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Radioactive decay

is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles or radiation. The emission is spontaneous in that the nucleus decnt nuclide, transforming to an atom of ays without collision with another particle. This decay, or loss of energy, results in an atom of one type, called the parea different type, named the daughter nuclide, 14C ------- 15N

RADIOACTIVE DECAY
Atom (nuclei) yang mempunyai rasio proton neutron berada di luar Belt of stability secara langsung akan mengalami radioactive decay secara Spontan Tipe Decay tergantung dimana posisi atom berada relative terhadap band of stability Radioactive particle are emitted with different kinetic energy - Energy change is related to the change in binding energy from reactant to product

BAND STABILITY AND RADIOACTIVE DECAY

Mode of decay
Decays with emission of nucleons:

Participating particles
An alpha particle (A = 4, Z = 2) emitted from nucleus A proton ejected from nucleus A neutron ejected from nucleus Two protons ejected from nucleus simultaneously Nucleus disintegrates into two or more smaller nuclei and other particles Nucleus emits a specific type of smaller nucleus (A1, Z1) smaller than, or larger than, an alpha particle

Daughter nucleus
(A 4, Z 2)

Alpha decay

Proton emission Neutron emission


Double proton emission Spontaneous fission Cluster decay Different modes of beta decay:

(A 1, Z 1) (A 1, Z)
(A 2, Z 2) (A A1, Z Z1) + (A1, Z1)

A nucleus emits an electron and an electron antineutrino A nucleus emits a positron and a electron Positron emission (+ decay) neutrino A nucleus captures an orbiting electron and emits a neutrino the daughter Electron capture nucleus is left in an excited and unstable state A nucleus emits two electrons and two Double beta decay antineutrinos A nucleus absorbs two orbital electrons and emits two neutrinos the daughter Double electron capture nucleus is left in an excited and unstable state A nucleus absorbs one orbital electron, Electron capture with positron emission emits one positron and two neutrinos A nucleus emits two positrons and two Double positron emission neutrinos Transitions between states of the same nucleus: Excited nucleus releases a high-energy Isomeric transition photon (gamma ray) Excited nucleus transfers energy to an Internal conversion orbital electron and it is ejected from the atom decay

(A, Z + 1)

(A, Z 1)

(A, Z 1)

(A, Z + 2)

(A, Z 2)

(A, Z 2) (A, Z 2)

(A, Z) (A

CONTOH NATURAL DECAY


An example is the natural decay chain of 238U which is as follows: decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 4.5 billion years to thorium-234 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 24 days to protactinium-234 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 1.2 minutes to uranium-234 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 240 thousand years to thorium-230 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 77 thousand years to radium226 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 1.6 thousand years to radon222 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 3.8 days to polonium-218 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 3.1 minutes to lead-214 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 27 minutes to bismuth-214 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 20 minutes to polonium-214 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 160 microseconds to lead-210 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 22 years to bismuth-210 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 5 days to polonium-210 which decays, through alpha-emission, with a half-life of 140 days to lead-206, which is a stable nuclide.

Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay


Beta decay
14C 14N

+ 0b + n
-1

Decrease # of neutrons by 1
-1 0

40K

19

40Ca

+ 0b + n
1n 1p

20

Increase # of protons by 1 + 0b + n
-1

Positron decay
11C 11B

+ 0b + n
+1

Increase # of neutrons by 1 Decrease # of protons by 1


1n

38K

19

38Ar

18

+ 0b + n
+1
1p

+ 0b + n
+1

n and

n have A = 0 and Z = 0

Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay


Electron capture decay
37Ar

18

+ 0e +

-1
0e

37Cl

17

+ n + n

Increase # of neutrons by 1 Decrease # of protons by 1


1
1p

55Fe

26

-1

55Mn

25

+ 0e
-1

1n

+n

Alpha decay

Decrease # of neutrons by 2
212Po

84

4He

208Pb

82

Decrease # of protons by 2 HITUNG PERUBAHAN ENERGI BINDING PADA PROSES DECAY DIATAS ?

Spontaneous fission
252Cf

98

2125In + 21n
49

23.2

HALF-LIFE

HALF-LIFE is the time that it takes for


1/2 a sample to decompose. The rate of a nuclear transformation depends only on the reactant concentration.

