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Kuliah 1: a) House keeping: Memperkenalkan kursus

Skop: 1) Pengendalian Kursus 1) Jadual 2) Kehadiran : minimum 80 % layak duduki peperiksaan akhir. 3) RPP (Rancangan Pengajaran & Pembelajaran). 4) Bahasa : BM/BI 5) Penilaian; Penilaian Berterusan : 60 %. Tugasan Kumpulan: Analisis Tema Kurikulum Terpilih: Berkumpulan @ 3 ahli : Tempoh 5 Minggu, mulai hari ini.: Hantar Minggu Ke 6, Mula Bentang Minggu ke 6. Kertas terbaik akan dikolokiumkan di Kolokium FPTV, Rabu). Tugasan Individu: Tulis Semula Silabus KPM (KV/ PAV/ KSSR/ KSSM , termasuk KHSR) ke Format OBE. KT (Kemahiran Teknikal) KI (Kemahiran Insaniah) lengkap sehingga tahap pentaksiran. Peperiksaan Akhir : 40 % 2) Bab 1 : Pengenalan
1) Falsafah, Konsep & Prinsip Pembangunan Kurikulum. 2) Kurikulum dan Pendidikan 3) Sejarah Pembangunan Kurikulum

Skop Kuliah: - Falsafah,Konsep & Prinsip Pembangunan Kurikulum. - Kurikulum dan Pendidikan - Sejarah Pembangunan Kurikulum

Fikirkan Sejenak..

Apakah pendidikan? Apakah KURIKULUM?

Olivia(1992) membuat analogi pengertian kurikulum dengan sekumpulan orang buta dengan gajah, masing-masing mempunyai interpretasi sendiri.

ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah)

Falsafah Dalam Pembangunan Kurikulum

Philosophy in General
Let s Discussthis philosophical issues:
What is good?........ Axiology (values) What is true? Epistemology (mediums of learning) What is real? Ontology (content of study)
Which of the dimensions of schooling are strongly related to TVET or workforce development education? Philosophical perspectives:
1.

Philosophy and Curriculum


Philosophy is basis of decisions regarding curriculum (aims, selection, organization and implementation) Helps to answer to questions such as:
What are schools for? (For Survival or Livelihood?) What subjects are of value? (KBSM..Holistic? AlQuran?) How should students learn the content? (Techer Centred, Student Centred, Schooling or without Schooling?) What homework to assign and how? ( Content, Context?)

FALSAFAH BARAT (Contoh)


Idealisme Ciri Terawal & tradisional Realisme Tradisional Kebenaran nyata/ maujud fizikalnya Kewujudan di alam fikiran selaras dgn alam nyata. Aristotle, Russel, Bacon, Lock Pragmatisme Awal abad 20 US / moden Kebenaran dari pengalaman Persekitaran bersifat dinamik. Pengalaman individu berbeza Dewey, Darwin, James dll Eksistensialisme Pertengahan abad 20 - Eropah/ moden Kebenaran dari pengalaman bebas Pengalaman bentuk idea & pengetahuan Individu berhak mempuat pilihan & bertanggung jawab

Fokus Kebenaran akal, jiwa, kerohanian Dimensi Kebenaran, keadilan dan keindahan menerusi proses penaakulan Tokoh Plato, Descartes, Kant, Hagel dll

Kierkegard, Jaspers

FALSAFAH dalam PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Matlamat Pendidikan (Perspektif Islam) INSAN YANG SOLEH i. Manusia yang beriman ii. Manusia yang melakukan amal soleh iii. Manusia yang mempunyai akhlak mulia KHALIFAH ALLAH i. Mengatur kehidupan di dunia sesuai dengan iradah dan petunjuk Allah melalui ilmu naqli ii. Mengambil manfaat dari apa yang dikurniakan Allah dalam alam ini melalui ilmu aqli
FOKUS: Jasad = Akal = Roh Ilmu + Iman + Amal
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ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah)

Perbandingan Falsafah Barat & Islam


Falsafah Barat Tuhan, manusia & alam adalah sama

Ketuhanan (KHALIQ)

Falsafah Islam Allah Maha berkuasa & mencipta. Makhluk adalah ciptaan yg tunduk & patuh kpd pencipta.

