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Facility Location

Logistics Management
Factors that Affect Location Decisions
Distance Measures
Classification of Planar Facility Location Problems
Planar Single-Facility Location Problems
Minisum Location Problem with Rectilinear Distances
Minisum Location Problem with Euclidean Distances
Minimax Location Problem with Rectilinear Distances
Minimax Location Problem with Euclidean Distances
Planar Multi-Facility Location Problems
Minisum Location Problem with Rectilinear Distances
Logistics Management
Logistics Management can be defined as the management of the transportation and
distribution of goods. The term goods includes raw materials or subassemblies obtained
from suppliers as well as finished goods shipped from plants to warehouses or
customers.
Logistics management problems can be classified into three categories:
Location Problems: involve determining the location of one or more new facilities
in one or more of several potential sites. The cost of locating each new facility at
each of the potential sites is assumed to be known. It is the fixed cost of locating a
new facility at a particular site plus the operating and transportation cost of serving
customers from this facility-site combination.
Allocation Problems: assume that the number and location of facilities are known
a priori and attempt to determine how each customer is to be served. In other
words, given the demand for goods at each customer center, the production or
supply capacities at each facility, and the cost of serving each customer from each
facility, the allocation problem determines how much each facility is to supply to
each customer center.
Location-Allocation Problems:involve determining not only how much each
customer is to receive from each facility but also the number of facilities along with
their locations and capacities.
Factors that Affect Location Decisions
Proximity to source of raw materials.
Cost and availability of energy and utilities.
Cost, availability, skill, and productivity of labor.
Government regulations at the federal, state, county, and local levels.
Taxes at the federal, state, county, and local levels.
Insurance.
Construction costs and land price.
Government and political stability.
Exchange rate fluctuation.
Export and import regulations, duties, and tariffs.
Transportation system.
Technical expertise.
Environmental regulations at the federal, state, county and local levels.
Support services.
Community services - schools, hospitals, recreation, and so on.
Weather.
Proximity to customers.
Business climate.
Competition-related factors.
Distance Measures
Rectilinear distance (L
1
norm)
d(X, P
i
) = |x - a
i
| + |y - b
i
|

Straight line or Euclidean distance (L
2
norm)
d(X, P
i
) =

Tchebyshev distance (L

norm)
d(X, P
i
) = max{|x - a
i
|, |y - b
i
|}

(x - a ) + (y - b )
i
2
i
2
X = (x, y)
P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
)
P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
)
P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
)
X = (x, y)
X = (x, y)
Classification of Planar Facility Location Problems
Facility
Location
Single-
Facility
Multi-
Facility
Minisum
Minimax
Rectilinear
Euclidean
Tchebyshev
Rectilinear
Euclidean
Tchebyshev
Rectilinear
Euclidean
Tchebyshev
Rectilinear
Euclidean
Tchebyshev
Minisum
Minimax
# of facilities Objectives Distance measures
Planar Single-Facility Location
Formulations
Minisum Formulation :
Min f(x) =
where X = (x, y) : location of the new facility
P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
) : location of the i-th existing facility, i = 1, , m
w
i
: weight associated to the i-th existing facility
For example, w
i
= ,
where c
i
: cost per hour of travel, t
i
: number of trips per month,
v
i
: average velocity.
Minimax Formulation :
Min f(x) = Max {w
i
d(X, P
i
)} Min z
s. t. w
i
d(X, P
i
) s z, i = 1, , m
c
i
t
v
i
i
i = 1, , m
( ) w d X P
i
i
m
i

=1
,
Insights for the Minisum Problem with
Euclidean Distance
Majority Theorem :
When one weight constitutes a majority of the total weight, an optimal new facility
location coincides with the existing facility which has the majority weight.
w
5

w
1

w
2

w
4

w
3

P
1

P
2

P
3

P
4

P
5

Weight proportional
to w
i

String
Hole
Horizontal
pegboard
Minisum Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances
Min f(x, y) =
Note that f(x, y) = f
1
(x) + f
2
(y)
where f
1
(x) =
f
2
(y) =

