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ENV404-LECTURE 1

INTRODUCTION

Chemical process shape the world we live inthe air we breathe, the water we drink, the weather we experience This course would cover the chemical principles which includes the natural processes occurring within and between the air, water, and soil, and explore how human activities impact on these processes, giving rise to environmental issues of global concern.

3 key environmental systems : i. the atmosphere ii. Hydrosphere iii. Terrestrial environment Topics to be covered: 1. The Earths atmosphere 1.1 The atmosphere-composition, pressure and regions 1.2 Effects of solar radiation 1.3 The troposphere 1.4 Calculations 1.5 Reactions-photochemical and free radical

2. Stratospheric chemistry ozone 2.1 Concerns about stratospheric ozone 2.2 Ozone synthesis and decomposition, catalytic cycles 2.3 Quantitative calculations 2.4 Anthropogenic versus natural influences 2.5 Ozone Holes

3. Tropospheric chemistry- smog 3.1 Types of smog 3.2 The chemistry of photochemical smog 3.3 Hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of hydrocarbons 3.4 Emissions from the internal combustion engine 4. Tropospheric chemistry precipitation 4.1 Generation of acidity in precipitation nitric acid and sulfuric acid 4.2 Emission control technologies

5. Chemistry of urban and indoor atmospheres 5.1 Principal atmospheric pollutants in urban areas 5.2 Factors affecting indoor air quality 5.3 Common indoor air contaminants 6. The chemistry of global climate 6.1 Greenhouse gases and aerosol- water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, CFC

7. The hydrosphere 7.1 Water distribution throughout the earth 7.2 Physical and chemical properties of water 7.3 Methods of expressing concentration of solutes in water 8. Metals and semi-metals in the hydrosphere 8.1 Metals and semi-metals in the hydrosphere 8.2 Environmental chemistry of calcium,copper and mercury

9. Water pollution 9.1 Definition of pollution 9.2 Concepts of toxicity 10. Organic biocides 10.1What are biocides? 10.2Mobility in soil/water systems

References : 1. Environmental Chemistry Gary W.vanLoon and Stephen J.Duffy, 1999, Oxford 2. An Introduction to Env Chemistry Julian E. Andrews et.al. 2009, Blackwell Publishing

What is Environmental Chemistry?

The study of sources, reactions, transport, and fate of chemical entities in the air, water and soil environments, as well their effects on human health and the natural environment.

Stanley Manahan

Is more complicated and difficult than pure chemistry

SULFUR OXIDE IN THE ENVIRONMENT


SOURCE : BURNING COAL

SULFUR OXIDE ACID RAIN SULFURIC ACID

SO2 produced and released in burning coal,enters the atmosphere through the power plant stack, oxidized to H2 SO4 in the atmosphere. It will then undergo some reactions and forms acid rain which may be harmful to plants, fishes and buildings structures.

Interdisciplinary Nature of Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry can involve use of knowledge from several fields of chemistry : Inorganic, Organic, Physical, & Analytical Chemistry It can also involve other areas from other scientific disciplines. Biology and Toxicology

Societal Roles of Environmental Chemistry

Management of Industrial Emissions Protection of Workers Health Protection of the Natural Environment Testing and Evaluating New Chemicals