HALF-LIFE

Decay of 20.0 mg of 15O. What remains after 3 half-lives? After 5 half-lives?

263Sg

----> 259Rf + 4He

Terjadi pada Solar Energi dan Proses terjadinya alam semesta

Terjadi pada proses bom nuklir dan reaktor nuklir kini

KINETICS OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY


For each duration (half-life), one half of the substance decomposes. For example: Ra-234 has a half-life of 3.6 days

If you start with 50 grams of Ra-234


After 3.6 days > 25 grams After 7.2 days > 12.5 grams

After 10.8 days > 6.25 grams

The probability of decay (dN/N) is proportional to dt:


The solution to this first-order differential equation is the following function:

Dimana,

The half life is related to the decay constant as follows:

Kinetics of Radioactive Decay N DN daughter

rate = N = N0e(-lt)

Dt DN Dt

rate = lN
= lN

lnN = lnN0 - lt

N = the number of atoms at time t N0 = the number of atoms at time t = 0 l is the decay constant (sometimes called k)
l
= Ln 2 t k=

23.3

ACTIVITY CALCULATION
N = N0e(-lt)
UNTUK HALF LIFE

2,303 Log 0,5/1 = - t = 0,693/t

A = A0e(-l t )
ECERCISE : Hitung sisa aktifitas Tritium setela tersimpan 26 tahun dari aktifitas semula 15 Ci, t1/2 tritium = 12,34 th

A sample of C14, whose half life is 5730 years, has a decay rate of 14 disintegration per minute (dpm) per gram of natural C. An artifact is found to have radioactivity of 4 dpm per gram of its present C, how old is the artifact? Using the above equation, we have:

Where:

years

years

Kinetics of Radioactive Decay


[N] = [N]0exp(-lt) ln[N] = ln[N]0 - lt

ln [N]

[N]

23.3

QUANTITATIVE ASPECT OF RADIACTIVE DECAY

238U

Arithmetically, melalui term half life kemudian dapat dihitung perubahan jumlah/aktivitas zat radioaktive selama waktu tertentu Graphycally, Mengunakan grafik semilog antara Aktivita radioaktiv Vs waktu Radioactive Equilibrium - Ratio Nomor atom pada proses reaksi decay zat radioaktive seperti dibawah ini, 238U 234Th 234Pa u Th NTh / NU = U / Th N Th / N U = t
Th

/ t U

- Hal yang sama untuk atome decay dengan nomor atom yang kostan , Ratio Massa ebanding dengan ratio half life nya,

Massa X / Massa Y

t X . A X / t Y . A Y

Dari perhitungan ratio nomor atom dan massa ada decay reaction maka dapat dihitung ratio dari ratio nomor atom dan mass dari hasil decay tersebut

Nuclear Reaction

Balancing Nuclear Equations


1. Conserve mass number (A).
The sum of protons plus neutrons in the products must equal the sum of protons plus neutrons in the reactants.
235 U + 1n 92 0 138 Cs 55

96 Rb 37

+2

1n

235 + 1 = 138 + 96 + 2x1

2. Conserve atomic number (Z) or nuclear charge.


The sum of nuclear charges in the products must equal the sum of nuclear charges in the reactants.
235 U + 1n 92 0 138 Cs 55

96 Rb 37

+2

1n

92 + 0 = 55 + 37 + 2x0

23.1

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Alpha emission

Note that mass number (A) goes down by 4 and atomic number (Z) goes down by 2. Nucleons (nuclear particles protons and neutrons) are rearranged but conserved

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Beta emission

Note that mass number (A) is unchanged and atomic number (Z) goes up by 1.

OTHER TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Positron (0+1b): a positive electron

207

207

Electron capture: the capture of an electron

ARTIFICIAL NUCLEAR REACTIONS


New elements or new isotopes of known elements are produced by bombarding an atom with a subatomic particle such as a proton or neutron -- or even a much heavier particle such as 4He and 11B. Reactions using neutrons are called

g reactions because a g ray is

usually emitted. Radioisotopes used in medicine are often made by g reactions.