The cost of movement in the x direction is independent of the cost of
movement in the y direction, and viceversa.
Now, we look at the x direction.
f
1
(x) is convex a local min is a global min.
w [| x a | | y b |
i i i
i=1
m
+ ]
w | x a |
i i
i=1
m

w | y b |
i i
i=1
m

Minisum Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
The coordinates of the existing facilities are sorted so that
a
1
s a
2
s a
3
s .
Now, we consider the case of m = 3.
Case x s a
1
:
f
1
(x) = w
1
|a
1
- x| + w
2
|a
2
- x| + w
3
|a
3
- x|
= - (w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
)x + w
1
a
1
+ w
2
a
2
+ w
3
a
3

= - W x + w
1
a
1
+ w
2
a
2
+ w
3
a
3
, where W = w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3

Case a
1
s x s a
2
:
f
1
(x) = w
1
|a
1
- x| + w
2
|a
2
- x| + w
3
|a
3
- x|
= (w
1
- w
2
- w
3
)x - w
1
a
1
+ w
2
a
2
+ w
3
a
3

= (- W + 2 w
1
) x - w
1
a
1
+ w
2
a
2
+ w
3
a
3


Objective Function f
1
(x)
a
3
a
2
a
1
w
3
w
2
w
1
w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
w
1
+ w
2
- w
3
w
1
- w
2
- w
3
- w
1
- w
2
- w
3
The slope changes sign
x
f
1
(x)
Minisum Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
Slopes of f
1
(x) :
M
0
= - (w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
) = - W
M
1
= 2 w
1
+ M
0
M
2
= 2 w
2
+ M
1
M
3
= 2 w
3
+ M
2
= w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
= W
Median conditions :
f
1
(x) is minimized at the point where the slope changes from nonpositive
to nonnegative.
M
1
= w
1
- w
2
- w
3
< 0 2 w
1
< (w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
) = W
w
1
< W/2
M
2
= w
1
+ w
2
- w
3
> 0 2 (w
1
+ w
2
) > (w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
) = W
(w
1
+ w
2
) > W/2
Example 1
m = 3
a
1
= 10 a
2
= 20 a
3
= 40
w
1
= 5 w
2
= 6 w
3
= 4


W = w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
= 15

W/2 = 7.5
w
1
= 5 < 7.5
w
1
+ w
2
= 11 > 7.5
Minimizing point : a
2
= 20
Problem Data :
Solution :
Linear Programming Formulation
Min f
1
(x) = w
1
|a
1
- x| + w
2
|a
2
- x| + w
3
|a
3
- x|

Min z = w
1
(r
1
+ s
1
) + w
2
(r
2
+ s
2
) + w
3
(r
3
+ s
3
), Dual variables
s. t. x - r
1
+ s
1
= a
1
,

: y
1

x - r
2
+ s
2
= a
2
,

: y
2


x - r
3
+ s
3
= a
3
,

: y
3

r
j
, s
j
> 0, j = 1, 2, 3.
Relationships among variables : a
j
- x = r
j
- s
j
, |a
j
- x| = r
j
+ s
j
,

r
j
, s
j
> 0.
If both r
j
, s
j
> 0, we can reduce each by c
j
= min {r
j
, s
j
}.
This maintains feasibility and reduces z
In an optimal solution, at least one of the r
j
and s
j
is 0, i. e., r
j
s
j
= 0.
Linear Programming Formulation (cont.)
Dual Problem :
Max g = - a
1
y
1
- a
2
y
2
- a
3
y
3
+ (w
1
a
1
+ w
2
a
2
+ w
3
a
3
)
s. t. y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3
= w
1
+ w
2
+ w
3
= W
0 s y
j
s 2 w
j
, j = 1, 2, 3
Min a
1
y
1
+ a
2
y
2
+ a
3
y
3

s. t. y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3
= W
0 s y
j
s 2 w
j
, j = 1, 2, 3





