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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Instructor
ENGR. EFREN A. DELA CRUZ
Engineering Mechanics
(Mechanics of Materials)

Rigid Body
Mechanics
Deformable Body
Mechanics
Strength of Materials-
deals with the relation
between the externally
applied loads and their
internal effects on
bodies assumed not
ideally rigid
Statics
Dynamics
Fluid
Mechanics
Strength of Materials- part of engineering
mechanics that deals with the relation of
externally applied loads and their internal
effects in bodies assumed not ideally rigid
STRESS
Intensity of forces distributed over a given section
COMPRESSIVE STRESS
TENSILE STRESS
SHEAR STRESS
BEARING STRESS

lar perpendicu A
P
=
c or t
o
COMPRESSIVE STRESS TENSILE STRESS SHEAR STRESS
parallel A
P
=
s
o
bearing A
P
=
b
o
STRESS
THERMAL STRESS
TORSIONAL SHEAR STRESS
FLEXURAL (BENDING) STRESS
Pressure vessel
Spring
Beams

Normal/Axial Stress
stress = =
A
P
o
A
P
A
P
= =
2
2
o
A
P
= o
Forces P are applied normal to the member BC.
Corresponding internal forces act in the section are called Axial
force
The corresponding average axial stress is,
Shearing Stress
Forces P and P are applied transversely to the
member AB.
A
P
=
ave
t
The corresponding average shear stress is,
The resultant of the internal shear force
distribution is defined as the shear of the section
and is equal to the load P.
Corresponding internal forces act in the plane
of section C and are called shearing forces.
Shear stress distribution varies from zero at the
member surfaces to maximum values that may be
much larger than the average value.
parallel A
P
=
s
o
Shearing Stress Examples
A
F
A
P
= =
ave
t
Single Shear
A
F
A
P
2
ave
= = t
Double Shear
Bearing Stress in Connections
Bolts, rivets, and pins create
stresses on the points of contact
or bearing surfaces of the
members they connect.
d t
P
A
P
= =
b
o
Corresponding average force
intensity is called the bearing
stress,
The resultant of the force
distribution on the surface is
equal and opposite to the force
exerted on the pin.
Sample Problem
The structure is designed to
support a 30 kN load
Perform a static analysis to
determine the internal force in
each structural member and the
reaction forces at the supports
The structure consists of a steel
boom and rod joined by pins
(zero moment connections) at
the junctions and supports
Structure Free-Body Diagram
Structure is detached from supports and
the loads and reaction forces are indicated
A
y
and C
y
can not be determined from
these equations
( ) ( )( )
kN 30
0 kN 30 0
kN 40
0
kN 40
m 8 . 0 kN 30 m 6 . 0 0
= +
= + = =
= =
+ = =
=
= =

y y
y y y
x x
x x x
x
x C
C A
C A F
A C
C A F
A
A M
Conditions for static equilibrium:
Component Free-Body Diagram
In addition to the complete structure, each
component must satisfy the conditions for
static equilibrium
Results:
| = = = kN 30 kN 40 kN 40
y x
C C A
Reaction forces are directed along
boom and rod
( )
0
m 8 . 0 0
=
= =

y
y B
A
A M
Consider a free-body diagram for the boom:
kN 30 =
y
C
substitute into the structure
equilibrium equation
Method of Joints
The boom and rod are 2-force members, i.e.,
the members are subjected to only two forces
which are applied at member ends
kN 50 kN 40
3
kN 30
5 4
0
= =
= =
=

BC AB
BC AB
B
F F
F F
F

Joints must satisfy the conditions for static


equilibrium which may be expressed in the
form of a force triangle:
For equilibrium, the forces must be parallel to
to an axis between the force application points,
equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions
Stress Analysis
Conclusion: the strength of member BC is
adequate
MPa 165
all
= o
From the material properties for steel, the
allowable stress is
Can the structure safely support the 30 kN
load?
MPa 159
m 10 314
N 10 50
2 6 -
3
=

= =
A
P
BC
o
At any section through member BC, the
internal force is 50 kN with a force intensity
or stress of
d
BC
= 20 mm
From a statics analysis
F
AB
= 40 kN (compression)
F
BC
= 50 kN (tension)
Design
Design of new structures requires selection of
appropriate materials and component dimensions
to meet performance requirements
For reasons based on cost, weight, availability,
etc., the choice is made to construct the rod from
aluminum (o
all
= 100 MPa). What is an
appropriate choice for the rod diameter?
( )
mm 2 . 25 m 10 52 . 2
m 10 500 4 4
4
m 10 500
Pa 10 100
N 10 50
2
2 6
2
2 6
6
3
= =

= =
=
=

= = =

t t
t
o
o
A
d
d
A
P
A
A
P
all
all
An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is
adequate
Problem
The lap joint shown is fastened by 3-20mm
diameter joints. If a 50 kN load is applied as
shown, determine:
a. Shearing stress in each rivet
b. Bearing stress in each plate
c. Maximum tensile stress in each plate.
Assume the thickness of the plate is 25mm.
130mm
Solution
a. Shearing stress in rivets
50x10
3
N / 3
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 53.05 N/mm
2
= 53.05MPa
/4(20mm)
2

b. Bearing stress in each plate
50x10
3
N
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 33.33 N/mm
2
= 33.33 MPa
25mmx20mmx3
c. Maximum tensile stress in each plate
50x10
3
N
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 15.38 N/mm
2
= 15.38 MPa
130mmx25mm
50x10
3
N
Ss= P/A = -------------------------------- = 18.18 N/mm
2
= 18.18 MPa
(130mm-20mm) x 25mm
Given:
P = 50kN w = 130mm
t = 25mm # of rivets = 3
= 20mm
Elasticity

