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Oceanography

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ir. Aida Sartimbul, MSc., PhD (Koordinator) Ir. Muhammad Musa, MS. Ir. Mulyanto, MS. Dr. Ir. Guntur, MS M. Zainul Fuad, ST., M.Sc. Nurin Hidayati, ST., M.Sc.

Tujuan Instruksional Umum


Mahasiswa akan dapat menjelaskan definisi oceanografi dan ilmu-ilmu yang terkait Menjelaskan teori-teori terbentuknya lautan Mampu menguraikan sifat-sifat kimia dan fisika air laut Menjelaskan sistem sirkulasi laut dan udara, arus, gelombang,pasang surut, fenomenafenomena alam seperti tsunami, El Nino-La Nina dll Menjelaskan proses-proses terjadinya pantai, sedimentasi dll Mengenal biota yang ada didalamnya serta interaksinya terhadap lingkungannya

Referensi:
Diktat Oseanografi (TIM Mata Kuliah Oseanografi) Referensi lainnya : Duxbury, Alison B, Alyn C, Duxbury and Keith A. Sverdrup, 2002 Fundamentals of Oceanography. 4th edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York Hutabarat, Sahala dan Stewart M. Evans, 1985, Pengantar Oseanografi, UI Press, Jakarta. Nontji A. 1987, Laut Nusantara, Djambatan. Jakarta Nybakken,J.W.1992. Biologi Laut, Suhu Pendekatan Ekologis,. Penerbit PT. Gramedia, Jakarta. Illahude,A.G.1999.Pengantar ke Oseanologi Fisika.Pusat penelitian dan Pengembangan Oseanologi LIPI,Jakarta. Triatmodjo,B.1999. Teknik Pantai.Beta Offset.Jogdjakarta. Sorensen,R.M.1992. Basic Coastal Enginering.John Willey n Sons.New York. Millero,F.J and Sohn, 1994.Chemical Oceanography.John Willey n Sons.New York. Richard A. Davis, Jr., 1991. Oceanography: An introduction to the marine environment.Wm.C.Brown Publisher

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Kehadiran (min 80%) Tugas / Quiz ( 10 % ) Praktikum ( 20 % ) UTS ( 35 % ) UAS ( 35 % )

Kontrak Perkuliahan:
Harus datang tepat waktu Toleransi keterlambatan 10 menit Mengikuti proses penyelesaian kuliah (kehadiran, tugas, UTS, UAS, Praktikum) Mempunyai motivasi Aktif Menjaga sopan santun Agar komunikasi lancar harus ada koordinator kelas

GBPP

INTRODUCTION
Oceanography is not a science but a combination of all sciences as applied to the sea. Oceanography is divided as follows:
Physical Oceanography Chemical Oceanography Biological Oceanography Geological Oceanography

Someone who understands and works with all aspects of ocean environment and organisms that inhabit it is an Oceanographer.

Our life does not run without ocean. Weather and climate

Fishery
Shipping

History of Oceanography
Ancient times (before 1000): found ancient world map by Hecataeus (500 B.C.) Age of discovery (1000-1800): oceanic exploration by Diaz (1487), Columbus (1492), Vasco de Gama (1499), Balboa (1513) and Magellan (1522): found new sailing routes, James Cook (1768 & 1779): found global map (measures latitude & longitude using sextant), Benjamin Franklin (1969) Published the first map

Continued.
Science and Sea (1800-1950): Sir Clark Ross (measured depth nearly 5000m), Matthew F. Maury (physical geography of the sea, 1855), Fridtjof Nansen (found water & temperature sampling bottles for water at depth: Nansen bottles, 1893-96), HMS Challeger (1st oceanography vessel, 1872-76, 125,800 km around the world including Indonesia) Modern era of oceanography (1950-present): using echo-sounder as precision depth recorder for bathymetry surveys), aqualung or scuba (selfcontained underwater breathing apparatus, for underwater limited marine environment), Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and JOIDES resolution by the Glomar Challenger: aim of this project include drilling along plate boundaries learning ancient climate through ocean history, mantle of the earth.

Data Collection and Analysis


Permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam pengambilan data: laut yang luas dan dalam, cuaca kondisi laut yang keras, dana yang besar, peralatang yang tidak berfungsi baik, air yang bergaram yang menyebabkan karat pada alat, dll perlu perencanaan matang Research vessels (the RV Researcher, one of the largest vessels in the NOAA fleet. It is 84.4 m long and 15.5 m wide): contains numerous laboratories and instrument rooms for data collection and analysis, wet & dry oceanographic lab., meteorological lab., & darkroom, machinery for sampling organism, sediments, and water. It spent about $75,000 per day operate

Continued.
Sampling and boat stations (water sampling, water temperature, salinity, current, biological sampling, bottom sampling, and ocean floor coring), RV alvin (deep-water research submersible), Remote sensing: current, heat distribution, pollution, productivity, marine resources Data Analysis: after sort out, classify all data, and analyze them by computer

Oceanography of Indonesian Seas

A Historical Perspective
John Pariwono Abdul Gani Ilahude Malikusworo Hutomo ( Oceanography, Vol.18, No. 4, Dec. 2005)

( Oceanography, Vol.18, No. 4, Dec. 2005)

Study oceanography:
In early days, study of ocean were made for navigational purposes But.now, economic importance of marine resources

Evolution of Oceanography of Indonesian Waters:


1. Pre-colonial Period (from earlier recorded history-end of 16h century) 2. Colonial Period (from beginning of 17t century-1945) 3. Post-independence (from 1945-2000) 4. The 21st Century

1. Pre-colonial Period
(from earlier recorded history-end of 16h century)

Ditandai dengan 2 tahun keemasan: 1. 863 dan 1225 Kerajaan Sriwijaya 2. 1293-1389 Kerajaan Majapahit Kekutan maritim yan tangguh, serta mempunyai ahli ocenografi mis: Informasi pasang surut, arus, arah angin dan kecepatan angin.

2. Colonial Period
(from beginning of 17t century-1945)

1768, Boudeuse and Etoile Expedition (France: oceanographic expedition, 38 expeditions during 173 years (Austria (1), Britain (10), Denmark (1), The Netherland (8), France (10), Germany (3), Italy (1), Japan (1), Soviet Union (1), and US (2) Expedition topics: water mass, oceanographic condition, monsoon-driven current, hydrography & topography, fisheries, plankton, etc.

3. Post-independence
(from 1945-2000)

Lembaga Penelitian Laut (1950-1970) Lembaa Oseanologi Indonesia (19761999) Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi, LIPI (1999sekarang)

4. 21st Century
ITF (Indonesian Throughflow Terrestrial Effects Internal Waves Modelling Hydrographic Condition Climate Change Fisheries

Arlindo Expedition

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