Teologi

Falsafah
Sains

Alam (MAKHLUK)

Manusia (MAKHLUK)

Falsafah adalah sesuatu yang berada di antara teologi dan sains. Russell (1946) ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah) 11

Falsafah Dan Hubungannya Dengan Pengetahuan


ILMU NAQLI I
Sidi Gazalba (1974)

1. Wahyu

Kneller (1971)

L M U

2. Pengetahuan Empirikal 3. Pengetahuan Rasional 4. Pengetahuan Intuitif 5. Pengetahuan Aotoritatif


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A Q L I

Kedudukan Falsafah & Pengetahuan


Kedudukan Falsafah (Russell)
TEOLOGI FALSAFAH

Jenis Pengetahuan (Kneller) Wahyu

Intuitif
SAINS

Empirikal
Autoritatif Rasional

ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah)

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kurikulum di sekolah perlu ke arah menyediakan generasi abad ke-21 yang mempunyai pendidikan yang lengkap bagi mengisi dua keperluan utama iaitu
keperluan individu (al-ulum insaniah) keperluan sosial (al-ulum kauniyah)
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Apakah implikasi falsafah & kurikulum terhadap pendidikan?

Falsafah memainkan peranan sebagai dasar yang menjadi arah tuju, panduan dan bimbingan (sebab itu FPK diwujudkan). Kurikulum berasaskan falsafah yang menjadi bahan pengisian pendidikan.
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Kesepaduan Dalam Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

EKLEKTIK

FALSAFAH PEND. ISLAM


Intelek, Rohani, Jasmani Intelek, Jasmani, Emosi

FPK
FALSAFAH PEND. BARAT Kognitif, (TRADISIONAL)Afektif, FALSAFAH PEND. BARAT Psikomotor (MODEN)

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Seimbang dan harmonis adalah merujuk kesan akhir pendidikan iaitu lahirnya warganegara seperti yang dihasratkan.
INTELEK ROHANI EMOSI JASMANI

Negara Masyarakat

Keluarga
Diri

Seimbang & Harmonis


ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah)

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Falsafah & Kurikulum


Kurikulum adalah terjemahan falsafah pendidikan Tanpa falsafah sesuatu kurikulum pendidikan itu adalah tanpa asas

Hala tuju kurikulum adalah bergantung kepada falsafah pendidikan


Kurikulum yang berteraskan falsafah ini umumnya untuk membentuk pelajar bagi perkembangan menyeluruh meliputi dimensi instrumental/sosial dan dimensi intrinsik

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Education and Curriculum

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What is Education? What is Curriculum? Why you pursue into this programme?

CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION


The relationship between curriculum and education is that Education is the process of human learning faculty trained and skills developed. Whereas curriculum is the totality of experiences which learners undergo in an educational institution that is planed and guided by educational authorities.

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Perbandingan
PENDIDIKAN (education)
DIDIK (educere) LATIH (educare)
Belajar untuk keterampilan

ZAINI ABDULAH (Nota Kuliah)

Belajar untuk belajar

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Definition of Curriculum
In formal education, a curriculum (pronounced /krkjlm/; plural: curricula, /krkjl/) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow and mature in becoming adults. Curriculum[6] means two things: (i) the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study, and (ii) a specific learning program. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study.
Reference: Kelly, A.V. (1989) The Curriculum: theory and practice 3rd Ed

What is Curriculum?

Curriculum Approaches
Product Content

what is it that is desired of students having been taught using a curriculum (behavioral objectives).
product = student equipped with knowledge, skills and values

emphasis on the content to be transmitted

CURRICULUM as:

Process emphasis on interaction of teachers, students and knowledge. teaching and learning process in classroom

syllabus (document listing the topics, the content and suggestions on how topics should be taught)

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Concept of Curriculum Development


Curriculum simply means `a course of study.' Curriculum development is the process of designing a course of study according to a set of requirements.

TERMINOLOGIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONCEPTION OF THE CURRICULUM


Curriculum: Key element in the educational process; its scope is extremely broad, and it touches virtually everyone who is involved with teaching and learning. Curriculum Development: Development of classroom ready instructional materials for career and technical education. Program: Each subject area in a school's curriculums, for example, mathematics, science, language arts, social studies, and career and technical programs. Course: A subject taught within a program, for example, algebra within mathematics, physics within science, and Applied Biological Systems within Agricultural Business Management-Plant Science. Career: A lifelong process, unique to each person; involves a sequence of work and leisure activities and includes career development and participation inoccupations. A career choice should be an informed decision. Career pathway: A cluster of occupations aspired to by people with similar interests, talents, and abilities and requiring different levels of education and training. Career plan: A program of study which includes courses and other educational opportunities a student plans to take in high school and beyond. A career plan should be reviewed and updated periodically. Industry: The goods and services people produce. Occupation: The jobs people do. 31

Field of Curriculum Studies

What is a curriculum
It is a plan or design for education/training that addresses the following questions:
Who is to be taught? What is to be taught and/or learned? Why is it to be taught and/or learned? How is it to be taught and/or learned? Where is it to be taught and/or learned? When is it to be taught and/or learned

(Quinn 1997)

What is curriculum development and what do curriculum developers do?


Curriculum development always involves:
Assumptions about the nature of learners (and teachers) Assumptions about the purposes of schools Assumptions about what kind of knowledge is important Assumptions about what kind of world we live in Assumptions about what kind of world we want to live in

(Different curriculums and different schools are more or less likely to reveal these assumptions)

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Prinsip Pembangunan KURIKULUM

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Contents of a Curriculum Document


1. the curriculum model 2. the teaching/learning philosophy 3. the award to be made on successful completion of education/training 4. the teachers qualifications and experience 5. the entry criteria for course participants 6. aims and objectives of the course 7. course content 8. teaching methodology 9. course resources 10. suggested reading 11. examination/assessment strategy 12. course evaluation

Relationship of Curriculum Purpose, Content, Organization and Format


Curriculum Purpose: Curriculum Content: Transmission Transaction Transformation

Memory, Translation

Interpretation, Application, Analysis Interdisciplinary

Synthesis, Evaluation

Curriculum Organization: Curriculum Format:

Discipline Based

Transdisciplinary

Behavioral Objective

Webbing

Results Only

KONSEP PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

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The Curriculum Models and Definitions


Goal: Explore a variety of program and curriculum definitions as well as ways to plan so you may determine what best fits your style and school/organization.

Process/ Stages of Curriculum Development


1.Exploratory Stage 2. Design Stage 3. Implementation Stage 4. Monitoring and Review Stage

Curriculum Standard Setting

Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum Development Process


Curriculum Implementation

Curriculum Designing

Key Components of Comprehensive Curriculum


Curricular Component Definition Exemplary Characteristics

Content (Standards)

Content is what we want students to know, understand, and do as a result of our curriculum and instruction. Standards are broad statements about what gradelevel students should know and be able to do.

Exemplary standards incorporate big ideas, enduring understandings, and skills of a discipline. Additionally, they provide clarity, power, and authenticity for teachers and students.

Key Components of Comprehensive Curriculum


Curricular Component Assessments Definition Assessments are varied tools and techniques teachers use to determine the extent to which students have mastery of learning goals. Exemplary Characteristics Well-designed assessments are diagnostic, aligned with the learning goals, and provide a high ceiling, as well as a low baseline, to ensure that all students learning can be measured. They are used before, during, and after instruction. Highquality assessments inform instruction.