NUCLEAR BOMBARDMENT REACTIONS


Cyclotron or accelerator

Nuclear reactor

ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION TROUGH ACCELERATOR

CROSS SECTION
Is the probability that a bombarding particle (neutron) will produce a nuclear reaction Cross section Unit is Barn (1 barn = 1024 cm-2) Formula ; N = x x nX Where, N = Total number of reaction = Flux neutron = nuclear cross section

NUCLEAR CROSS SECTION

ARTIFICIAL NUCLEAR REACTIONS


Example of a g

reaction is

production of radioactive 31P for use

in studies of P uptake in the body.


31 P 15

1 n 0

--->

32 P 15

+ g

TRANSURANIUM ELEMENTS
Elements beyond 92 (transuranium) made starting with an g reaction
238 U 92 239 U 92

1 n 0

--->

239 U 92

+ g + 0-1b

--->

239 Np 93

239 Np 93

--->

239 Pu 94

0 b -1

NUCLEAR FISSION

NUCLEAR FISSION
Fission is the splitting of atoms
These are usually very large, so that they are not as stable

Fission chain has three general steps:

1. Initiation. Reaction of a single atom starts the


chain (e.g., 235U + neutron) 2. Propagation.
236U

fission releases neutrons

that initiate other fissions


EXCERCISE , REACTION FISSION RANTAI URANIUM 3. ___________ .

Nuclear Fission

235U

92

+ 1n

90Sr

+ 143Xe + 31n + Energy


38
54

Energy = [mass 235U + mass n (mass 90Sr + mass 143Xe + 3 x mass n )] x c2


Energy = 3.3 x 10-11J per 235U
= 2.0 x 1013 J per mole 235U Combustion of 1 ton of coal = 5 x 107 J

23.5

REPRESENTATION OF A FISSION PROCESS.

Nuclear Fission
Nuclear chain reaction is a self-sustaining sequence of nuclear fission reactions. The minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction is the critical mass.

Non-critical

Critical

23.5

DIAGRAM OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235.

A control rod is a rod made of chemical elements capable of absorbing many neutrons without fissioning themselves. They are used in nuclear reactors to control the rate of fission of uranium and plutonium. Because these elements have different capture cross sections for neutrons of varying energies, the compositions of the control rods must be designed for the neutron spectrum of the reactor it is supposed to control. Light water reactors (BWR, PWR) and heavy water reactors (HWR) operate with "thermal" neutrons, whereas breeder reactors operate with "fast" neutrons.

A coolant is a fluid which flows through a device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, and chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. Some applications also require the coolant to be an electrical insulator.

Silver-indium-cadmium alloys, generally 80% Ag, 15% In, and 5% Cd, are a common control rod material for pressurized water reactors. The somewhat different energy absorption regions of the materials make the alloy an excellent neutron absorber. It has good mechanical strength and can be easily fabricated. It has to be encased in stainless steel to prevent corrosion in hot water.

NUCLEAR FISSION & POWER

Currently about 103

nuclear power plants


in the U.S. and about

435 worldwide.

17% of the worlds

energy comes from


nuclear.

NUCLEAR FUSION

Fusion
small nuclei combine
2H 1

3H 1

4He 2

+ 1n +
0

Energy

Occurs in the sun and other stars

Nuclear Fusion
Fusion Reaction
1 1
2H

Energy Released
3H

2H

+ 2H
4He

1 2

+ 1H
1

6.3 x 10-13 J 2.8 x 10-12 J

+ 3H

+ 1n

6Li

+ 2H

2 4He

3.6 x 10-12 J
2

Tokamak magnetic plasma confinement

23.6

NUCLEAR FUSION Fusion Excessive heat can not be contained Attempts at cold fusion have FAILED. Hot fusion is difficult to contain

RADIATION CHEMISTRY
Mempelajari efek kimia yang di timbulkan oleh radiasi pengion bila ia diserap oleh materi RADIASI : Emisi dan propagasi energi dalam udara dan suatu materi RADIASI PENGION : Dapat mengionkan dan mengeksitasi target (Partikel bermuatan/ion /elektron, Gel elektromagnetik/gamma and sinar x, neutron) IONISASI : Pelepasan elektron dari orbital suatu atom/molekul netral - elektron yang terikan paling lemah - terbentuk ion positif dan elektron bebas - hanya bisa ditimbulkan oleh radiasi pengion EKSITASI : Perpindahan elektron ke orbital lebih tinggi dalam suatu atom/molekul netral menjadi atom/molekul mempunyai energi berlebih - kembali ke tingkat semula dengan disertai emisi cahaya atau - terjadi pemutusan ikatan yang lemah menghasilkan radikal bebas IRADIASI : Paparan terhadap radiasi pengion (berdaya tembus)

