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Movement of Substances Across Plasma Membrane

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In chapter 2, have learned about cell is surround by thin plasma membrane Plasma membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids and proteins. In 1972, S.Singer and G. Nicolson introduced the fluid-mosaic model of the membrane structure. They proposed that membrane proteins are dispersed throughout and inserted into the phospholipid bilayer.

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Each phospholipid molecule has :


in plasma membrane, phospholipid arrange in two layer ( bilayer)
hydrophilic head of outer layer face extracellular fluid( outside cell) hydrophilic head of inner layer face the cytoplasmic fluid (in the cell) polar head give it the hydrophilic property a pair of non-polar tail give it hydrophobic property

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Phospholipid bilayer :

acts as a barrier which isolate the two sides of the membrane In most cells, the phospholipid bilayer also contain cholesterol. Cholesterol help to stabilize and strengthen the plasma membrane, making it more flexible and make it less permeable to water soluble molecule such as ions.

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There are various types of proteins ( either partially attached to the surface or wholly embedded in the membrane ) :

Pore protein protein molecule that forms a channel or a pore allow small water soluble molecule and ions to pass through the membrane. Carrier protein protein molecule that acts as a carrier have sites that can bind to specific molecules, such as glucose molecules, before transporting them across the plasma membrane. Glycoprotein membrane protein that have carbohydrates attach to them

P:

N:

O:

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Impermeable prevent the passage of all molecule. Semi-permeable/ selectively permeable some substances can move across the membrane freely while other cannot. Plasma membrane is semi-permeable . Factor that determine the passing of molecule:
Size Polarity of molecule

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Since phospholipid bilayer form the major part of plasma membrane lipid soluble molecule (fatty acid and glycerol) can pass phospholipid bilayer freely. Non polar molecule ( O2, CO2)- also can move easily
Hydrophobic tails prevent polar molecule (H2O) passing through them but H2O still can move across the plasma membrane because the molecule are small enough to slide between the phospholipid bilayer or move through the pores(pore protein) .

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Large water-soluble molecule (glucose, amino acid) cannot move through the hydrophobic region of plasma membrane unless aided by carrier proteins.

Permeable to:
Small non-polar molecule : Fatty acids, vitamins, glycerol, vitamin A,D,E,K and steroid. Water, carbon dioxide and oxygen

Impermeable to:
Large polar molecule Glucose, amino acids, nucleic acid Ion ( charged): H+,Na+,K+,Cl-, Ca2+

These substances cannot pass easily through the plasma membrane and require help of carrier protein and cellular energy.

Movement of substances across the plasma membrane

Types:

Passive transport
Down concentration gradient

Active transport

Concentration Gradient :

Against concentration gradient

Energy :

Not require
Name of process: Simple Diffusion
1. 2. Oxygen Carbon dioxide molecules

Required

Osmosis

Substances transported:

Facilitated Diffusion

Active transport
1. Mineral ions 2. Amino acids

Water molecules

1. 2. 3.

Glucose Amino acid Mineral ion

Passive transport

Active transport

Lets

watch video of passive and active transport

1.Simple Diffusion
2. Facilitated

Diffusion

3. Osmosis

1.

Simple Diffusion
Is net movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

Going

down concentration gradient until an equilibrium is achieved. Simple diffusion is a physical process that can be observed in liquid and gases.

Eg: place a drop of dye into beaker of water. Dye and water molecules move in all direction. Area dye are dropped : higher concentration of dye molecules these molecules move from the area of higher concentration to area with fewer dye molecules. This process continues until reached dynamic equilibrium( evenly dispersed) / concentration is the same in all regions.

2.

Osmosis

Similar to simple diffusion but it only involves water molecules.

net movement of water molecules from a region of higher water concentration to 2. lower water concentration through semipermeable membrane.
Higher water concentration = low solute

concentration in water concentration water

Lower water concentration = high solute

3.

Facilitated Diffusion

Molecules which are not soluble in lipids: ions, amino acids, nucleic acids, amino acids cannot pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
This substances pass through the membrane by facilitated diffusion with the aids of :
carrier protein Pore protein.

Carrier protein :

Can only combine with specific molecule .eg: glucose molecules can only bind with specific carrier protein for glucose. Function by binding to the molecules Carrier protein then change the shape to allow the molecules to pass through to the other side of the membrane. Net movement is always down a concentration gradient.

Pore protein :

Form pores or channels Ions ( small dissolved particles, eg: Na+, K+, Ca2+) - can diffuse across plasma membrane.

The movement of molecules or ions against the concentration gradient across the plasma membranes. Require:
energy ( ATP) carrier protein

to transport the molecules or ions.

The effect of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
1. 2. 3.

Hypotonic cair Hypertonic pekat Isotonic sama

1.

