Anda di halaman 1dari 91

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Machine Guarding
Presented by:

TITO L. BRIZUELA, JR Safety Officer/Quality Assurance Engineer National Power Corporation Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Course Overview

Hazard Identification Risk Assessment Types of Guards Guard Designs

Other Controls

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Machinery is a major hazard at work..


8 out of 10 workplace fatalities and 1 in 4 workplace injuries involve mechanical equipment.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Management Responsibility
Machinery must be reasonably well guarded. Built-In guards are always preferable to built-on guards. Temporary, makeshift and flimsy guards imply that management is not sincere in its efforts to protect the employee.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Where there is a risk of exposure to dangerous parts during:


operation examination lubrication adjustment maintenance,

that risk must be eliminated, or, where it cannot be eliminated, minimized.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

Hazard Identification
What is a hazard?

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

a Hazard is something which could cause injury. Unsafe workplace conditions or practices (dangers) that could cause injuries or illnesses (harm) to employees. a Risk is the likelihood of the hazard causing an injury, and the likely severity of an injury

Hazard/Risk
For example, a piece of plant or machinery may be a potential hazard; however, it may not necessarily pose a risk unless it is incorrectly guarded or the operator is inadequately trained.

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

what parts of a machine do you look at to find the Danger Areas?

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

spot the hazards

Danger Areas
Typically, the following 2 areas on machinery are dangerous, and can be a risk to anyone near the machine:

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

1. Parts which move or transmit power 2. Parts that do the work

Danger Areas
1. Parts which move or transmit power

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

belts & pulleys flywheels & gear wheels shafts & spindles slides & cams chain & sprocket gears

Danger Areas
2. Parts that do the work

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

tools & dies blades cutters saws drills and chucks rollers

To identify dangerous machine parts look for:


R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

shear points drawing-in points impact and crushing areas entanglement areas stabbing points cutting areas abrasion areas flying particles

protrusions

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

spot the hazards

R WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Machine hazards controlled by guarding include:


contact or entanglement with machinery trapping between machine and material or a fixed structure contact with material in motion being struck by material ejected from a machine release of potential energy

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

RISK ASSESSMENT

Assess the Risks


Once you have identified the danger areas (hazards), you should assess the risk (how likely it is to cause injury, and how severe the injury could be) ...and control these risks by guarding or in some other effective way

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Complete the following chart to determine the level of risk for each hazard identified

The Risk Priority Chart


PROBABILITY: what is the likelihood of it happening? VERY LIKELY: it could happen LIKELY: it could happen occasionally UNLIKELY: it could happen, although uncommon VERY UNLIKELY: it could happen, although probably never will CONSEQUENCE: how severely could it hurt someone? CATASTROPHIC MAJOR MINOR kills, disables, significantly injures, first aid only, no permanently work time lost NOT permanently injures 1 2 2 3 3 4

If you score a 1 or 2, do something NOW. If you score a 3 or 4, plan to do something soon. If you score a 5 or 6, plan to review the risk in the future.

Control the Risk


Select Risk Control measures from the highest possible level of the following Hierarchy:

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

1. Elimination 2. Substitution 3. Engineering Controls 4. Administrative controls 5. Personal protective equipment

Elimination
Elimination means to completely remove the hazard, or the risk of hazard exposure. Removal of the hazard is the ideal control solution. For example: removal of a noisy machine.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Substitution
Substitution involves replacing a hazardous piece of machinery or a work process with a non-hazardous one. For example: the operator using a tool to load a press with parts instead of placing them in by hand automating a process to prevent the operator from entering a danger area

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Engineering
If a hazard cannot be eliminated or replaced with a less hazardous option, the next preferred measure is to use an engineering control. Engineering controls may include: guarding machinery using enclosures (eg, enclosing a noisy piece of machinery) automating a process

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Administration
Where Engineering cannot fully control a health and safety risk, administration controls should be used. Administration controls introduce work practices that reduce risk and limit employee exposure. They include: training employees in correct and safe operation developing Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Administration
reducing the number of employees exposed to the hazard reducing the period of employee exposure developing and implementing lock-out procedures displaying appropriate warning signs