All solid materials deform when they are stressed, and
as stress is increased, deformation also increases.
The deformation per unit length of a material is called
strain .
If a material returns to its original size and shape on
removal of load causing deformation, it is said to be
elastic.
If the stress is steadily increased, a point is reached
when, after the removal of load, not all the induced
strain is removed.
This is called the elastic limit.
Hookes Law
States that providing the limit of proportionality of a
material is not exceeded, the stress is directly
proportional to the strain produced.
If a graph of stress and strain is plotted as load is
gradually applied, the first portion of the graph
will be a straight line.
The slope of this line is the constant of
proportionality called modulus of Elasticity, E or
Youngs Modulus.
It is a measure of the stiffness of a material.

Stress-Strain Relations of Mild
Steel
Hookes Law
Modulus of Elasticity, E =
Direct stress
Direct strain
=
o
c


Also: For Shear stress: Modulus of rigidity or shear modulus, G =
Shear stress
Shear strain
=
t


Deformations Under Axial
Loading
AE
P
E
E = = =
o
c c o
From Hookes Law:
From the definition of strain:
L
o
c =
Equating and solving for the deformation,
AE
PL
= o
With variations in loading, cross-section or
material properties,

=
i i i
i i
E A
L P
o
Poisson's Ratio
We can calculate the change in length of a rod by taking the
definition of strain,

Or,



In the same way, we can calculate the change in diameter by
Substituting for , and diameter d for length L

d
Problem
A 10mm x 6m steel rod is subjected to an axial
tension of 10 kN. If v = 0.30 and E = 200 GPa,
find the change in the diameter of the rod.
Solution
v = /
= d / 10mm
E = / = P/A /
200,000 N/mm
2
= {10,000 N / [/4 (10mm)
2
]} /
= 0.0006366
v = /
0.30 = d / 10mm / 0.0006366
d = 0.00191mm

Given:
= 10mm P = 10 kN L = 6m
E = 200GPa = 0.30

An aluminum rod has a cross-sectional area of 0.19635 in.
2
. An
axial tensile load of 6000 lb. causes the rod to stretch along its
length, and shrink across its diameter. What is the diameter before
and after loading when v = 0.33 and E = 30x10
6
Psi? Report the
answer in inches.
Factor of Safety
The load which any member of a machine/structure
carries is called working load, and stress produced by
this load is the working stress.

Obviously, the working stress must be less than the
yield stress, tensile strength or the ultimate stress.

This working stress is also called the permissible stress
or the allowable stress or the design stress.
Stress-Strain Relations of Mild
Steel
Factor of Safety Contd.
Some reasons for factor of safety include the
inexactness or inaccuracies in the estimation
of stresses and the non-uniformity of some
materials.
Factor of safety =
Ultimate or yield stress
Design or working stress

Note: Ultimate stress is used for materials e.g.
concrete which do not have a well-defined yield point,
or brittle materials which behave in a linear manner
up to failure. Yield stress is used for other materials
e.g. steel with well defined yield stress.

Problem
A rigid bar is hinged at A
and supported by a steel
rod at B. A strain gauge at
the rod indicates a strain of
0.0003. If the rod is 75mm
2
in cross section, calculate
the applied load W.
Assume E = 200GPa.
60
0
45
0

W
3.5m
2.5m
A
B
E = S /
= T/A
---------

200,000N/mm2 = T / 75mm2 / 0.0003
T = 4500N

From the Figure
= 180 - 60 45 = 75
0

M
A
= 0
W (3.5sin 60) 4500 (6 sin 75) = 0
w = 8604.17 N
Solution
Given:
A = 75mm
2
= 0.0003
E = 200GPa

60
0
45
0

W
3.5m
2.5m
A
B
Ty
Tx
Problem
A steel wire 10m long hanging vertically
supports a tensile load of 2000 N.
Neglecting the weight of the wire,
determine the required diameter if the
stress is not to exceed 140 MPa and the
total elongation is not to exceed 5mm.
Assume E = 200GPa.
a. Required from stress
P = AS
2000 N = /4 d
2
(140 N/mm
2
)
d = 4.26mm

b. Required from deformation
y = PL/AE
5mm = 2000 N ( 10000 mm )
/4 d
2
(200 x10
3
N/mm
2
)
d = 5.05mm

Solution
Given:
P = 2000 N
S = 140 MPa
E = 200 GPa
L = 10m
y = 5mm
Example
Determine the deformation
of the steel rod shown
under the given loads.
in. 618 . 0 in. 07 . 1
psi 10 29
6
= =
=

d D
E
SOLUTION:
Divide the rod into components at
the load application points.
Apply a free-body analysis on each
component to determine the
internal force
Evaluate the total of the component
deflections.
SOLUTION:
Divide the rod into three
components:
2
2 1
2 1
in 9 . 0
in. 12
= =
= =
A A
L L
2
3
3
in 3 . 0
in. 16
=
=
A
L
Apply free-body analysis to each
component to determine internal forces,
lb 10 30
lb 10 15
lb 10 60
3
3
3
2
3
1
=
=
=
P
P
P
Evaluate total deflection,
( ) ( ) ( )
in. 10 9 . 75
3 . 0
16 10 30
9 . 0
12 10 15
9 . 0
12 10 60
10 29
1
1
3
3 3 3
6
3
3 3
2
2 2
1
1 1

