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4/4/2014 1

Termodinamica de
Hidrocarburos

Classification of Reservoir Fluids
Oil & Gas Properties From
Correlations
4/4/2014 2
Methods to Evaluate Fluid
Properties
Two main models to quantify real
oil and gas volumes

Black Oil models
Compositional models
4/4/2014 3
Methods to Evaluate Fluid
Properties
G
G O ,
n
y y y y ... , ,
3 2 1
n
x x x x ... , ,
3 2 1
Black Oil Compositional
Model Formulations

4/4/2014 4
Methods to Evaluate Fluid
Properties
Compositional Model
Oil and gas are mixtures of several
components
All components may be present in liquid
and gas phases
Volumetric properties function (P,T,
compositions) are evaluated using an
Equation of State (EOS) for all phases.
4/4/2014 5
Phase Behavior and Fluid
Properties
Black Oil Model
Has only two components named as the
phases: Gas (G) and Oil (O).
G may be dissolved in the oil phase and
accounted by the solution gas oil ratio (Rs).
O cannot dissolve in the gas phase.
Phase volumetric properties determined
from separate correlations
4/4/2014 6
Classification of Reservoirs based
on Phase Diagram
Gas Reservoirs (Single Phase)
Gas Condensate Reservoirs (Dew-
Point Reservoirs):
Undersaturated Solution-Gas
Reservoirs (Bubble-Point
Reservoirs):

4/4/2014 7
Phase Diagram of a
Dry Gas Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Path of Production
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
Separator Conditions
CP
4/4/2014 8
Phase Diagram of a
Wet Gas Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Path of Production
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
Separator Conditions
CP
4/4/2014 9
Phase Diagram of a
Retrograde Gas Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
4/4/2014 10
Phase Diagram of a
Volatile Oil Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
75%
50%
25%
4/4/2014 11
Phase Diagram of a
Black Oil Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
25%
50% 75%
4/4/2014 12
Phase envelopes of mixtures with different
proportions of same HC components
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
a
)
-200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Temperature
o
F
Critical Points
Dry Gas
Wet Gas
Condensate
Volatile I
Black Oil
TR
Volatile I
Volatile II
4/4/2014 13
Typical Compositions of Reservoir Fluids
Component Black Oil Volatile Oil Gas Condensate Wet Gas Dry Gas
C 1 48.83 64.36 87.07 95.85 86.67
C 2 2.75 7.52 4.39 2.67 7.77
C 3 1.93 4.74 2.29 0.34 2.95
C 4 1.60 4.12 1.74 0.52 1.73
C 5 1.15 3.97 0.83 0.08 0.88
C 6 1.59 3.38 0.60 0.12
C 7
+
42.15 11.91 3.80 0.42
M w C 7
+
225 181 112 157
GOR 625 2000 18,200 105,000 -
Tank
o
API 34.3 50.1 60.8 54.7 -
Liquid
Color
Greenish
Black
Medium
Orange
Light
Straw
Water
White
-
4/4/2014 14
Components of Typical Petroleum Gases
4/4/2014 15
Typical Crude Oil Fractions
4/4/2014 16
DRY GAS RESERVOIRS:
GOR greater than 100,000 SCF/STB
No liquid produced at surface

WET GAS RESERVOIRS:
GOR > 100,000 SCF/STB
No liquid is formed in the reservoir
Separator conditions lie within phase envelope
and liquid is produced at surface

Classification of Reservoirs based
on Production and PVT data
(see updated rules Mc Cain SPE
paper)
4/4/2014 17
Classification of Reservoirs based
on Production and PVT data
GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS:
GOR between 70,000-100,000 SCF/STB
Density greater than 60 API
Light in color
C
7
+
composition < 12.5%
4/4/2014 18
Classification of Reservoirs based
on Production and PVT data
VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS:
GOR between1,000-8,000 SCF/STB
Density between 45-60 API
Oil FVF greater than 2.00 (high
shrinkage oils)
Light brown to green in color
C
7
+
composition > 12.5%

4/4/2014 19
BLACK OIL RESERVOIRS:
GOR less than 1,000 SCF/STB
Density less than 45 API
Reservoir temperatures less than 250 F
Oil FVF less than 2.00 (low shrinkage
oils)
Dark green to black in color
C
7
+
composition > 30%


