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Definisi Process

The selection of a suitable process to manufacture a component is not a straightforward matter. There are many factors which need to be considered, for example: size of component, material to be processed and tolerance on dimensions. Whilst all processes have slightly different capabilities, there is also a large overlap - for many components there are a large number of processes which would do the job okay

In product analysis (and a lot of design work), the material to be processed is often known before the process to be used has been decided. This makes life a little easier as the first thing we can do now is check what processes can be used for our chosen material - i.e. which are compatible. For convenience, processes can be split up into

Metal shaping: e.g. forging, rolling, casting Polymer shaping: e.g. blow moulding, vacuum forming Composite forming: e.g. hand lay-up Ceramic processing: e.g. sintering Machining: e.g. grinding, drilling Joining: e.g. soldering, gluing

Tabel Proses
+ : routine Polymer ABS (thermoplastic)
Polymer Shaping Polymer extrusion Compression moulding Injection moulding Blow moulding Machining Milling Grinding Drilling + + + + + X +

Wood UF (thermoset)
X + ? X X X ? + + +

? : difficult
X : unsuitable Pine

Joining Fasteners Solder / braze Welding Adhesives

+ X + +

+ X X +

+ X X +

Technical aspect
The next stage is to assess the various technical aspects of each process to see whether they will perform well. For example

Can we make something this size? For instance, you can't die-cast an engine block - it's too big. Is the processes suitable for the shape we need? For example: tubes are long and thin so ideal for extrusion but not casting; and you can't blow-mould a telephone case because of all the holes in it! Will we get the finish we want? Both dimensional tolerance (accuracy) and surface roughness (smoothness) are strongly influenced by which process is used, for instance sand casting is poor for both whilst die-casting is very good. How good will the quality be? This is the most difficult problem to address and usually there is little that can be said without actually trying it! However, we can sometimes make rough comparisons - for instance sand castings can often be porous and so might not be very strong
Once all the processes that can perform well have been identified, the final step is to compare the costs of the various options

There are many costs involved in the making and selling of a product, these include

Research Advertising Packaging Distribution Manufacturing

For different products, the importance of each contribution will vary. Note that the cost is not the same as the price - the difference is the manufacturer's profit! Here we are only interested in the manufacturing cost - the other costs are not likely to be affected much by our choice of process.

Manufacturing cost
basic manufacturing cost has 3 main elements
Material Cost Start up Cost Running Cost

Material cost
The material cost per component depends on the size of the component. We may assume that (for a given component) the same amount of material is used for all processes: Material cost per part = constant (same value for all processes)

Start up cost
All new products have one-off startup costs, such as special tools or moulds which have to be made. This cost only occurs once, so it is shared between all the total number of components made - the 'batch size': Startup cost per part = one-off cost batch size (gets less for bigger batches and is different for each process)

Running cost
Many manufacturing costs will be charged at an hourly rate, such as energy and manpower. In addition the capital cost of the machine must be "written off" over several years, which can also be regarded as an hourly cost - the same would apply if instead a machine was rented. The share of this hourly running cost per part depends on how many parts are made per hour, the production rate: Running cost per part = hourly cost production rate (constant, but different for each process)

Total cost

Data proses
Each process has a range of values for one-off costs, hourly costs and production rate - these values can be obtained from data sheets. A particular value from this range can be chosen depending on what item is to be made. Factors in this choice include component size and complexity, but choosing sensible values needs some experience. To illustrate how this works, let's compare 2 casting processes - sand casting and die casting. We know from experience that sand casting is only used for small batches and die casting for large batches - plotting the cost curves for these 2 processes should show us why this is the case. The data (which we have obtained from data sheets) for the manufacture of a small part by each of the casting processes

Data proses
DATA Sand casting Die casting

One-off cost
Hourly cost Production rate

30/hour 100 parts/hour

35/hr 500 parts/hour

Manufacturing cost
COSTS Batch size Running costs (= hourly cost production rate) Sand casting: 30/hour 100 parts/hour = 30p 100 per part Startup costs (=one-off cost batch size) 100 100 parts = 100p per part 100 10000 parts = 1p per part 2000 100 parts = 20 per part 2000 10000 parts = 20p per part

100,000 35/hour 500 parts/hour = 7p per 100 part

Die casting:


The startup cost varies with batch size, so we really need to work out the cost for each possible batch size. Let's assume that the material costs are 10p and put the whole lot together to work out the total cost...

Total cost
Process Material cost Running cost Startup cost 100 100 = 100p 2000 100 = 2000p Total cost

Sand casting: 10p



Die casting:





Comparison plot
Sand casting is cheaper than die casting if only 5,000 parts are to be made. Die casting is cheaper than sand casting if more the 50,000 parts are to be made. Sand casting and die casting cost the same if around 9000 parts are to be made