Complementary slackness conditions :
0 < y
j
* < 2 w
j
x* = a
j

1 2
0 s y
1
s 2 w
1
a
1
0 s y
2
s 2 w
2
a
2
a
3
0 s y
3
s 2 w
3

W W
a
1
s a
2
s a
3

Example 1 : Dual Solution
f
1
(x) = 5

|x - 10| + 6 |x - 20| + 4 |x - 40|
W = 15






y
1
* = 10
y
2
* = 5
y
3
* = 0
0 < y
2
* < 12 x* = a
2
= 20
1 2
0 s y
1
s 10

10

0 s y
2
s 12

20

40

0 s y
3
s 8
15 15
Minisum Location Problem with Euclidean
Distances
Min f(x, y) =







Colinear case : all the points are in a line




The problem reduces to minimizing f
1
(x), which is the rectilinear distance
problem.
(a
i
, b
i
)
The optimum location
is always in the convex
hull of
{(a
1
, b
1
), , (a
m
, b
m
)}
w [(x a ) (y b )
i i
2
i
2
i=1
m
+ ]
1
2
(a
i
, b
i
)
Non-colinear Case
The graph of is a cone (strictly convex function).










f(x, y) = is strictly convex unless the convex
hull is a line segment.
(a
i
, b
i
)
contours
(a
i
, b
i
, 0)
[(x a ) (y b )
i
2
i
2
+ ]
1
2
[(x a ) (y b )
i
2
i
2
+ ]
1
2
y
x
y
x
w [(x a ) (y b )
i i
2
i
2
i=1
m
+ ]
1
2
Non-colinear Case (cont.)
First order optimality conditions :





Any point where the partial derivatives are zero is optimal.

Let


and

i
i
i
2
i
2
(x, y)
w
[(x a ) (y b )
=
+ ]
1
2
c
c
c
c
f(x, y)
x
0
f(x, y)
y
0
x
y
0
0
=
=
(x
0
, y
0
) is optimal
I (x, y) (x, y)
i
=
=

i
m
1
Non-colinear Case (cont.)
c
c

c
c

f(x, y)
x
(x, y) (x - a )
f(x, y)
y
(x, y) (y - b )
i
i=1
m
i
i
i=1
m
i
=
=
x
a (x, y)
(x, y)
y
b (x, y)
(x, y)
i i
i=1
m
i i
i=1
m
=

=

I
I
= 0
= 0
No-colinear Case (cont.)
If the optimal solution is in an exiting facility (a
i
, b
i
), then .
A simple way to avoid the problem of division by zero is to perturb
the problem as follows :


where o > 0 and small.
f(x,y) is flat near the optimum.
Min f(x, y) w [(x a ) (y b ) ]
i i
2
i
2
1
2
i 1
m
= + +
=
o
x
y
f(x,y)
(x*,y*)

i
(x, y) =
Weiszfelds Algorithm
Initialization :


Iterative step (k = 1, 2, ) :




Terminating conditions :


(i) (x , y )
1
m
(a , b )
(ii) (x , y )
1
W
w (a , b ), where W = w + ... +w
0 0
i i
i 1
m
0 0
i i i
i 1
m
1 m
=
=
=
=
(i) (x , y ) - (x , y )
(ii) f(x , y ) - f(x , y )
k k k-1 k-1
k-1 k-1 k k
s
s
c
c
x =
a (x , y )
(x , y )
y =
b (x , y )
(x , y )
k
i i
k-1 k-1
i=1
m
k-1 k-1
k
i i
k-1 k-1
i=1
m
k-1 k-1

I
I
or
or
Example 2
Problem Data :
m = 4
P
1
= (0, 0) w
1
= 1 P
2
= (0, 10) w
2
= 1
P
3
= (5, 0) w
3
= 1 P
4
= (12, 6) w
4
= 1
Solution :
x
0
= (5+12)/4 = 4.25 y
0
= (10+6)/4 = 4
k
1
2
5
10
Optimum
(x, y)
4.023, 3.116
3.949, 2.647
3.958, 2.124
3.995, 2.011
4.000, 2.000
f(x, y)
24.808
24.665
24.600
24.597
Minimax Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances
Possible example : locating an ambulance with the existing facilities being
the locations of possible accidents.
X