Classification of Reservoirs based
on Production and PVT data
4/4/2014 20
Additional Guidelines
Reservoir Surface GOR range Gas specific API Typical composition, mole %
fluid appearance gravity gravity C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
5
C
6
Dry gas Colorless gas Essentially 0.60 - 0.65 96 2.7 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.4
no liquids
Wet gas Colorless gas Greater than 0.65 - 0.85 60
o
-70
o
with small amount 100 MSCF/bbl
of clear or straw
colored liquid
Condensate Colorless gas 3 to 100 0.65 - 0.85 50
o
-70
o
87 4.4 2.3 1.7 0.8 3.8
with significant MSCF/bbl
amounts of light- (900-18000 m
3
/m
3
)
colored liquid
Volatile or Brown liquid About 0.65 - 0.85 40
o
-50
o
64 7.5 4.7 4.1 3.0 16.7
high shrinkage with various 3000 SCF/bbl
oil yellow, red, or (500m
3
/m
3
)
green hues
Black or low Dark brown 100-2500 SCF/bbl 30
o
-40
o
49 2.8 1.9 1.6 1.2 43.5
shrinkage oil to black (20-450 m
3
/m
3
)
viscous liquid
Heavy oil Black, very Essentially no gas 10
o
-25
o
20 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 71
viscous liquid in solution
Tar Black substance Viscosity >10,000cp <10
o
_ _ _ _ _ 90+
There are no definite boundaries between these classifications and usage may vary depending on location. Gravities and GOR are also
dependent on separation conditions.
4/4/2014 21
Fluid Properties for Black-Oil
Reservoir Simulation
Oil and Gas Properties
oil formation volume factor
B
o
[=] res bbl/STB

gas formation factor
B
g
[=] cu ft/SCF or res bbl/SCF

total formation volume factor
B
t
[=] res bbl/STB

4/4/2014 22
Fluid Properties for Black-Oil
Reservoir Simulation
Oil and Gas Properties
solution gas-oil ratio
R
s
[=] SCF/STB

oil and gas viscosities

o
,
g
[=] cp

compressibility and thermal expansion
coefficients.

4/4/2014 23
Typical pressure, &
temperature ranges

Location Pressure
(psia)
Temperature (
o
F)

Reservoir 500-10,000 100-300 (500
+
thermal)
Separator 100-600 75-150
Stock tank 14.7 Ambient
Standard
Conditions
14.7 60

4/4/2014 24
DRY GAS RESERVOIRS:

GOR > 100,000 SCF/STB
No liquid produced at surface
Mostly methane

4/4/2014 25
Standard Conditions
Unify volumes to common grounds for
sales and regulatory purposes
T = 60
0
F
P = 14.65 15.025 (State dependent)
Then
V
M
= RT
sc
/P
sc
4/4/2014 26
Reservoir Engineering Properties
of Dry Gases
Gas formation volume factor Bg



Reservoir Conditions
Standard Conditions
4/4/2014 27
[res bbl/SCF] or [ft
3
/SCF]
Gas Formation Volume Factor
SC
R
g
V
V
B
Volume of an arbitrary amount
of gas at reservoir T & P
Volume of SAME amount at
standard T & P
4/4/2014 28
[res bbl/SCF] or [ft
3
/SCF]
Gas Formation Volume Factor
SC
SC SC
P
nRT Z
P
ZnRT
Bg =
4/4/2014 29
Gas Formation Volume Factor
(McCain)
4/4/2014 30
[res bbl/SCF] or [ft
3
/SCF]
Gas Formation Volume Factor
Gas Formation Volume Factor
B
g
Pressure
4/4/2014 31
Viscosity Definition & Units
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to
flow exerted by a fluid
This is called dynamic viscosity and has
units of
centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm
Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density,
units are in
centistokes = centipoise /g/cc
4/4/2014 32
Reservoir Engineering Properties
of Dry Gases
Gas Viscosity



V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

(
c
p
)

Pressure
T increasing
100
o
F
150
o
F

200
o
F
100
o
F
150
o
F
200
o
F
4/4/2014 33
Viscosity of Ethane (from McCain
book)
4/4/2014 34
Viscosity of Gases at
Atmospheric Pressure
4/4/2014 35
Viscosity of Gas Mixtures
4/4/2014 36
Example
4/4/2014 37
Example
Read Molecular Weights
Read Viscosities figure 6-7
Apply formula

4/4/2014 38
Gas Viscosity if Composition
is Unknown
Still at atmospheric
pressure!
4/4/2014 39
Viscosity Corrections

4/4/2014 40
Viscosity of Gases at High
Pressure

=
ratio
*
at
4/4/2014 41
Viscosity of Gases at High
Pressure

make sure
you check
the
specific
gravity
range

4/4/2014 42
Accuracy for Viscosity
Correlations?
At low P
pr
and low gravities + 2%
Agreement is less accurate as
specific gravity increases (fig. 6-12
has about 20% accuracy)
4/4/2014 43
Isothermal Compressibility
Definition