Key Components of Comprehensive Curriculum


Curricular Component Introductory Activities Definition Exemplary Characteristics A high quality introduction will include all six elements, as well as an advance organizer that provides students with information that they can use to help assess their acquisition of the units learning goals.

An introduction sets the stage for a unit. Components may include: (1) a focusing question, (2) a needs assessment to determine students prior knowledge,interests, and learning preferences (3) a teaser or hook to motivate students (4) information about the relevance of the goals and unit expectations, (5) information about expectations for students, and (6) consideration of students interests in or experiences that connect

Key Components of Comprehensive Curriculum


Curricular Component Teaching Strategies Definition Exemplary Characteristics Beneficial teaching methods are closely aligned to learning goals, varied, promote student involvement, and provide support, feedback, and scaffolding for learners.

Teaching strategies are methods teachers use to introduce, explain, demonstrate, model, coach, guide, transfer, or assess in the classroom.

Sejarah Pembangunan Kurikulum

Imbasan Perkembangan Pendidikan Malaysia


Era Masyarakat Melayu Tradisi Era Penjajahan Ambang Kemerdekaan Pasca Merdeka Pendidikan tidak formal, penerapan budaya, adat, agama dan kedaulatan Pengabaian, pecah & perintah, masyarakat majmuk, penghakisan budaya, vernakular. Pendidikan untuk mengekalkan kuasa penjajah. Pendidikan untuk kesedaran, penyatuan dan kemerdekaan. Pendidikan untuk perpaduan, tenaga kerja dan pembangunan.
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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(1/8)

SBL KEDATANGAN BRITISH PEND AGAMA ISLAM ( CTH : ALQURAN ) BEKERJA DI LADANG / KEBUN KERJA KRAF ( CTH : KERJA KAYU & LOGAM , BERTENUN ) BENTUK PTV TIDAK FORMAL
4/4/2014 (c) MD. ARIF BIN MD. ZIN 51

SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(2/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN JK LEMON (1918) JK WINSTEDT (1925) LAPORAN BARNES ( 1951 )

LAPORAN JK PELAJARAN ( LAPORAN RAZAK : 1956 ) LAPORAN RAHMAN TALIB ( 1960 ) LAPORAN JK KABINET ( 1979 )

4/4/2014

(c) MD. ARIF BIN MD. ZIN

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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(3/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN JK LEMON ( 1918 ) SEK TEKNIK TREACHER > MAKTAB TEKNIK > ITK > UTM

4/4/2014

(c) MD. ARIF BIN MD. ZIN

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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(4/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN JK WINSTEDT BAGI PEND INDUSTRI & TEKNIK ( 1925 ) SEK KETUKANGAN - TIDAK MENDAPAT SAMBUTAN - SINDROM KOLAR BIRU
4/4/2014 (c) MD. ARIF BIN MD. ZIN 54

SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(5/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN LAPORAN BARNES ( 1951 ) SYOR TUBUHKAN S.M VOKASIONAL TIDAK DPT DILAKSANAKAN ( $$ .. ? )

4/4/2014

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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(6/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN LAPORAN JK PELAJARAN ( LAPORAN RAZAK : 1956 ) PTV DISUSUN SEMULA DISERAPKAN DLM SISTEM KSAAN
( YAHYA EMAT : 1993 )

4/4/2014

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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(7/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN LAPORAN RAHMAN TALIB ( 1960 ) SEK KETUKANGAN & SEK LANJUTAN KG S.M VOKASIONAL ( 1968 ) SEK ANEKA JURUSAN ( 1965 )
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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PTV DAN KAITANNYA DGN RBT DI SEKOLAH RENDAH


(8/8)

AKTA AKTA PEND YG BERKAITAN LAPORAN JK KABINET ( 1979 ) PERANAN PTV DIPERTINGKATKAN TERUTAMA PENGLIBATAN DLM INDUSTRI & KEUSAHAWANAN. AKTA PENDIDIKAN ( 1990 ) MEMPERKASAKAN LAGI PTV
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