P
3
P
4
P
2
P
1
h
3
h
4
h
2
h
1
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital :
Poss. Accident :
Ambulance :
Minimax Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
Notation
EF (existing facilities) locations : P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
), i = 1, , m
NF (new facility = ambulance) location : X = (x, y)
Travel distance from EF i to the nearest hospital = h
i
, i = 1, , m
Travel distance from NF to EF i = |x - a
i
| + |y - b
i
|
Formulation :
Min g(x, y)
where g(x, y) = max {|x - a
i
| + |y - b
i
| + h
i
: i = 1, , m}

Min z
s. t. |x - a
i
| + |y - b
i
| + h
i
s z, i = 1, , m
Minimax Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
We want to make the inequalities linear
|x - a
i
| + |y - b
i
| s z - h
i


x - a
i
+ y - b
i
s z - h
i
(1)
a
i
- x + b
i
- y s z - h
i
(2)
a
i
- x + y - b
i
s z - h
i
(3)
x - a
i
+ b
i
- y s z - h
i
(4)
Make the
intersection as small
as possible with the
largest diamond as
small as possible.
(2) (4)
(3) (1)
Minimax Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
Min z
s. t. x + y - z s a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
, i = 1, ..., m
x + y + z > a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
, i = 1, ..., m
- x + y - z s - a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
, i = 1, ..., m
- x + y + z > - a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
, i = 1, ..., m

Min z
s. t. x + y - z s c
1
where c
1
= Min {a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
}
x + y + z > c
2
c
2
= Max {a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
}
- x + y - z s c
3
c
3
= Min {- a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
}
- x + y + z > c
4
c
4
= Max {- a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
}
i = 1, ..., m
i = 1, ..., m
i = 1, ..., m
i = 1, ..., m
Minimax Location Problem with
Rectilinear Distances (cont.)
Min z
s. t. - x - y + z > - c
1

x + y + z > c
2

x - y + z > - c
3

- x + y + z > c
4

c
5
= Max {c
2
- c
1
, c
4
- c
3
} z = c
5
/2
Optimal solution :
(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) = 1/2 (c
1
- c
3
, c
1
+ c
3
+ c
5
, c
5
)
(x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) = 1/2 (c
2
- c
4
, c
2
+ c
4
- c
5
, c
5
)
The line segment joining (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) is the set of optimal NF
locations
z > (c
2
- c
1
)/2 (lower bound)
z > (c
4
- c
3
)/2 (lower bound)
Minimax Location Problem with Euclidean
Distances
Examples : helicopter in an emergency unit,
radio transmitter

EF : (a
i
, b
i
), i = 1, , m
NF : (x, y)

min g(x, y)
where g(x, y) = max {[(x - a
i
)
2
+ (y - b
i
)
2
]
1/2
, i = 1, , m}
min z
s. t. [(x - a
i
)
2
+ (y - b
i
)
2
]
1/2
s z, i = 1, , m
min z'
s. t. (x - a
i
)
2
+ (y - b
i
)
2
s z ', i = 1, , m
(a
i
, b
i
)
(x, y)
Elzinga-Hearn Algorithm (1971)
Step 1. Choose any two points and go to Step 2.
Step 2. Find the minimum covering circle for the chosen points*. Discard from the set
of chosen points those points not defining the minimum covering circle, and go
to Step 3.
Step 3. If the constructed circle contains all the points, then the center of the circle is a
minimax location, so stop. Otherwise, choose some point outside the circle,
add it to the set of points defining the circle, and go to Step 2.
* Find the minimum covering circle for the chosen points :
A. If there are two points, let the two points define the diameter of the circle.
B. If there are three points defining a right or obtuse triangle, let the two points
opposite to the right or obtuse angle define the diameter of the circle.
Otherwise, construct a circle through the three points (see Figure 1).
C. If there are four points, construct a circle using as defining points those
indicated in Figure 2.
Elzinga-Hearn Algorithm (cont.)
Defining points :
BD
Defining points :
ABD
Defining points :
ABD
Defining points :
AD
A
B
Defining points :
BCD
Defining points :
ACD
Defining points :
ABD
Defining points :
AD
A'
B
A
Defining points :
CD
Defining points :
BD
Figure 1. Alternative B Figure 2. Alternative C
B'
C
C'
Planar Multi-Facility Location Problems
Old Facility :
New Facility :
X
2
X
1
P
4
P
3
P
2
P
1
v
12
w
24
w
23
w
12
w
11
Minisum Multi-Facility Location Problem
with Rectilinear Distances
i j
n
1 j
m
1 i
j i
n k j 1
k j j k
a x w x x v +