=
(
(


+

+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = =
A
L P
A
L P
A
L P
E E A
L P
i i i
i i
o
in. 10 9 . 75
3
= o
Sample Problem
The rigid bar BDE is supported by two
links AB and CD.
Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70
GPa) and has a cross-sectional area
of 500 mm
2
. Link CD is made of steel
(E = 200 GPa) and has a cross-
sectional area of (600 mm
2
).
For the 30-kN force shown, determine
the deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c)
of E.
SOLUTION:
Apply a free-body analysis to the bar
BDE to find the forces exerted by
links AB and DC.
Evaluate the deformation of links AB
and DC or the displacements of B
and D.
Work out the geometry to find the
deflection at E given the deflections
at B and D.
Displacement of B:
( )( )
( )( )
m 10 514
Pa 10 70 m 10 500
m 3 . 0 N 10 60
6
9 2 6 -
3

=


=
=
AE
PL
B
o
| = mm 514 . 0
B
o
Displacement of D:
( )( )
( )( )
m 10 300
Pa 10 200 m 10 600
m 4 . 0 N 10 90
6
9 2 6 -
3

=


=
=
AE
PL
D
o
+ = mm 300 . 0
D
o
Free body: Bar BDE
( )
( )
n compressio F
F
tension F
F
M
AB
AB
CD
CD
B
kN 60
m 2 . 0 m 4 . 0 kN 30 0
0 M
kN 90
m 2 . 0 m 6 . 0 kN 30 0
0
D
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
=

SOLUTION:
Sample Problem
Displacement of D:
( )
mm 7 . 73
mm 200
mm 0.300
mm 514 . 0
=

=
=
'
'
x
x
x
HD
BH
D D
B B
+ = mm 928 . 1
E
o
( )
mm 928 . 1
mm 7 . 73
mm 7 . 73 400
mm 300 . 0
=
+
=
=
'
'
E
E
HD
HE
D D
E E
o
o
Sample Problem
Static Indeterminacy
Structures for which internal forces and reactions
cannot be determined from statics alone are said
to be statically indeterminate.
0 = + =
R L
o o o
Deformations due to actual loads and redundant
reactions are determined separately and then added
or superposed.
Redundant reactions are replaced with
unknown loads which along with the other
loads must produce compatible deformations.
A structure will be statically indeterminate
whenever it is held by more supports than
what are required to maintain its equilibrium.
Example
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.
Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads
and the reaction found at B.
Require that the displacements due to the loads
and due to the redundant reaction be compatible,
i.e., require that their sum be zero.
Solve for the displacement at B due to the
redundant reaction at B.
SOLUTION:
Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release
the bar from that support, and solve for the
displacement at B due to the applied loads.
SOLUTION:
Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
E E A
L P
L L L L
A A A A
P P P P
i i i
i i
9
L
4 3 2 1
2 6
4 3
2 6
2 1
3
4
3
3 2 1
10 125 . 1
m 150 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
N 10 900 N 10 600 0

=
= = = =
= = = =
= = = =

o
Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant
constraint,
( )


= =
= =
= =
= =

i
B
i i
i i
R
B
E
R
E A
L P

L L
A A
R P P
3
2 1
2 6
2
2 6
1
2 1
10 95 . 1
m 300 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
Example
Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
( )
kN 577 N 10 577
0
10 95 . 1 10 125 . 1
0
3
3 9
= =
=

=
= + =
B
B
R L
R
E
R
E
o
o o o
Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B
kN 323
kN 577 kN 600 kN 300 0
=
+ = =
A
A y
R
R F
kN 577
kN 323
=
=
B
A
R
R
Example
Thermal Stresses
A temperature change results a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.
( )
coef. expansion thermal =
= A =
o
o o o
AE
PL
L T
P T
Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
( ) 0
0
= + A
= + =
AE
PL
L T
P T
o
o o o
The thermal deformation and the deformation from
the redundant support must be compatible.
( )
( ) T E
A
P
T AE P
P T
A = =
A =
= + =
o o
o
o o o 0
Problem
Steel railroad rails 10m long are laid with a
clearance of 3mm at a temperature of 15
0
C.
At what temperature will the rails just touch?
What stress will be induced in the rails at that
temperature if there where no initial
clearance? Assume = 11.7 x 10
-6
m/ (m
0
C)
and E = 200 GPa.
Y
T
= L T
3mm = 11.7 x 10
-6
m /(m
0
C) 10,000mm (T-15)
T = 40.64
0
C

Y = SL/E
3mm = S (10,000 mm) / 200 x 10
3
N/mm
2
S = 60 MPa

Solution
Given:
L = 10m
= 11.7 x 10
-6
m /(m
0
C)
E = 200 MPa
Yt = 3mm
Problem 13
A steel rod is stretched between two
rigid walls and carries a tensile load of
5000N at 20
0
C. If the allowable stress
is not to exceed 130 MPa at - 20
0
C,
what is the minimum diameter of the
rod? Assume = 11.7 x 10
-6
m/ (m
0
C)
and E = 200 GPa.
Y = Y
t
+ Y
1

SL/E = L T + P
1
L /AE

130 N/mm
2
5000N
------------------------ = 11.7 x 10
-6
(20 + 20) + ----------------------------
200 x 10
3
N/mm
2
A (200 x 10
3
N/mm
2
)