Spektrum elektromagnetik
Radiasi pengion Radiasi non-pengion

Matahari/ radio isotop

Matahari Matahari/p Pemancar /lampu emanas UV Matahari/bola Tabung pijar Pemancar/microwave oven sinar X

SUMBER RADIASI

RADIOISOTOPE ALAM DAN BUATAN--------- FOTON DAN PARTIKEL MESIN PEMERCEPAT (ACCELERATOR) PATIKEL----BERKAS ELEKTRON, BERKAS ION REAKTOR NUKLIR --------- BERKAS NETRON

KARAKTERISASI RADIASI PENGION : DAYA TEMBUS DAN LET

Radiation pengion mempunyai daya tembus, tergantung pada jenis radiasi, energi foton/partikel dan kerapatan target LET = Linier Energy Transer defined as the linier (distance) rate at which energy is lost by radiation traversing a material medium in unit kev/

Radiasi Sinar Gamma terhadap Materi

DNA Sel Mikroba Patogen terkena radiasi menjadi tidak mampu berreplikasi dan mati

Daya tembus

Sinar gamma > sinar x > partikel beta > partikel alpha
Partikel alpha > partikel beta > sinar x > sinar gamma
LET

Linear energy transfer (LET) is a measure of the energy transferred to material as an ionizing particle travels through it. Typically, this measure is used to quantify the effects of ionizing radiation on biological specimens or electronic devices. Linear energy transfer is closely related to stopping power. Whereas stopping power, the energy loss per unit distance, dE / dx

PROPERTIES OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS


ENERGY RANGE 4 MeV 9 MeV 0,5 MeV 2 MeV 0,1 MeV - 2 MeV TYPE OF RADIATIONS Alpha 5 MeV Beta 2 MeV Gamma 1,25 MeV X- Rays 200 KeV LET VALUE IN WATER (kev/) 140 0,2 0,3 3

INTERACTION PARTICLE WITH MATTER

PARTIKEL ALPHA - Daya tembus di udara antara 2,5 9 cm sedangkan untuk aluminium antara 0,02 mm 0,006mm - Electrostatic interaction dgn orbital electron menghasilkan ionisasi dan ion pair (ion positive dan ejected electron) PARTIKEL BETA - Daya tembus 500 kali partikel alpha pada energi yang sama - Production of ion pair - Interaction of fast moving of beta particle produced electromagnetic radiation (X-ray and gamma ray) near positive field of nucleus disertai efect bremsstrahlung (slowing down radiation)

IONISASI
e e-

Partikel pengion

EKSITASI
ionisasi elektron

eee-

ee-

ePartikel pengeksitasi

e-

REAKSI INTI
9 4Be

4 2He

------------

13 6C

1 1H

INTERAKSI PARTIKEL BETA


-Ionisasi -Eksitasi -Bremstrahlung
e eeeeeElektron dg energi Berkurang /Bremsstraslung Sinar x

Gamma Rays -Photoelectric absorption, gamma photon expends all


of its energy to eject an orbital electron from inner shell (beta particle), energi foton < 1MeV seluruhnya diserap oleh target -Comfton effect, only part of the original gamma energy is used to eject a bound electron, and partly as gamma scattered (energy gamma about 1 - 5 MeV) -Pair Production, interaksi menghasilkan pasangan elektron-positron (energy gamma about 5 MeV), konversi foton oleh medan magnet inti menjadi elektron dan positron--- akan mengionisasi. Elektron

TUNGSTEN TARGET ATOM Z = 74


K-shell: 69.5 keV M-shell: 3 keV

L-shell: 12 keV

N-shell: 1 keV

O-shell: 0.1 keV

Denise Moore, Sinclair Community College

BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION PRODUCTION The projectile electron interacts with the nuclear force field of the target tungsten atom

The electron (-) is attracted to the nucleus (+)