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

PPE
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should only be used when other higher order control measures are not possible, and only as a short term solution. Efforts to remove health and safety risks using Elimination, Engineering and Administration controls should be fully explored before PPE is implemented. Examples of PPE include: safety glasses gloves hearing protection

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Make sure machine guards are in place!!

all guards should be correctly and securely fitted BEFORE operating a machine
machine guarding is vital to every workplace using machinery guards need not be complicated nor interfere with productivity

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

QUIZ: Let's assume you are the supervisor of a warehouse. Your five employees must lift and carry 85 pound sacks of grain repeatedly to a pallet during their eight-hour work shift. How can you reduce or eliminate the possibility of an injury from carrying the heavy bags?

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

What's the solution? Let's take a look at a few examples: Engineering Controls. Reduce the weight of the bags. Devise a conveyor belt system that eliminates the need to carry the bags. Administrative Control. Change the procedure so that two employees are required to carry a bag. Train and require

each employee to use proper lifting procedures.


Personal Protective Equipment. Can't use the body belt... it doesn't protect anyone. I don't know what you could use. Do you?

WORKPLACE HAZARDS

TYPES OF GUARDS

Selecting a Guard
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

There are a number of different types of guards, all suited to particular purposes.
You must consider which type of guard is best suited for your needs.

Fixed Guards
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

no moving parts

protect only when fixed in position


should be easy to remove and replace are only opened or removed with a tool simple, low maintenance, often the cheapest form of guarding

may interfere with production/maintenance

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Pedestal Grinder with Fixed and Adjustable Guards

Interlock Guards
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

have moveable parts that are interconnected with the control system usually electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic interconnections machinery will not operate unless guard is closed less likely to slow production generally more expensive and require more checking and maintenance

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Interlocked Guard on Dough Divider

Automatic Guards
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

automatically moves into position as the machine, or cycle, is started guard movement/velocity may

create a hazard

only suitable for slower machine cycles


push away guards self-adjusting guards, etc

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Self Adjusting Guard - Radial Arm Saw

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Push Away Guard

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Instrument Air Compressor with removed guard

Distance Guards
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

A fixed guard that prevents access to a dangerous area through a barrier or fence

permanent simple

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Fixed and Interlocked Barrier Fence Guard

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Presence-sensing Devices
Detect the presence of a person, or part of a person, in a defined area and prevents the dangerous parts of machinery moving while they are in that area

photo-electric light curtains


infra-red scanners pressure mats

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Presence Sensing Laser Scanner

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Barrier Fence

Combination of Guards - Manual Loading Robots

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

GUARD DESIGN

Guard Design

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

the primary function of a guard is to provide a physical barrier which prevents access to dangerous parts of a machine poorly designed or inappropriate guarding has often contributed to machinery injuries

Guard Design

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

design for easy removal and replacement makes tasks such as cleaning, machine adjustment or belt changes easier -

particularly if this needs to be done regularly

guards can only be removed with the aid of a

tool

hinged guards must be interlocked guard material must be of a good quality good design will aid dust and noise reduction

Guard Ergonomics
Reach Measurements - design and position guards to restrict access to danger points as follows:

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Reach

Minimum Distance Assumed


850mm - under arm to fingertip 550mm - inside elbow to finger tip 230mm - wrist to tip of middle finger 2500mm - floor to danger point 130mm

Arm reach Elbow reach Wrist reach Vertical reach Finger reach

* distances include an allowance for clearance from danger points

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Guard Placement
Size of mesh or other opening in guard
less than 9mm 9 to 25mm 25 to 40 mm greater than 40mm

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Minimum distance between guard and danger point


15mm 120mm 200mm 1000mm

* distance from underside of guard to the floor shall not exceed 250mm

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Use of Mesh for Guards


If the distance from moving part to guard is less than 100 mm, wire mesh opening should not exceed 12.7 mm (1/5 in.) For distances more than 100 mm (4 in.) and less than 380 mm (15 in.)., opening should not exceed 51 mm (2 in.)

