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Hydraulic- Trouble shooting

1.Before working on the hydraulic or pneumatic system,stop the

machine . Allow the pressure to equalize or went it to final level.
2.Learn the flow diagrams to assist you in diagnosing problem.
3.Read the gauges in the control panel,& readings to be
noted,especially when trouble occurs.
4.If any hydraulic internal components fails ,the entire system to
be checked for debris at low points,check points,check valves &
flow restriction points.
1. Noisy pump operation

Where to start:

1.Check reservoir oil level.

2.Check pumps inlet pressure.
3.Check pump suction line for leaks.
4.Check pumps suction line for obstruction of flow.
5. Check oil viscosity.
6.Remove pump & look for debris or pump damage.
7.Verify pump alignment
2.Hydraulic system overheating

Where to start:

1.Check for obstructions and hot spots or pressure lines,especially relief

valves,check valves,junctions & filters.
2. Check oil viscosity & lubricity.
3.Check oil level.
4.Check pumps & motors for overheating.
3. Pump not pumping oil.

Where to start:

1.Check pump rotation.( Rotates or not & direction of rotation)

2.Check inlet & discharge lines for obstruction or air leaks.
3. Check oil viscosity( May be too thick)
4.Inspect pump & drive shaft, including coupling for mechanical failures.
4.Hydraulic system pressure is

Where to start:

1.Check for leaks in the system.

2.Use a gauge to isolate the problem circuit,then check for the relief valve
setting or stuck open.( May be due to dirt )
3.Check for pump damage or improper operation.
4.Check control & flow valves for internal leakage or bypassing.
5.Erratic action of feed & rotation.

Where to start:

1.Check gauges to see if the hydraulic system is malfunctioning.

2.Check out relief valves.
3.One or more pumps may be malfunctioning.
4.Do not simultaneously use two valves of the same control valve bank.
5.Metal particles may be in the system.
6.Seal on rotary head motor may have failed. Check for oil spilling down
side of seal & replace seal.
7.Check for air in the system.
6. No feed or rotation

Where to start:

1.Check to see if the motor is getting oil.

2.Check to see if the motor is rotating.
3.Check out flow circuit,especially if repairs have just been done.
External Leakage

• Seal failure • Replace seal

• Damaged casting • Replace casting.
• Damaged or defective • Replace seal.
seal between housing
& mounting cap or
end cap.
Leakage at fittings

• Cracked or damaged • Replace fittings

fittings • Replace flanges.
• Damaged or defective • Replace ‘O’ ring seal.
flange threads.
• Damaged or defective
‘O’ ring seal
Loss in pump RPM under load

• Power source too • Provide larger power

small for pump being source.
Pump not delivering oil
• Pump does not prime. • Bleed air from system.
• Wrong direction of shaft • Convert to correct direction of rotation.
• Add fluid to maintain level.
• Clean strainer.Capacity to be double size
• Tank oil level too low. of pump volume.
• Fluid inlet line or suction
strainer clogged or • Arrest air leakage.
undersized. • Use recommended grade of oil.
• Air leak in suction line. • Replace damaged parts as per overhaul
• Fluid viscosity too heavy to
pick up prime.
• Broken pump shaft or
internal parts.
Pump not developing pressure

• Relief valve setting • Re-set relief valve.

too low. • Check for defective or
• Relief valve sticking malfunctioning valve.
open. • Check directional
• Free recirculation of control valve for open
fluid to tank being center or neutral
allowed. position.Check for
open bypass.
Noisy or erratic operation

• Air leak thro inlet or • Check air leak by pouring

suction line. oil & listen for noise
• Housing & mounting cap change.
separation • Check bolts for proper
• Restricted or clogged inlet torque.
line. • Clean inlet line.
• Excessive pump RPM. • Provide correct power
• Worn vanes, cam rings, or source.
port plates • Replace worn-out parts.
• Worn bearings. • Replace worn out bearings
Control valve trouble shooting
Sticking spool

• Excessive high oil • Eliminate any restriction in

temperature. pipe line or filter system.
• Dirt in oil. • Change oil & flush system.
• Pipe fitting too tight.
• Check torque .
• Valve warped from mounting.
• Loosen valve & check.
• Excessive high pressure in
• Handle or linkage binding. • Check pressure at inlet &
working point.
• Free the linkage.