The electron DOES NOT interact with the orbital shell electrons of the atom Always produced = 100% of time

http://www.internaldosimetry.com/courses/i ntrodosimetry/images/ParticlesBrem.JPG

BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION PRODUCTION

As the electron gets close to the nucleus, it slows down (brems = braking) and changes direction

The loss of kinetic energy (from slowing down) appears in the form of an x-ray
The closer the electron gets to the nucleus the more it slows down, changes direction, and the greater the energy of the resultant x-ray The energy of the x-ray can be anywhere from almost 0 (zero) to the level of the kVp

X- AND GAMMA-RAY INTERACTIONS


Rayleigh scattering Compton scattering Photoelectric absorption Pair production

RAYLEIGH SCATTERING
Incident photon interacts with and excites the total atom as opposed to individual electrons Occurs mainly with very low energy diagnostic x-rays, as used in mammography (15 to 30 keV) Less than 5% of interactions in soft tissue above 70 keV; at most only 12% at ~30 keV

RAYLEIGH SCATTERING

COMPTON SCATTERING
Predominant interaction in the diagnostic energy range with soft tissue Most likely to occur between photons and outer (valence) shell electrons Electron ejected from the atom; photon scattered with reduction in energy Binding energy comparatively small and can be ignored

Dowd, S.B. Practical Radiation Protection and Applied Radiobiology

COMPTON SCATTERING

E0 Esc Ee Esc E0 E0 1 (1 cos ) 2 m0 c

COMPTON SCATTER PROBABILITIES

As incident photon energy increases, scattered photons and electrons are scattered more toward the forward direction These photons are much more likely to be detected by the image receptor, reducing image contrast Probability of interaction increases as incident photon energy increases; probability also depends on electron density

Number of electrons/gram fairly constant in tissue; probability of Compton scatter/unit mass independent of Z

RELATIVE COMPTON SCATTER PROBABILITIES

COMPTON SCATTERING

Laws of conservation of energy and momentum place limits on both scattering angle and energy transfer Maximal energy transfer to the Compton electron occurs with a 180-degree photon backscatter Scattering angle for ejected electron cannot exceed 90 degrees Energy of the scattered electron is usually absorbed near the scattering site

COMPTON SCATTERING

Incident photon energy must be substantially greater than the electrons binding energy before a Compton interaction is likely to take place Probability of a Compton interaction increases with increasing incident photon energy Probability also depends on electron density (number of electrons/g density)

With exception of hydrogen, total number of electrons/g fairly constant in tissue Probability of Compton scatter per unit mass nearly independent of Z

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION
All of the incident photon energy is transferred to an electron, which is ejected from the atom Kinetic energy of ejected photoelectron (Ec) is equal to incident photon energy (E0) minus the binding energy of the orbital electron (Eb) Ec = Eo - Eb

Dowd, S.B. Practical Radiation Protection and Applied Radiobiology

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION (I-131)

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION

Incident photon energy must be greater than or equal to the binding energy of the ejected photon Atom is ionized, with an inner shell vacancy Electron cascade from outer to inner shells

Characteristic x-rays or Auger electrons

Probability of characteristic x-ray emission decreases as Z decreases

Does not occur frequently for diagnostic energy photon interactions in soft tissue

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION (I-131)

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION

Probability of photoelectric absorption per unit mass is approximately proportional to

Z /E

No additional nonprimary photons to degrade the image Energy dependence explains, in part, why image contrast decreases with higher x-ray energies

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION

Although probability of photoelectric effect decreases with increasing photon energy, there is an exception Graph of probability of photoelectric effect, as a function of photon energy, exhibits sharp discontinuities called absorption edges Photon energy corresponding to an absorption edge is the binding energy of electrons in a particular shell or subshell

PHOTOELECTRIC MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS

PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION

At photon energies below 50 keV, photoelectric effect plays an important role in imaging soft tissue Process can be used to amplify differences in attenuation between tissues with slightly different atomic numbers, improving image contrast Photoelectric process predominates when lower energy photons interact with high Z materials (screen phosphors, radiographic constrast agents, bone)

PERCENTAGE OF COMPTON AND PHOTOELECTRIC CONTRIBUTIONS

PAIR PRODUCTION
Can only occur when the energy of the photon exceeds 1.02 MeV Photon interacts with electric field of the nucleus; energy transformed into an electron-positron pair Of no consequence in diagnostic x-ray imaging because of high energies required