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

GUARDS FOR COMMON MACHINE TYPES

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Exposed Rotational Cutting


cut-off saws
milling machines

friction cutting
boring equipment

Fixed and moving guards should be fitted


where appropriate

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Bridge Guard - Wood Planer

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Top Guard - Rip Saw

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Rotating Shafts and Rollers


Fixed guards are preferred for rotating shafts
and rollers, such as:

couplings
spindles fan-shafts ironing rollers

* must protect against loose clothing and long hair becoming caught in rotating shafts

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Rollers

Roller Hazard

(Case

study) A man had his hand severely crushed and the skin stripped away from the wrist to the fingertips when it was drawn in between the inking rollers of a printing press. The man was attempting to remove a flake of paint off one roller while the press was running at high speed. A fixed guard was later installed.

Caught in Between

Roller Guarding

Conveyors (Bulk Handling)


Main Types

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

belt conveyors screw conveyors bucket conveyors

all require guarding, usually with fixed

guards

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

On belt conveyors the most important danger points are the nip points.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Power Presses
Two Categories: power stamping presses brake presses * guards should prevent access to the trapping area at all times when the press is stroking

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Power Stamping Press


Guard type will depend upon the job and the associated hazard
fixed guard interlocked presence sensing devices two-handed controls usually a combination of these is appropriate

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

* it is mandatory that regular operational checks and maintenance is conducted and recorded

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Power Stamping Press Guarding

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

generally presence sensing devices (eg light curtains) are appropriate dead man type foot pedal actuator for each operator guard front and rear

Brake Press

Brake Press Guarding System

WORKPLACE HAZARDS

OTHER CONTROLS

Other Safeguards
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

physical guarding is not the only safety aspect of Machine Guarding


other safeguards are required to maintain a safe system of work

Isolation Procedures
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

all machinery should be fitted with a means of isolation from all energy sources (except those required for safety systems) isolators should be clearly identified and be capable of being locked if reconnection could place persons at risk (during maintenance, repairs, etc)

Isolation: Lock-out/ tag-out


MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

An appropriate isolation method is a

lock-out/ tag-out system, in which one


or more padlocks are fitted to the isolation switch, as well as danger tags with the exposed persons' names on them.

Lock Out / Tag Out Isolation System

Emergency Stop Controls


MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

shall be prominent and readily accessible from all operator positions coloured red suitably marked
-

Emergency Stop Buttons shall be mushroom head latch-in or lock-in manual reset type
lanyards, trip wires or similar devices are acceptable

require a manual reset before restarting not to be used for normal stopping not to be relied upon for isolation NOT an alternative to guarding

Access Provisions
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

machinery design should allow routine adjustment, lubrication and maintenance without removing guards or extensive dismantling of components
lubrication and routine maintenance facilities should be incorporated outside the danger area wherever practical

Administration
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Safe Operating Procedures


shut down procedures maintenance schedules

and records

Training
in safe working procedures, guarding and hazards of the machine they operate training records shall be kept

Personal Protective Equipment


used if not possible to completely control the hazard check fit, comfort, maintenance, correct use & training

ERGONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

The following illustrations and tables may help you assess what sort of guarding is required and where it should be located (in order to keep a danger point on a machine safely out of reach). Where doubt exists in relation to the distances shown, measurements should be taken of the actual work place to ensure danger points are beyond reach.

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

According to Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook

A GOOD GUARD
Provides positive protection and prevents all access to danger zone during operation. Does not interfere with the operation of the machine, permits convenient and safe lubrication, adjustment and repairs.
Is strong and durable, fire and corrosion resistant

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

A GOOD GUARD
Does not have splinters or sharp edges and projections which may cause injury Is designed to prevent tampering and yet permit authorized removal and adjustment Does not interfere with the operator or cause eye strain or other discomfort.

Legislative Framework
Occupational Safety and Health Standards as amended describes how to provide health and safety in
workplaces and is a law that must be followed

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Rule 1200 of the same standard set out the general


principles, providing practical steps to be followed for machine guarding

Approved Codes of Practice e.g. American Standards

Association and National Safety Council provide practical guidance to meet the legal requirements of the Act and Regulations and must be followed unless an equal or better solutions can be applied

MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS

Without Appropriate Guard this will happen

Safety & Health Payoffs

THANK YOU