In comparing 2 solutions with different solute concentration :


Hypotonic solution(less)- solution with lower concentration of solutes/ higher water concentration than the cell / larutan cair Hypertonic solution (more) solution with higher concentration of solutes / lower water concentration than the cell/ larutan pekat

Isotonic solution ( equal) solution which the concentration of solutes are equal inside and outside the cell / kepekatan bahan larut sama.

Larutan yang mempunyai kepekatan bahan larut yang rendah , kepekatan molekul air yang tinggi- larutan cair. Example : 0.15 M sodium chloride solution ,0.50 M sodium chloride solution ,distilled water (air suling ) Distilled water is hypotonic solution because has lower solute concentration and higher water concentration.

Larutan yang mempunyai kepekatan bahan larut yang tinggi, kepekatan molekul air yang rendah- larutan pekat. Example : 30 % sucrose solution, 5% sucrose solution , distilled water. 30 % sucrose solution is hypertonic because it has higher solute concentration and lower water concentration.

Larutan yang mempunyai kepekatan bahan larut dan kepekatan molekul air yang sama dengan sitoplasma sel. Example : 30 % sucrose solution, 5% sucrose solution , distilled water. 5 % sucrose is isotonic because 30 % sucrose solution is hypertonic solution, and distilled water is hypotonic solutions.

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Solution with lower concentration of solutes/ higher water concentration than the cell. Since the concentration of water is higher outside the cell, the water molecule move from outside into the cell. As a result, the cell gain water , the cell swell
Animal cell ( red blood cell)

1. If an animal cell such as red blood cell is immersed in a hypotonic solution, water molecules is diffuse into the red blood cells by OSMOSIS
2. The RBC gain water & SWELL & finally BURST(pecah) because no cell wall. 3. The red blood cells are said to undergo HAEMOLYSIS

Plant cell
1. When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water molecules is transported into the cell by OSMOSIS. 2. The vacuoles gain water, EXPANDS and exerts pressure outwards on the cell wall. 3. It caused the plant cell to become TURGID.

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solution with higher concentration of solutes / lower water concentration than the cell. Since the concentration of water is higher within the cell, the water molecules from inside to the outside of cell. As a result, the water leaves the cell, the cell shrink.
Animal cell ( red blood cell)

1. If RBC immersed in hypertonic solution, the solution outside the cell is more concentrated than the inside. 2. Water molecules diffuse out of the cells by OSMOSIS.

3. Cells loses water to external environment.


4. RBC will SHRINK and plasma membrane CRINKLES UP. 5. This process called

CRENATION.

Plant cell
1. When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, the solution outside the cell is more concentrated than the inside. 2. Water molecules DIFFUSE OUT of the cells by OSMOSIS.

3. Vacuole and cytoplasm LOSE WATER to the surrounding and SHRINK.


4. The cell become FLACCID and cause plant to WILD( layu)

5. The PLASMA MEMBRANE PULLS AWAY from the cell wall.


6. This process called

PLASMOLYSIS.

7. However , if the plasmolysed plant cell immersed in hypotonic solution, it will become turgid again. 8. This process called DEPLASMOLYSIS

Plant

cell in hypertonic solutions

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solution which the concentration of solutes are equal inside and outside the cell. There is no net movement of water molecule across the plasma membrane. water molecules flow across the membrane at the same rate in both direction. The shape of animal cell (RBC) and plant cell REMAIN CONSTANT.
Plant cell

Animal cell ( Red blood cell )

1.

5 % sucrose solution, 30 % sucrose solution , 0.1 % sucrose solution,

Complete it :

Hypotonic solution : ____________ Hypertonic solution :____________ Isotonic solution : ______________

2.

Which of the following onion cells were immersed in a hypertonic solution?

3.

Naming the process:_____________

4.

The diagram shows diffusion through a partially permeable membrane.

What are X and Y? X A Sucrose solution 20% B Distilled water C Sucrose solution 20% D Distilled water

Y Distilled water Distilled water Sucrose solution 20% Sucrose solution 20%

5.

The diagram below shows a strip of potato after it has been soaked in solution P.

What is solution P? ______________________

The concept of osmosis and diffusion can be applied in preservation of food. Preservation with salt

1.

The salt solution is hypertonic to the tissue of fish. Water molecules leaves the fish tissue and enter the salt solution by osmosis. The cell become dehydrated and cell crenate. Without water, bacteria can not grow in fish tissue. At the same time, bacterial cell crenate. The preserved fish do not decay so soon and can last longer.

2.

Fruits such as rambutans and lychee can be preserved by soaking them in concentrated sugar solution . The sugar solution is hypertonic to the cell sap in the vacuoles of the fruits cells. As a result, water leaves the fruits.

Preservation with sugar solution .