Derivative is evaluated at constant T =
T
A
and specified pressure P = P
A
( )
A
T
A A g
P
V
V
T P C
(

c
c
=
1
,
4/4/2014 44
Isothermal Gas Compressibility
P
1
V
2
V
1
T
B

P
2
V
ave
= (V
1
+V
2
)/2
( )
( )
( )
A
T
ave
A A g
P P
V V
V
T P C
(

~
2 1
2 1
1
,
T
A
P
A
4/4/2014 45
Isothermal Compressibility (Cg)
4/4/2014 46
Isothermal Compressibility
Using ideal gas equation


4/4/2014 47
Isothermal Compressibility
Using real gas equation


4/4/2014 48
Gas
Compressibility

4/4/2014 49
Properties of Black Oils
Definitions

Material summarized from
McCain book
4/4/2014 50
Phase Diagram of a
Black Oil Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
25%
50% 75%
4/4/2014 51
Properties of Black Oils Needed for
Reservoir Engineering Calculations:

Formation Volume Factor of oil Bo

Total Formation Volume Factor of oil Bt

Solution Gas oil Ratio Rs

Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Co


4/4/2014 52
Properties of Black Oils Needed for
Reservoir Engineering Calculations:

Coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion |
o

Oil Viscosity
o

Interfacial Tension


4/4/2014 53
Learning Goals
Understand the behavior of those PVT
properties (Bo,Rs,) vs P and type of
fluid
Evaluate PVT properties from
Field data
Laboratory studies
Correlations
Equations of State
4/4/2014 54
Definitions
Specific gravity of a liquid



API gravity

) , (
) , (
1 1
1 1
T P
T P
w
o
o

=
5 . 131
5 . 141
API
o
o

=
4/4/2014 55
Definitions
Formation Volume Factor of Oil

Gas out of
Solution
Reservoir (P,T)
Surface (Ps,Ts)
4/4/2014 56
Definitions
Volume of Oil + Dissolved gas at
Reservoir Pressure & Temperature
Volume of Oil entering Stock
tank at Tsc, Psc
Units = Reservoir barrels (bbl) /Stock tank barrels (STB)
Bo =
4/4/2014 57
General Shape of Bo
Bo
Reservoir Pressure
P
b
Reservoir T = constant
4/4/2014 58
Solution Gas Oil Ratio (Rs)
How much gas is dissolved in the oil
volume per volume basis
Rs depends upon pressure
Units [= ] SCF gas /STB oil
4/4/2014 59
General Shape of Solution Gas
Oil Ratio (Rs)
Rs
Reservoir Pressure
Pb
Reservoir T = constant
4/4/2014 60
Total Formation Volume Factor Bt
Hg
Oil
B
ob
Hg
Gas
Oil B
o
B
g
(R
sb
-R
s
)
P
b
4/4/2014 61
Definition of Bt
Also called Two-phase formation
volume factor
( )
s sb g o t
R R B B B + =
Units

bbl/STB + bbl/SCF * (SCF/STB)

4/4/2014 62
General Shape of B
t
B
o
,

B
t

Reservoir Pressure
P
b
Reservoir T = constant
B
t
=B
o
B
t
B
o
4/4/2014 63


S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

gas gas
Decreasing Pressure
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

gas
Standard
Conditions
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

STB

STB
STB STB
Standard
Conditions
B
g
=
R
v
=
B
o
=
R
s
=
P
2

P
1
P
4
P
3
Reservoir

Definition of Oil & Gas PVT Properties
4/4/2014 64
The Coefficient of Isothermal
Compressibility of Oil
Provides Instantaneous change of
volume with P at constant T
( )
A
T
A A o
P
V
V
T P C
(

c
c
=
1
,
Total, molar or specific volume
4/4/2014 65
(Use in Steam Injection Processes)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Thermal Expansion
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

V
o
l
u
m
e
Temperature
AV
AT
P
4/4/2014 66
Oil Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to
flow exerted by a fluid
This is called dynamic viscosity and has
units of
centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm
Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density,
units are in
centistokes = centipoise /g/cc
4/4/2014 67
Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity
Calculation of two-phase flow
Gas-lift and pipeline design
Calculate oil recovery either from
natural depletion or from recovery
techniques such as waterflooding
and gas-injection processes
4/4/2014 68
4/4/2014 69
Variation of Oil Viscosity
O
i
l

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y


T = constant
P
b

Single Phase Flow

Two Phase Flow
Gas Out of
Solution
4/4/2014 70
Fluid Properties for Reservoir
Engineering
The fluid properties of interest are the
those that affect the fluid mobility these
are used in material balance calculations

PVT properties are determined from 5
specific lab procedures
Flash liberation tests
Differential Liberation Tests
Viscosity Measurements
Separator Tests
Compositional measurements


