Anda di halaman 1dari 14

Chapter 1: Physiology of Exercise

EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 5th edition Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Exercise Physiology
Physiology is the study of the functioning of plants and animals and the activities by which life is maintained and reproduced
(mengekalkan) (membiak).

Exercise Physiology is the study of acute and chronic physiological responses to physical activity

(cerdas)

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Exercise physiology is the oldest academic study area in physical education. Concern with the questions about how the body responds to the physical stress of exercise How can exercise prevent or retard the aging process? How do various energy systems contribute to performance? How does heat or cold influence performance?
(mencegah) (menyumbang) (mempengaruhi)

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Harvard Fatigue Laboratory


Focal point in the development of exercise physiology in the United States D.B. Dill directed the lab from its opening in 1927 to its closing in 1947 Research in exercise and environmental physiology (Table 1.1) Basis of much of what we know today

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Physical Fitness
A popular topic today Possible careers: Physical Education Physiology of Exercise Health Education Nutrition Physical Therapy Athletic Training Medicine
(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Public Health Service


In 1980, listed physical fitness and exercise as one of the fifteen areas of concern related to improving the countrys overall health.

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Civil War until the First World War (WWI)


Physical education primarily concerned with fitness Many physical education leaders were trained in medicine Dr. Dudley Sargent, hired by Harvard in 1879 Set up physical training programs with individual exercise prescriptions

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

World War I (WWI) & World War II (WWII)


Large numbers of draftees failed the induction exams due to mental and physical defects Physical programs began to resemble premilitary training programs

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1950s
Autopsies of young soldiers of Korean War showed significant coronary artery disease has already developed Hans Kraus showed the American children performed poorly on a muscular fitness test compared to European 1955, Presidents Council on Youth Fitness 1957, developed AAHPERD Youth Fitness Test

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1980
AAHPERD published the HealthRelated Physical Fitness Test Manual Performance testing Fitness testing

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epidemiological Studies
On health status of the population underscored the fact that degenerative diseases relate to poor health habits. High-fat diet, smoking, inactivity 1970s, an increased use of exercise tests to diagnose heart disease Large corporations developed executive fitness programs, which evolved into todays Corporate Fitness programs
(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Undergraduate and Graduate Study


Growth in the number of exercise physiology laboratories in the 1950s and 1960s Opportunities for graduate and undergraduate education From physical education to exercise physiology Graduates from these laboratories contributed to the field Research productivity Journals and professional societies
(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Translation of Exercise Science to the Consumer


Demand for correct information and programs about physical activity and health University and college physical education departments have developed areas of study in exercise physiology and fitness The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Developed certification programs to establish a standard of knowledge and skill for practitioners
(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Current areas of study

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.