A = 137.4 mm
2

137.4 mm
2
= /4 d
2


d = 13.22mm

5000N 5000N
Yt Y1
Y
Solution
Given:
P = 5000N
= 11.7 x 10
-6
m /(m
0
C)
E = 200 MPa
S = 130 MPa
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels






A pressure vessel is a container that holds
a fluid (liquid or gas) under pressure.
Examples include carbonated beverage
bottles, propane tanks, and water supply
pipes. Drain pipes are not pressure vessels
because they are open to the atmosphere.
If the thickness of the wall is less than 10%
of the internal radius of the pipe or tank, then
the pressure vessel is described as a thin-
walled pressure vessel.
We can assume that the stress in the wall is
the same on the inside and outside walls.

(Thick-walled pressure vessels have a higher
stress on the inner wall than on the outer wall,
so cracks form from the inside out.)


Imagine cutting a thin-walled pipe lengthwise
through the pressurized fluid and the pipe wall:





the force exerted by the fluid must equal the
force exerted by the pipe walls (sum of the forces
equals zero). The force exerted by the fluid is
pA= p d
i
L
where d
i
is the inside diameter of the pipe, and L
is the length of the pipe.

The stress in the walls of the pipe is equal to the
fluid force divided by the cross-sectional area of
the pipe wall. This cross-section of one wall is
the thickness of the pipe, t, times its length L.
Since there are two walls, the total cross-
sectional area of the wall is 2tL. The stress is
around the circumference or the hoop direction,
so

hoop
=pd
i
L / 2tL.

Notice that the length cancels: hoop stress is
independent of the length of the pipe, so

hoop
=pd
i
/ 2t.
Example #1
A pipe with a 14 inch inside diameter carries pressurized
water at 110 psi. What is the hoop stress if the wall
thickness is 0.5 inches?
Solution First, check if the pipe is thin-walled. The ratio
of the pipe wall thickness to the internal radius is
What if the pipe has a cap on the end? If the cap
were loose, pressure would push the cap off the
end. If the cap is firmly attached to the pipe, then
a stress develops along the length of the pipe to
resist pressure on the cap. Imagine cutting the
pipe and pressurized fluid transversely. The force
exerted by the fluid equals the force along the
length of the pipe walls. Pressure acts on a
circular area of fluid, so the force exerted by the
fluid is

F
fluid
=pA=


The cross-sectional area of the pipe wall
We can estimate the cross-sectional area of a
thin-walled pipe pretty closely by multiplying the
wall thickness by the circumference, so
The stress along the length of the pipe is,
Compare the hoop stress and longitudinal stress
equations: in a thin-walled pipe, hoop stress is
twice as large as longitudinal stress. If the
pressure in a pipe exceeds the strength of the
material, then the pipe will split along its length
(perpendicular to the hoop direction).
In conclusion, if you have a pipe or a tubular tank,
use
If you have a spherical tank, use
Problem
A cylindrical pressure vessel is fabricated
from steel plates which have a thickness
of 20mm. The diameter of the vessel is
500mm and its length is 3m. Determine
the maximum internal pressure which can
be applied if the stress in the steel is
limited to 140MPa.
S
T
= PD / 2t
140 N/mm
2
= P (500mm) / 2 (20mm)
P = 11.2 N/mm
2
P = 11.2 MPa.

S
L
= PD / 4t
140 N/mm
2
= P (500mm) / 4 (20mm)
P = 22.4 N/mm
2
P = 22.4 MPa
Given:
t = 20mm
= 500mm
L = 3m
S = 140MPa
Solution
Problem
A water tank is 8m in diameter and 12m
high. If the tank is to be completely filled
with water, determine the minimum
thickness of the tank plates if the stress is
limited to 40MPa.
S = PD / 2t

From Thermo and Fluid Mechanics
P
max
@ the bottom of tank:
P = h = 9810N/m
3
(12m)
= 117720 N/m
2
= 0.117N/mm
2

S = PD / 2t
40 N/mm
2
= 0.117 N/mm
2
(8000mm) / 2t
t = 11.7mm
Given:
= 8m
H = 12m
S = 40MPa
Solution
8m
12m
Problem
A pipe carrying steam at 3.5 MPa has an outside
diameter of 450mm and wall thickness of 10mm.
A gasket is inserted between the flange at one
end of the pipe and a flat plate was used to hold
the cap end. How many 40mm bolts must be
used to hold the cap on if the allowable stress in
the bolts is 80MPa, of which 55 MPa is the initial
stress? What circumferential stress is developed
in the pipe?
S = PD/2t
S = 3.5N/mm
2
(430mm)/2(10mm)
S = 72.25MPa (Circumferential stress)

Force due to pressure
F = AS
F = (/4) (450mm - 2*10mm)
2
(3.5 N/mm
2
)
F = 508,270.42N
Force that can be carried by each bolt
T = AS
= (/4) (40mm)
2
(80-55N/mm
2
)
T = 31,415.93 N
No. of Bolts
nT = F
n = F/T = 508,270.42N / 31,415.93N
n = 16.2 say 17 bolts.