4/4/2014 71
Fluid Properties Determined
Oil Properties
Bubble Point Pressure
B
o
R
s
B
t
C
o
and
o
Gas properties
z
B
g
and
g
Compositions oil & gas


4/4/2014 72
Constant Compostion
Expansion test (CCE)
Temperature of Test = Reservoir Temperature
V
t1
V
t2
V

t
3

=

V

b

V
t5
V
t4
oil oil
oil
oil
oil
gas
gas
Hg Hg
Hg
Hg
Hg
P
1
>> P
b
P
2
> P
b
P
3
= P
b
P
4
< P
b
P
5
< P
4
1 2 3 4 5
Also called flash vaporization test
4/4/2014 73
Flash Vaporization Test or CCE
Properties determined
P
b
C
o
4/4/2014 74
Determination of Pb
4/4/2014 75
Determination of C
o
4/4/2014 76
2.Differential Liberation Test
gas
oil
oil oil
oil
oil
gas
Hg
Hg
Hg
Hg
Hg
P
1
= P
b
P
2
< P
b
P
2
< P
b
P
2
< P
b
P
3
< P
2
< P
b
1 2 3 4 5
gas
oil
Gas off
Temperature of Test = Reservoir Temperature
4/4/2014 77
2.Differential Liberation (or
Separation) Test
Properties Determined
Oil formation volume factor at the Bubble
Point pressure B
odb
and below the bubble point
pressure

B
od
Solution gas-oil ratio at the Bubble Point
pressure R
sdb
and below the bubble point
pressure

R
sd
Isothermal compressibility (derived property)
4/4/2014 78
3. Separator Tests
4/4/2014 79
3. Separator Tests
Goals: Maximize API, minimize B
oSb

& R
sSb
4/4/2014 80
Optimization of Separator 2
Conditions
3160
3180
3200
3220
3240
3260
3280
3300
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s

O
i
l

R
a
t
i
o

a
t

P
b

(
R
s
b
)

2.76
2.78
2.80
2.82
2.84
2.86
F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r

a
t

P
b

(
B
o
b
)

50 100 150 200 250 300
Separator 2 Pressure (psia)
High Pressure Separator @ 900 psia and
T
Sep2
= 75
o
F
100 F
4/4/2014 81
Comparison between 1 & 2
Separators Stages (volatile oil)
3360
3380
3400
3420
3440
3460
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s

O
i
l

R
a
t
i
o

a
t

P
b

(
R
s
b
)

2.90
2.92
2.94
2.96
F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r

a
t

P
b

(
B
o
b
)

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Separator 1 Pressure (psia)
Low Pressure Separator @ 300 psia and
T
Sep1
= 160
o
F
75F
One Separator Stage
4/4/2014 82
Typical PVT Properties for a Black
Oil and a Volatile Oil
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r

(
B
o
)

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Pressure (psia)
Black Oil
Volatile Oil
Black Oil Correlation
T
R
=180
o
F
P
b
P
b
4/4/2014 83
Typical PVT Properties for a Black
Oil and a Volatile Oil
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s

O
i
l

R
a
t
i
o

(
R
s
)

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Pressure (psia)
Black Oil
Volatile Oil
Black Oil Correlation
T
R
=180
o
F
P
b
P
b
4/4/2014 84
Nomenclature
4/4/2014 85
Water in Petroleum Engineering

Presence of Water
Connate Water
Aquifer
Production
Well Log Analysis
Injection
Water Treatment

4/4/2014 86
Water in Petroleum Engineering

Formation Water (Brine) Properties
Solubility of Gas in Water
Water Compressibility
Water Formation Volume Factor
Water Viscosity
Chemical Properties
Resistivity
4/4/2014 87
Chemical Analysis of Water

All formation water contains dissolved
ions. The ions may be classified into two
groups. Positively charged, or cations,
and negatively charged or anions, these
ions proceed from salts in solution and
conduct electricity offering more or less
resistance depending upon the salt
concentration (property used in electric
logs).
4/4/2014 88
Chemical Analysis of Water

Formation waters are neutral, that is
positive and negative charges
balance
Require brine compatibility with
injection fluids (clay swelling,
precipitations)
4/4/2014 89
Additional PVT Tests
Chromatography
Swelling tests (miscibility tests) by
gas injection
See notes (and given references) for
chomatography techniques and
additional material for this module
Click to see an animation of separation.
4/4/2014 90
Chromatography Principles &
Applications

Know what are the principles of
operation of a chromatograph
Learn the different types and capabilities
of chromatographs
Calibration fluids
Components of a GC / HPLC
How to interpret/read chromatographs

4/4/2014 91
Reading Material

Files
Visco models.pdf
Reservoir Fluid Classification-
guidelines.pdf
Viscosity-MAB-Dominique.pdf