate because;

a) Challenging goals get our attention and help us to focus


b) Difficult goals energize as more effort is required to achieve it. c) When goals are harder people persistently try to achieve them d) Difficult goals make us create strategies that help us achieve the goals/outcome.

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on: Goal commitment - Believes he or she can achieve the goal

- Wants to achieve it.


Task characteristics (simple, well-learned and independent)

Different cultures react differently

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

What Is MBO?
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress. Based on the goal setting theory.

Key Elements
1. Goal specificity 2. Participative decision making

3. An explicit time period


4. Performance feedback

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Equity Theory
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Justice and Equity Theory

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Three Types of Justice


Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution) Who got what?

Procedural Justice
Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution) How was who gets what decided?

Interactional Justice
The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. Was I treated well?
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Motivation


Elizabeths boss starts out the day each morning saying, I Bet that you wish you didnt have to be here, huh? Knowing this, which theory gives us insight as to why

Elizabeth may not be motivated at work?

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Motivation

Elizabeths boss my well be a Theory X manager, as she/he assumes employees dont like work and/or want to be there.

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Motivation


If you study really hard and

only get a B on an exam, but


your classmate barely studies at all and gets an A, what theory will help explain why you feel less motivated to go to class?

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.