PAIR PRODUCTION

ABSORPTION OF GAMMA RADIATION

Attenuation of gamma rays in a material is exponential,

Io e-x

Io adalah Intensitas awal I adalah intensitas gamma setelah melalui material adalah koefisien absorption X adalah ketebalan material X1/2 = 0.693/

UNITS

Counts per minute Curie (unit) , Bq Gray (unit) Rad (unit) Rem (unit) rntgen (unit) Sverdrup (unit) (a unit of volume transport with the same symbol Sv as Sievert) Background radiation Relative Biological Effectiveness Radiation poisoning Linear Energy Transfer

CPM AND DPM

Counts per minute (cpm) is a measure of radioactivity. It is the number of atoms in a given quantity of radioactive material that are detected to have decayed in one minute. Disintegrations per minute (dpm) is also a measure of radioactivity. It is the number of atoms in a given quantity of radioactive material that decay in one minute. Dpm is similar to cpm, however the efficiency of the radiation detector

CPM
DPM

DPM = Ef Det

CPM

UNIT RADIOACTIVITY AND DOSE

One Bq is activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decay per second

SI unit untuk Radioactivity is, Bacquerel = Bq adalah unit terkecil 1 Bq = 1 radioactive decay per second (S-1)= dis/s 1 Bq = 60 dpm Satuan Lama adalah Curie = Ci , 1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq = 37 GBq Bq dapat dalam bentuk sbb - kBq , MBq, GBq, TBq and PBq Hitung : 0,25 Ci = dpm ?

Pada

pengukuran zat radioaktive dgn alat ukur akan terukur unit cps (count per second) or cpm (count per minute) dalam bentuk digital. Konversi cps ke absolute activity (Bq) adalah : Bq = cps x detektor effesiensi Unit of absorbed radiation dose (SI) due to ionization radiation (X-ray) is called Gray (Gy)

Absorbed dose (also known as total ionizing dose, TID) is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation. It is equal to the energy deposited per unit mass of medium, and so has the unit J/kg, which is given the special name Gray (Gy). 1 Gy of alpha radiation would be much more biologically damaging than 1 Gy of photon radiation

ABSORBED DOSE
Absorbed dose ; SI , Gray (Gy, kGy, etc) Definition : One gray is the absorption of one joule of energy, in the form of ionizing radiation, by one kilogram of matter

1 Gy

1 J/kg

Absorbed dose = Gray (Gy), mengukur deposit energi radiasi

ABSORBED DOSE
Absorbed dose is the amount of energy absorbed into matter. The working SI unit is a gray (Gy), while the traditional unit is rad (rad) 1 rad = 62.4 x 106 MeV per gram 1 gray = 100 erg per gram 1 rad = 0.01 gray 1 gray (Gy) = 100 rad In the United States, radiation absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and exposure are often measured and stated in the older units

Rongent as radiation exposure equal to the ionization radiation will produce one esu of electricity in one cc of dry air at oC and standard atmosfer 1 Gy 115 R The rntgen was occasionally used to measure exposure to radiation in other forms than X-rays or gamma rays 1 R = 2.58104 C/kg (from 1 esu 3.33564 1010 C and the standard atmosphere air density of ~1.293 kg/m)

The rad (radiation absorbed dose) is a unit of absorbed radiation dose A dose of 1 rad means the absorption of 100 ergs of radiation energy per gram of absorbing material 1 Gy = 100 rad 1 roentgen (R) = 258 microcoulomb/kg (C/kg)

When ionising radiation is used to treat cancer, the doctor will usually prescribe the radiotherapy treatment in Gy. When risk from ionising radiation is being discussed, a related unit, the sievert is used.