= = s < s
Location of new facilities: X
j
= (x
j
, y
j
), j = 1, , n.
Location of existing facilities: P
i
= (a
i
, b
i
), i = 1, , m.
Weight between new facilities j and k: v
jk
, where k > j.
Weight between new facility j and existing facility i: w
ji
.
Problem formulation:
Min f((x
1
,y
1
), , (x
n
, y
n
)) = f
1
(x
1
, , x
n
) + f
2
(y
1
, , y
n
)
where
f
1
(x
1
, , x
n
) =
f
2
(y
1
, , y
n
) =
i j
n
1 j
m
1 i
j i
n k j 1
k j j k
b y w y y v +

= = s < s
Example 3
Problem Data : n = 2 (NF) m = 3 (EF)
v = [v
jk
] = w = [w
ji
] =
x = [x
j
] = (x
1
, x
2
) a = [a
j
] = (10, 20, 40)
Min f
1
(x
1
, x
2
) = 2 |x
1
- x
2
| + 2 |x
1
- 10| + |x
1
- 20| + 4 |x
2
- 20| + 5 |x
2
- 40|
Min f
1
(x
1
, x
2
) = 2 (p
12
+ q
12
) + 2 (r
11
+ s
11
) + (r
12
+ s
12
) + 4 (r
21
+ s
21
) + 5 (r
23
+ s
23
)
s. t. x
1
- x
2
- p
12
+ q
12


= 0
x
1
- r
11
+ s
11


= 10
x
1
- r
12
+ s
12


= 20
x
2
- r
21
+ s
21


= 10
x
2
- r
23
+ s
23


= 40
Relationships among variables :
x
1
- x
2
= p
12
- q
12
, |x
1
- x
2
| = p
12
+ q
12
, p
12
, q
12
> 0
x
i
- a
j
= r
ij
- s
ij
, |x
i
- a
j
| = r
ij
+ s
ij
, r
ij
, s
ij
> 0
0 2
0 0
|
\

|
.
|
2 1 0
4 0 5
|
\

|
.
|
Example 3 (Dual Problem)
Max (- 10 u
11
- 20 u
12
- 10 u
21
- 40 u
23
) + (102 + 201 + 104 + 405)
Min 10 u
11
+ 20 u
12
+ 10 u
21
+ 40 u
23

s. t. z
12
+ u
11
+ u
12


= 5
- z
12
+ u
21
+ u
23


= 7
0 s z
12
s 4
0 s u
11
s 4
0 s u
12
s 2
0 s u
21
s 8
0 s u
23
s 10
w v w w v
2 1

7
12
ji jk i ji jk
= +
|
\

|
.
| +

|
\

|
.
| =
|
\

|
.
|

0
4 0 5
0 2
2 0
5
Equivalent Network Flow Problem
After drawing the network, the solution can be usually obtained by inspection.

N
1

N
2

E
3

E
1

E
2
N
3

1
4
8 12
Cap =
Cap =
Cap =
u
11
s 4
u
12
s 2
z
12
s 4
u
21
s 8
u
23
s 10
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
12
(20)
(10)
(40)
5
7
Equivalent Network Flow Problem (cont.)
Complementary slackness conditions :
1. 0 < z
jk
* x
k
* s x
j
*
z
jk
* < 2 v
jk
x
j
* s x
k
*
In particular,
0 < z
jk
* < 2 v
jk
x
j
* = x
k
*
2. 0 < u
ji
* a
i
s x
j
*
u
ji
* < 2 w
ji
x
j
* s a
i