Given:

out
= 450mm
t = 10mm
S
bolt
= 80MPa
S
ini
= 55MPa

bolt
= 40mm
P = 3.5 MPa
Solution
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts
Many machine parts are loaded in
torsion, either to transmit power (like
a driveshaft or an axle shaft in a
vehicle) or to support a dynamic load
(like a coil spring or a torsion bar).
Power transmission parts are
typically circular solid shafts or
circular hollow shafts because these
shapes are easy to manufacture and
balance, and because the outermost
material carries most of the stress.
For a given maximum size, more
material is available along the entire
surface of a circle than at the four
corners of a square.
Shear Stress on Circular Shafts
Apply a torque T to a round shaft, and
the shaft will twist through an angle .
Twisting means the material is
deforming, so we have strain in the
material. The greatest strain is at the
surface, while strain is zero at the
center of the shaft. The strain varies
linearly from the center to the surface of
the shaft. We learned that materials
follows Hooke's law: the ratio of
stress/strain is Young's modulus, a
constant. Therefore, the stress in the
shaft also varies linearly from the center
to the surface of the shaft, and that the
shearing stress, =0 at the center, and
=
max
at the surface.
Shear Stress on Circular Shafts
Consider a small area a at a distance r from the
center of the circle. If we define c = the distance
from the centroid to the surface of the circle,
then the shear stress at r is:

Since shear stress is force divided by area, the
shear force acting on area a is:
The torque on area a is the force times the distance from the
centroid:

The total torque on the entire circular area about the centroid is
the sum of the torques on all the small areas that comprise the
circle, so
Shear Stress on Circular Shafts
The last part of this equation is the polar
moment of inertia of a circle is:
For design purposes, only the maximum stress matters, so we
usually drop the subscript from the shear stress, understanding
that we mean the stress at the surface, so we write:
In many problems, we know the applied torque and dimensions;
we need the stress. Rewriting the equation to solve for stress:
Shear Stress on Circular Shafts
ksi
Where:
torsional shear stress
T applied torque
c radial distance from neutral axis to
outermost fiber
J Polar moment of inertia
For solid circular section
J = D
4
/32
For hollow circular section
J = (D
4
d
4
)/32
Shear Stress on Circular Shafts
Angle of Twist in Circular Shafts
Normal strain is defined as the change in length of tensile member
divided by its original length: =/L. We can define shear strain on
a torsion member as the change in location of a point on the
surface of the shaft divided by the length of the shaft: =
shear
/L.
The angle of twist, , is measured in radians, so we can substitute

shear
= c . Now the shear strain is =c/ L.
Angle of Twist in Circular Shafts
The ratio of normal stress to normal strain is Young's modulus,
E= /. We have a similar ratio for shear stress and shear strain:
the shear modulus G= /. The eq. is the same; just the symbols
have changed. Shear modulus is a materials property, just like
Young's modulus. Substitute the expression for shear strain, and
we have Or,

Since shear stress

Then,
Angle of Twist in Circular Shafts
Where:
Angular displacement in radian
L Shaft length
G Modulus of elasticity in torsion or
modulus of rigidity

RELATION OF TORQUE SPEED AND POWER
ENGLISH UNIT
Hp = (2TN)/33000 Where Torque is in Ft-lb and speed in rpm
Hp = (TN)/63000 Where Torque is in in-lb and speed in rpm
SI UNIT
kW = (2TN)/60 Where Torque is in kN-m and speed in rpm
kW = (TN)/9550 Where Torque is in N-m and speed in rpm
Angle of Twist in Circular Shafts
Angle of Twist in Circular Shafts
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are
solid of diameter d. For the loading
shown, determine (a) the minimum and
maximum shearing stress in shaft BC,
(b) the required diameter d of shafts AB
and CD if the allowable shearing stress
in these shafts is 65 MPa.
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Cut sections through shafts AB
and BC and perform static
equilibrium analysis to find
torque loadings
Given allowable shearing stress
and applied torque, invert the
elastic torsion formula to find the
required diameter
Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC
SOLUTION:
Cut sections through shafts AB and
BC and perform static equilibrium
analysis to find torque loadings
( )
CD AB
AB x
T T
T M
= =
= =

m kN 6
m kN 6 0 ( ) ( )
m kN 20
m kN 14 m kN 6 0
=
+ = =

BC
BC x
T
T M
Sample Problem
Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
4 6
4 4 4
1
4
2
m 10 92 . 13
045 . 0 060 . 0
2 2

=
= =
t t
c c J
( )( )
MPa 2 . 86
m 10 92 . 13
m 060 . 0 m kN 20
4 6
2
2 max
=

= = =

J
c T
BC
t t
MPa 7 . 64
mm 60
mm 45
MPa 2 . 86
min
min
2
1
max
min
=
= =
t
t
t
t
c
c
MPa 7 . 64
MPa 2 . 86
min
max
=
=
t
t
Given allowable shearing stress and
applied torque, invert the elastic torsion
formula to find the required diameter
m 10 9 . 38
m kN 6
65
3
3
2
4
2
max