Control valve
Sticking spool

• Spacer bent. • Replace valve.

• Return spring • Replace faulty parts.
• Spring or valve cap • Loosen cap, recenter
binding. & retighten.
• Valve thoroughly not • Allow time for system
warmed up. warm up.

Control Valve
Leaking seals

• Paint on or under the • Remove & clean as

seal. necessary.
• Excessive back • Open or enlarge line to
pressure. reservoir.
• Dirt under seal. • Remove & clean.
• Replace valve.
• Scored spools.
• Clean & tighten plates
• Loose seal plates.
• Replace faulty parts.
• Cut or scored seal.

Control valve
Unable to move spool in or out

• Dirt in valve. • Clean & flush out

• Spool cap full of oil. valve assembly.
• Bind in linkage • Replace seals.
• Free the linkage.
Control Valve
Load dr0ps when spool moves from
• Dirt in check valve. • Dis assemble and
• Scored check valve clean check valve.
poppet or seat. • Replace poppet or lap
poppet to seat.
Control valve
Poor hydraulic system performanceor
• Damaged pump. • Check pressure & replace pump.
• Dirt in relief valve. • Clean relief valve.
• Relief valve damaged. • Replace relief valve.
• • Repair or replace damaged
Worn cylinders or motors.
• Load too heavy. • Reduce load.
• Internal valve crack,spool • Replace valve.Check movement &
not at full stroke. linkages.
• Low oil in reservoir. • Add oil to level.
• System filter clogged. • Replace filer elements.
• Line restricted. • Check lines,clean or repair
Solenoid valve
Sticking spool
• Dirt in system. • Change oil & flush
• Distortion caused by system.
the bolts being over • Re torque tie bolts.
torque. • Limit flow through
• Flow in excess of valve to the
valve rating. recommended.
• Pressure in excess of • Check relief valve
valve rating. setting.
• Check wiring and
• Electrical failure..
Solenoid valve
External leakage

• Damaged ‘O ‘ rings or • Check for chipped

quad rings. packing and replace
• Loose the tie bolts • Re-torque tie bolts
• Damaged solenoid. • Replace damaged
Solenoid valve
Solenoid failure

• No current. • .Check power source of at

• Damaged solenoid least 85% of coil rating.
assembly • Replace solenoid.
• Short in solenoid. • Replace coil.
• Loss of solenoid • Decrease time of
force.. solenoid energisation,
decrease cycle rate.
Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder slow or erratic
• Low hydraulic oil level. • Maintain proper level.
• Damaged main relief valve. • Repair or replace valve.
• Damaged holding valve
seals. • Replace holding valve seal.
• Bent cylinder rod.Sticking
solenoid valve spool. • Replace cylinder rod & seal
• Damaged wiring to solenoid. • Repair or replace wiring.
• D.C.Valve switch sticking
• Main hyd. Pump cavitations. • Clean or replace switch.

• Replace or tighten hose fittings.

Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder retracts under load.
• Damaged piston seals. • Replace cylinder seal kit.
• Damaged holding valve • Replace seals.
seals • Replace valve assembly.
• Repair or replace cylinder
• Damaged holding valve.
• Repair or replace valve assembly.
• Scored cylinder barrel.
• Replace piston & all seals.
• Cracked or damaged • Replace seals & tighten locknuts.
piston • Replace all cylinder seals.
• Piston loose on piston rod
• Damaged piston seals
Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder extends while machine is
• Scored cylinder bore. • Replace jack cylinder.
• Cracked or damaged • Replace piston & seals
• Holding valve • Replace holding valve
• Piston seal damage. • Replace all seals.