EQUIVALENT DOSE

The equivalent dose (HT) is a measure of the radiation dose to tissue where an attempt has been made to allow for the different relative biological effects of different types of ionizing radiation Equivalent dose adalah absorbed dose + biology effect = Rongent Equivalent Man (REM) Equivalent dose (HTR) = Absorbed dose (Gy) x radiation weighting factor (Wr) Equivalent dose (SI) ---- Sievert (Sv) unit Sievert (sv) (biasanya untuk X-ray) 100 REM = 1 Sv 1 Sv = 1 J/kg = Gy

DOSE EQUIVALENT

Dose equivalent is the absorbed dose into biological matter taking into account the interaction of the type of radiation and its associated linear energy transfer through specific tissues. The working SI unit is the sievert (Sv), while the traditional unit is roentgen equivalent man (rem). 1Sv = 1 rads x quality factor x any other modifying factors 1rem = 1 gray x quality factor x any other modifying factors 1 Sv =100 roentgen equivalent man (rem) 1 rem = 0.01Sv = 10mSv

The dose equivalent is a measure of biological effect for whole body irradiation. The dose equivalent is equal to the product of the absorbed dose and the Quality Factor The millisievert is commonly used to measure the effective dose in diagnostic medical procedures (e.g., X-rays, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography, and computed tomography). The natural background effective dose rate varies considerably from place to place, but typically is around 2.4 mSv/year that quantity of X rays which when absorbed

This variation in effect is attributed to the Linear Energy Transfer [LET] of the type of radiation, creating a different relative biological effectiveness for each type of radiation under consideration the RBE [Q] for electron and photon radiation is 1, for neutron radiation it is 10, and for alpha radiation it is 20 unit of the equivalent dose is the rem (Rntgen equivalent man); 1 Sv is equal to 100 rem, for a quality factor Q=1

Q VALUES

Here are some quality factor values:[ Photons, all energies : Q = 1 Electrons all energies : Q = 1 Neutrons, energy < 10 keV : Q = 5 10 keV < energy < 100 keV : Q = 10 100 keV < energy < 2 MeV : Q = 20 2 MeV < energy < 20 MeV : Q = 10 energy > 20 MeV : Q = 5 Protons, energy > 2 MeV : Q = 5 Alpha particles and other atomic nuclei : Q = 20

OTHER USEFUL CONVERSIONS


Dose rate criteria (outside storage area): 2.5 Sv/hr = 0.25mrem/hr CNSC Dose Limits (non-Nuclear Energy Worker): Whole body = 1mSv/yr = 100 mrem/yr Skin, Hands, Feet = 50 mSv/yr = 5 rem/yr

N VALUES Here are some N values for organs and tissues:[2] Gonads: N = 0.20 Bone marrow, colon, lung, stomach: N = 0.12 Bladder, brain, breast, kidney, liver, muscles, oesophagus, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, thyroid, uterus: N = 0.05 Bone surface, skin: N = 0.01

And for other organisms, relative to humans: Viruses, bacteria, protozoans: N 0.03 0.0003 Insects: N 0.1 0.002 Molluscs: N 0.06 0.006 Plants: N 2 0.02 Fish: N 0.75 0.03 Amphibians: N 0.4 0.14 Reptiles: N 1 0.075 Birds: N 0.6 0.15 Humans: N = 1

EFFECTIVE DOSE
Radiation source Comments Natural sources mSv/yr mrem/yr

indoor radon

due to seepage of 222Rn from ground


primarily 40K and 238U progeny

2.0

200

radionuclides in body terrestrial radiation cosmic rays

0.39

39 28

due to gamma-ray 0.28 emitters in ground roughly doubles for 2000 m gain in elevation especially 14C 0.27

27

cosmogenic total (rounded)

0.01 3.0

1 300

Medical sources Diagnostic xrays Medical treatments total excludes dental examinations radionuclides used in diagnosis (only) 0.39 0.14 0.53 39 14 53

Other consumer products occupational nuclear fuel cycle TOTAL (rounded) primarily drinking water, building materials averaged over entire US population does not include potential reactor accidents 0.1 10

0.01 0.0005

1 0.05

3.6

360

JUDUL MAKALAH
Proses Big bang dan pembentukan alam Radioaktive decay untuk dating (penanggalan) umur batuan (C-14 dan K/Ar) Irradiasi gamma untuk sterilisasi produk kesehatan dan makanan Reaktor nuklir untuk PLTN Teknik radiotracer untuk Industri Teknik radiasi untuk pertanian

Proses pemisahan (enrichment) bahan bakar U235 dan U238

What is This?

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What is This?

What is This?

What is This?

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Where Does This Occur?

Where Does This Occur?