= = =
c
c
MPa
c
Tc
J
Tc
t t
t
mm 8 . 77 2 = = c d
Sample Problem
Given the shaft dimensions and the applied
torque, we would like to find the torque reactions
at A and B.
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
From a free-body analysis of the shaft,


which is not sufficient to find the end torques.
The problem is statically indeterminate.
ft lb 90 = +
B A
T T
ft lb 90
1 2
2 1
= +
A A
T
J L
J L
T
Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,
A B
B A
T
J L
J L
T
G J
L T
G J
L T
1 2
2 1
2
2
1
1
2 1
0 = = = = | | |
Divide the shaft into two components which
must have compatible deformations,
Sample Problem
Two solid steel shafts are connected
by gears. Knowing that for each
shaft G = 11.2 x 10
6
psi and that the
allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi,
determine (a) the largest torque T
0

that may be applied to the end of
shaft AB, (b) the corresponding
angle through which end A of shaft
AB rotates.
SOLUTION:
Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between T
CD
and T
0
Find the corresponding angle of twist
for each shaft and the net angular
rotation of end A
Find the maximum allowable torque
on each shaft choose the smallest
Apply a kinematic analysis to relate
the angular rotations of the gears
SOLUTION:
Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between T
CD
and T
0
( )
( )
0
0
8 . 2
in. 45 . 2 0
in. 875 . 0 0
T T
T F M
T F M
CD
CD C
B
=
= =
= =

Apply a kinematic analysis to relate


the angular rotations of the gears
C B
C C
B
C
B
C C B B
r
r
r r
| |
| | |
| |
8 . 2
in. 875 . 0
in. 45 . 2
=
= =
=
Sample Problem
Find the T
0
for the maximum
allowable torque on each shaft
choose the smallest
( )
( )
( )
( )
in. lb 561
in. 5 . 0
in. 5 . 0 8 . 2
8000
in. lb 663
in. 375 . 0
in. 375 . 0
8000
0
4
2
0
max
0
4
2
0
max
=
= =
=
= =
T
T
psi
J
c T
T
T
psi
J
c T
CD
CD
AB
AB
t
t
t
t
in lb 561
0
= T
Find the corresponding angle of twist for each
shaft and the net angular rotation of end A
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o
/
o o
o
6 4
2
/
o
6 4
2
/
2.22 26 . 8
26 . 8 95 . 2 8 . 2 8 . 2
95 . 2 rad 514 . 0
psi 10 2 . 11 in. 5 . 0
. 24 in. lb 561 8 . 2
2.22 rad 387 . 0
psi 10 2 . 11 in. 375 . 0
. 24 in. lb 561
+ = + =
= = =
= =

= =
= =

= =
B A B A
C B
CD
CD
D C
AB
AB
B A
in
G J
L T
in
G J
L T
| | |
| |
|
|
t
t
o
48 . 10 =
A
|
Sample Problem
A hollow steel shaft (G = 12 x 10
6
psi)
must transmit a torque of 300,000 in-lb.
The total angle of twist must not exceed 3
0
per 100ft. The maximum shearing stress
must not exceed 16,000 psi. Find the
inside diameter d if the outside diameter D
is 12.
Problem
Ss = Tr/J
16,000 psi= 300,000 in-lb (6)/ J
J = 112.5 in
4
= TL/JG
3 /180 = 300,000 in-lb (100 x 12/1)
J (12 x 10
6
psi)
J = 572.96 in
4

For hollow shaft *For Solid Shaft
J = /32 (D
4
d
4
) J = /32 D
4

527.96 in
4
= /32 (12
4
d
4)
d = 11.05
Given:
D = 12
G = 12x10
6
psi
T = 300,000 in-lb
= 3
0
Ss = 16,000 psi
Solution
A steel marine propeller is to transmit
4.5MW at 3r/s without exceeding a
shearing stress of 50MPa or twisting
through more than 1
0
in a length of 25
diameters. Compute the proper diameter if
G = 83 GPa.
Problem
P = T 2f N-m/s
T = 4.5x10
6
watts / 2(3 rev/s)
T = 238,732 N-m
From Shearing stress:
Ss = 16T / d
3
50 N/mm2 = 16(238,732N-m) / d
3
d = 290mm
From deformation:
= TL/JG
1(/180) = 238,732(1000) N-mm(25d)
/32 d
4
(83x10
3
)N/mm
2
d = 347.5mm say 348 mm

Therefore use d = 348mm

Given:
P = 4.5MW
f = 3 rev/sec
= 1
0
G = 83 GPa
Ss = 50 MPa
Solution
Reactions, Shear and Moment in Beam
-If loading is perpendicular (transverse) to the axis so that the
member (machine or structural) tends to bends then the it is called
a beam.
TYPES OF BEAMS

I.STATICALLY DETERMINATE
-beams in which the reactions of the support maybe
determined by the use of equations of static equilibrium
a. Cantilever
A beam that is supported only at one end and in such a
manner that the axis of the beam cannot rotate at that
points.
b. Simple Beam
A beam that is freely supported at both ends.
c. Over hanging Beams
A beam freely supported at two points and having one or
both ends extending from these supports.

II.STATICALLY INDETERMINATE
-If the number of reactions exerted upon the bean exceeds
the number of equations of statically equilibrium