In particular,
0 < u
ji
* < 2 w
ji
x
j
* = a
i

In Example 3,
0 < z
12
* < 2 v
12
x
1
* = x
2
*,
0 < u
12
= 2 w
12
x
2
* = a
1
= 10.
If the network is not connected, then the problem decomposes into independent
problems, one for each component.
Example 4
Four hospitals located within a city are cooperating to establish a centralized blood-bank facility that
will serve the hospitals. The new facility is to be located such that the (total) distance traveled is
minimized. The hospitals are located at the following coordinates: P
1
=(5,10), P
2
=(7,6), P
3
=(4,2), and
P
4
=(16,3). The number of deliveries to be made per week between the blood-bank facility and each
hospital is estimated to be 3, 8, 2, and 10, respectively. Assuming rectilinear travel, determine the
optimum location.
m = 4 P
1
= (5, 10) w
1
= 3 P
2
= (7, 6) w
2
= 8
P
3
= (4, 2) w
3
= 2 P
4
= (16, 3) w
4
= 10 W =
Computation of x*:
a
3
= 4 w
3
= 2 w
3
= 2
a
1
= 5 w
1
= 3 w
3
+ w
1
= 5
a
2
= 7 w
2
= 8 w
3
+ w
1
+ w
2
= 13 x* =
a
4
= 16 w
4
= 10
Computation of y*:
b
3
= 2 w
3
= 2 w
3
= 2
b
4
= 3 w
4
= 10 w
3
+ w
4
= 12 y* =
b
2
= 6 w
2
= 8
b
1
= 10 w
1
= 3
Example 5
Find the optimal location of an ambulance
with respect to four (known) possible
accident locations which coordinates are
P
1
=(6,11), P
2
=(12,5), P
3
=(14,7), and
P
4
=(10,16). The objective is to minimize
the maximum distance from the ambulance
location to an accident location and from
the accident location to its closest hospital.
The distances from the accident locations
to their closest hospitals are h
1
=10, h
2
=16,
h
3
=14, and h
4
=11. Assume that distances
are rectilinear. If multiple optima exist,
find all optimal solutions.

(5, 4) 6 8 10 12 14
(6, 11)
(10, 16)
(12, 5)
(10, 7)
(14, 7)
(12, 9)
h
4
= 11
h
2
= 16
h
3
= 14
h
1
= 10
16

14

12

10

8

6
Example 5 Solution
m = 4 P
1
= (6, 11) h
1
= 10 P
2
= (12, 5) h
2
= 16
P
3
= (14, 7) h
3
= 14 P
4
= (10, 16) h
4
= 11
c
1
= min {a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
} = min {6+11-10, 12+5-16, 14+7-14, 10+16-11} =
c
2
= max {a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
} = max {6+11+10, 12+5+16, 14+7+14, 10+16+11} =
c
3
= min {-a
i
+ b
i
- h
i
} = min {-6+11-10, -12+5-16, -14+7-14, -10+16-11} =
c
4
= max {-a
i
+ b
i
+ h
i
} = max {-6+11+10, -12+5+16, -14+7+14, -10+16+11} =
c
5
= max (c
2
- c
1
, c
4
- c
3
}= max { - , - } =
Optimal objective value:
z* =
Set of optimal solutions: line segment defined by the following end points:
(x
1
*, y
1
*) = (c
1
- c
3
, c
1
+ c
3
+ c
5
) = ( - , + + ) = ( , )
(x
2
*, y
2
*) = (c
2
- c
4
, c
2
+ c
4
- c
5
) = ( - , + - ) = ( , )
=
2
5
c
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Example 6
Given five existing facilities located at points P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
, and P
5
as shown below, determine the
optimum location for a new facility which will minimize the maximum distance to the existing
facilities. Assume that distances are Euclidean.

Elzinga-Hearn algorithm:

Figure 1 : Initial set of points = {P
1
, P
2
, P
3
}; center = C
1
.
Figure 2 : 2
nd
set of points = {P
1
, P
2
, P
4
}; center = C
2
.
Figure 3 : 3
rd
set of points = {P
2
, P
4
, P
5
}; center = C
3
(optimal location).
Figure 1
P
3
P
1
P
2
P
4
C
1
P
5
P
2
'

P
3
'
P
1
'
Figure 2
P
3
P
1
P
2
P
4
P
5
C
2
P
2
'
P
1
'
P
4
'
Figure 3
P
3
P
1
P
2
P
4
P
5
C
3
P
4
'
P
5
'
P
1
'