Types of Beam
Classification of Beam Supports
Reactions in Beams (Statically Determinate)
-We can calculate the reaction forces in beams using the
equation of static equilibrium.
INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS IN BEAMS
When beams are loaded with forces and couples, internal
stress arise, i.e., both normal and shearing stress, to verify such
effect in any portion of the beam, it is necessary to know the
resultant force and the moment acting in that section.
x
A B C
D A B
R
1
x
b
a
V
RESISTING MOMENT
This couple M is called
the resisting moment
M=R1(x) A(x-a) B(x-b)
RESISTING SHEAR
The vertical force V called
the resisting forces or shear
V= R1 A B
Shear Force and Moment Diagram
When we calculate reaction forces and torques on
tension members, we are calculating external forces
and torques. Unless the material has no strength at all,
the material resists these external loads by developing
internal loads. Beams in bending also develop internal
forces to resist external forces. Since the external forces
on beams are transverse (perpendicular to the axis of
the beam), the internal resisting forces are also
transverse forces (shear Force or Resisting Shear).
Imagine a simply-supported beam with a point load at the mid-
span. Cut the beam to the left of the point load, and draw a free-
body diagram of the beam segment. In a free body diagram,
forces must balance. Therefore, a downward force at the cut edge
balances the support reaction R
A
. We call this shear force V. It is a
shear force because the force acts parallel to a surface (the cut
edge of the beam).
The forces R
A
and V are in balance (equal in value; opposite in
sign), but our segment tend to spin clockwise about point A. To
counteract this tendency to spin, a moment M develops within the
beam to prevent this rotation. The moment equals the shear force
times its distance from point A.
Cut the beam to the right of the point load, and draw the free-
body diagram. Since P is larger than R
A
, force V points upwards.
Shear Diagram
-We can sketch V as a function of location along the beam
using a Shear Diagram. Draw vertical construction lines below the
load diagram wherever the applied loads and reactions occur.
Draw a horizontal construction line, indicating zero shear load.
Next, draw the value of V along the length of the beam, as follows:
Moment Diagrams
-The moment about a point along a beam is defined as the
distance from that point to a force acting perpendicular to the
beam, so the units are force distance: lb.ft. (or ft.lb. the order
does not matter), lb.in., kipft., Nm, or kNm. We can graph the
value of the bending moment along a beam by drawing a moment
diagram.
From shear diagram, we can identify the location and size of
the largest shear load in a beam. Therefore, we know the location
of the largest shear stress, and we can also calculate the value of
this stress. Once we know the actual stress in the material, we
can compare this values with the shear strength of the material,
and we can determine whether the beam will fail in shear.


Shear diagrams are necessary for drawing bending moment
diagrams (moment diagrams), which we can use to identify the
location and magnitude of bending stresses that develop within
beams. We can compare the actual bending stresses with the
yield strength of the material, and we can determine whether the
beam will fail in bending.
Flexural Stress/Pure Bending
Pure Bending: members are subjected to
equal and opposite couples acting in the
same longitudinal plane
Bending Deformations
Beam with a plane of symmetry in pure
bending:
member remains symmetric
bends uniformly to form a circular arc
cross-sectional plane passes through arc center
and remains planar
length of top decreases and length of bottom
increases
a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the
upper and lower surfaces and for which the length
does not change
stresses and strains are negative (compressive)
above the neutral plane and positive (tension)
below it
Beam Stress/Section Properties
The maximum normal stress due to bending,
modulus section
inertia of moment section
= =
=
= =
c
I
S
I
S
M
I
Mc
m
o
A beam section with a larger section
modulus will have a lower maximum stress
Consider a rectangular beam cross section,
Ah bh
h
bh
c
I
S
6
1
2
6
1
3
12
1
2
= = = =
Between two beams with the same cross
sectional area, the beam with the greater
depth will be more effective in resisting
bending.
Structural steel beams are designed to have a
large section modulus.
Properties of American Standard Shapes
Deformations in a Transverse Cross
Section
Deformation due to bending moment M is quantified
by the curvature () of the neutral surface
EI
M
I
Mc
Ec Ec c
m m
=
= = =
1 1 o c

Sample Problem
A cast-iron machine part is acted upon
by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165
GPa and neglecting the effects of fillets,
determine (a) the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses, (b) the radius of
curvature.
SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.
( )

+ =

=
'
2
d A I I
A
A y
Y
x
Apply the elastic flexural formula to
find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
I
Mc
m
= o
Calculate the curvature
EI
M
=

1
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.
mm 38
3000
10 114
3
=

=
A
A y
Y
= =
=
=
3
3
3
3 2
10 114 3000
10 4 2 20 1200 30 40 2
10 90 50 1800 90 20 1
mm , mm , mm Area,
A y A
A y y
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4 9 - 3
2 3
12
1
2 3
12
1
2 3
12
1
2
m 10 868 mm 10 868
18 1200 40 30 12 1800 20 90
= =
+ + + =

+ =

+ =
'
I
d A bh d A I I
x
Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the
maximum tensile and compressive stresses.
4 9
4 9
mm 10 868
m 038 . 0 m kN 3
mm 10 868
m 022 . 0 m kN 3


= =


= =
=
I
c M
I
c M
I
Mc
B
B
A
A
m
o
o
o
MPa 0 . 76 + =
A
o
MPa 3 . 131 =
B
o
Calculate the curvature
( )( )
4 9 -
m 10 868 GPa 165
m kN 3
1

=
=
EI
M

m 7 . 47
m 10 95 . 20
1
1 - 3
=
=

Sample Problem
For the timber beam and loading
shown, draw the shear and bend-
moment diagrams and determine
the maximum normal stress due to
bending.
SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid
body, determine the reaction forces
Identify the maximum shear and
bending-moment from plots of their
distributions.
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
Section the beam at points near
supports and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
internal shear forces and bending
couples
SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine
the reaction forces
= = = = kN 14 kN 40 : 0 from
D B B y
R R M F
Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses
on resulting free-bodies
( )( ) 0 0 m 0 kN 20 0
kN 20 0 kN 20 0
1 1 1
1 1
= = +

=
= =

=
M M M
V V F
y
( )( ) m kN 50 0 m 5 . 2 kN 20 0
kN 20 0 kN 20 0
2 2 2
2 2
= = +

=
= =

=
M M M
V V F
y
0 kN 14
m kN 28 kN 14
m kN 28 kN 26
m kN 50 kN 26
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
= =
+ = =
+ = + =
= + =
M V
M V
M V
M V
5 - 131
Identify the maximum shear and bending-
moment from plots of their distributions.
m kN 50 kN 26 = = =
B m m
M M V
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
( )( )
3 6
3
3 6
2
6
1
2
6
1
m 10 33 . 833
m N 10 50
m 10 33 . 833
m 250 . 0 m 080 . 0


= =
=
= =
S
M
h b S
B
m
o
Pa 10 0 . 60
6
=
m
o
Sample Problem
The structure shown is constructed
of a W10x112 rolled-steel beam. (a)
Draw the shear and bending-
moment diagrams for the beam and
the given loading. (b) determine
normal stress in sections just to the
right and left of point D.
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with an
equivalent force-couple system at D.
Find the reactions at B by considering
the beam as a rigid body.
Section the beam at points near the
support and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
internal shear forces and bending
couples.
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the maximum normal
stress to the left and right of point D.
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent force-
couple system at D. Find reactions at B.
Section the beam and apply
equilibrium analyses on resulting free-
bodies.
( )( ) ft kip 5 . 1 0 3 0
kips 3 0 3 0
:
2
2
1
1
= = + =
= =

=
x M M x x M
x V V x F
C to A From
y
( ) ( ) ft kip 24 96 0 4 24 0
kips 24 0 24 0
:
2
= = +

=
= =

=
x M M x M
V V F
D to C From
y
( ) ft kip 34 226 kips 34
:
= = x M V
B to D From
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the maximum normal stress to
the left and right of point D.
From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled
steel shape, S = 126 in
3
about the X-X
axis.
3
3
in 126
in kip 1776
:
in 126
in kip 2016
:

= =

= =
S
M
D of right the To
S
M
D of left the To
m
m
o
o
ksi 0 . 16 =
m
o
ksi 1 . 14 =
m
o
Sample Problem
A simply supported steel beam is
to carry the distributed and
concentrated loads shown.
Knowing that the allowable normal
stress for the grade of steel to be
used is 160 MPa, select the wide-
flange shape that should be used.
SOLUTION:
Considering the entire beam as a free-
body, determine the reactions at A and
D.
Develop the shear diagram for the
beam and load distribution. From the
diagram, determine the maximum
bending moment.
Determine the minimum acceptable
beam section modulus. Choose the
best standard section which meets this
criteria.
Considering the entire beam as a free-body,
determine the reactions at A and D.
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
kN 0 . 52
kN 50 kN 60 kN 0 . 58 0
kN 0 . 58
m 4 kN 50 m 5 . 1 kN 60 m 5 0
=
+ = =

=
= =

y
y y
A
A
A F
D
D M
Develop the shear diagram and determine the
maximum bending moment.
( )
kN 8
kN 60
kN 0 . 52
=
= =
= =
B
A B
y A
V
curve load under area V V
A V
Maximum bending moment occurs at
V = 0 or x = 2.6 m.
( )
kN 6 . 67
,
max
=
= E to A curve shear under area M
Determine the minimum acceptable beam
section modulus.
3 3 3 6
max
min
mm 10 5 . 422 m 10 5 . 422
MPa 160
m kN 6 . 67
= =

= =

all
M
S
o
Choose the best standard section which
meets this criteria.
448 1 . 46 W200
535 8 . 44 W250
549 7 . 38 W310
474 9 . 32 W360
637 38.8 W410
mm ,
3

S Shape
Determine the minimum width b of the
beam loaded as shown if the flexural
stress is not to exceed 10 MPa.
200mm
b
A
2000N/m
5000N
B
C
D
Problem
M
D
= 0
3R1 = 500(1) + 2000(4)(2)
R1 = 7000N
R2 = 5000 + 2000(4) 7000
R2 = 6000N
From V & M diagram
Mmax = 5000 N-m
Sb = Mc/I; c = d/2, I = bd
3
/12
10x10
6
N/m
2
= 5000 N-m (0.2m/2) / b(0.2
3
m)/12
b = 0.075m
b = 75mm

-2000
5000
-4000
1000
-6000
-1000 N-m
5000 N-m
2000N/m
5000N
B
C
D
Solution
1m 2m 1m
A cantilever beam, 60mm x 200mm high
and 6m long carries a load that varies
uniformly from zero at the free end to 1000
N/m at the wall. Compute the magnitude
and location of the maximum flexural
stress. Determine the type and magnitude
of the stress in a fiber 40mm from the top
of the beam at a section 3m from the wall.
Problem
Max Moment is at fixed end
M = (1000N/m)(6m)(2m)
M = 6000N-m
Fb = 6M / bd
2
Sb = 6 (6000)(1000) N-mm / 60mm(200mm)
2
Sb = 15 N/mm
2
Sb = 15 MPa
Stress at 3m from the free end
M = (500N/m)(3m)(1m)
M = 750 N-m
I = bh
3
/12 = 60 (200
3
)/12
I = 40x10
6
mm
4
Sb = My / I = 750 (1000) N/mm (60) / 40x10
6
mm
4
Sb = 1.125N/mm
2
(Tensile)

200mm
60mm
40
60
1000N/m
6m
M
T
C
Thanks!
END OF TOPIC