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Is There Multiple Intelligence?

EQ vs. IQ

Definition of Intelligence
The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason

The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.

What is Intelligence?
"Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment - Wechsler

What is Intelligence?
Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components:

1. The ability to learn from experience.

2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.

Factors of General Intelligence Tests

1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies 2. Number -- mathematical operations 3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation 4. Associative Memory -- rote memory 5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences 6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, and math problems

What Do We Know About IQ?

Predicts school grades relatively well Does not predict success in life Predicts 6% of job success Peaks in late teens Culture-bound, Gender Bias, SES Racial controversies Gets you in the door Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law) Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA) Static

What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?

Non-Ability Factors Role:

"individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environmentIt is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc."
- Wechsler

Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From?

In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management) Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined it Goleman (1995-2003) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance

Gardners Seven Intelligences

Intelligence Core Components


Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical Scientist or numerical patterns; ability to handle long Mathematician chains of reasoning. Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language. Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness. Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on ones initial perceptions.


Poet Journalist Violinist Composer



Sculptor Navigator

Gardners Seven Intelligences

Intelligence Core Components
BodilyKinesthetic Abilities to control ones body movements and to handle objects skillfully. Capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. Access to ones own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw upon them to guide behavior; knowledge of ones own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.

Dancer Athlete


Therapist Salesman


Person with detailed accurate selfknowledge

Is There Multiple Intelligence?

Social Intelligence
the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully

Emotional Intelligence
ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?

Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour

I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence."
- Wechsler

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Mayer-Salovey Model

MSCEIT Performance or ability measure

Bar-On Model EQ-I Self-report measure

Goleman Model
ECI - Self Report Measure 360 measure

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Emotional intelligence involves the abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth
- Mayer & Salovey (1997)

Mayer - Salovey Model

Social communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and nonverbal signals such as posture and facial expression Emotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotions Many theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species.

Testing Emotional Intelligence

How should you measure an intelligence? With an ability test Ask person to solve problems Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)
MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess

Emotional Intelligence. It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills. It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective.

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)

Identifying Emotions: identify emotions in faces Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problems

Understanding Emotions: figure out what makes people tick Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions

Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test







MSCEIT Structure
Identify Emotions - Faces: 3 faces (4 5-part Qs) - Pictures: 6 designs (6 5-part Qs) Facilitating Thought (Use Emotions) - Sensations: 5 situations (5 3-part Qs) - Facilitation: 5 problems (5 3-part Qs) Understand Emotions - Changes: 20 item (20 Qs) - Blends: 12 items (12 Qs) Manage Emotions - Emotion Management: 5 situations (5 4-part) - Emotional Relationships: 3 situations (3 3-part)

Identify Emotions
Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects

Question Types Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs.

How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.

What Is Emotional Intelligence?


How much is each feeling below expressed by this face?

1. No Happiness

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

Extreme Happiness Extreme Fear

2. No Fear

INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1 2 3 4 5 1. Happiness 2. Sadness
Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.

Facilitate Thought
Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion Question Types How moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughts How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.

1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?
Not Useful
a. tension b. surprise c. joy 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

5 5 5

Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.

Understand Emotions

Ability Understand the causes of emotions Question Types Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions.
How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.


Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________.
a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jittery

Ability Understand the causes of emotions How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.

Manage Emotions
Ability Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking.

Question Types Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems.

How the Ability May Be Used Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions.

Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses. Problem with the ability approach: Is there a right way to feel? Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way! Whats the right response to someone shouting?

Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

Scoring The MSCEIT

Consensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sample Expert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions

Consensus Scoring

scoring has been used with great success. It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people. For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be happiness.

Expert Scoring
Based on Wechsler intelligence tests Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses Compare test-takers response to experts ratings

Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge

Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upward So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree.

How Was the MSCEIT Standardized?

Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 Englishspeaking data sites in: Australia Canada India South Africa United Kingdom United States Ages 17 to 79 Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education

MSCEIT Reliability







Faces .80
Pictures .88

Synesthesia .64
Facilitation .65

Blends .66
Changes .70

Emtn Mangmt .69

Emtn Rltns .67

Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985)

Overall EIQ r = .93

Experiential Area r = .90

Reasoning Area r = .88

Perceiving Emotion r = .91

Using Emotion r = .79

Understanding Emotion r = .80

Managing Emotion r = .83

Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion

In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models
Overall EIQ

Experiential Area

Reasoning Area

Perceiving Emotion

Using Emotion

Understanding Emotion

Managing Emotion


is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (Ns > 100):

Intelligence Tests
Big Five Personality Scales Self-report Scales of EQ,
optimism, empathy
r = .00 to .40

r = .00 to .35

r = .00 to .35

Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press.

Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships:

More fights, drug use
r = .21 to .40, p < .05

More alcohol and tobacco use

Higher ratings of aggression by peers
at school

r = .15 to 24, p < .05

r = .20 to .46, p < .001

Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48.

MSCEITS Criterion Validity


Behavior Self-Improvement -.16** Rational Control -.39** Life Enthusiasm .22** Relatedness .30** Destructive Behavior -.33**

503 208 208 208 208

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence ones ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures
- Bar-On (1997)

Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed?

To help answer a basic question: Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?

Dr. BarOn and Emotional Intelligence

Dr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980 factors that were related to success in life why some people with moderate IQ do well in life while others with high IQ fail Distinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence) components resemble personality factors, but can change and can be altered

Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i

Identified key determinants of success Clustered determinants of success into factors Operationally defined the factors Constructed the EQ-i Examined the factor structure, reliability, & validity Validated the EQ-i across cultures Extensively normed (>10,000) Continued validation

How Does the EQ-i Work?

133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from Not True of Me to True of Me 30 minutes to complete Standard scores based on 100 as the average, Standard Deviation of 15 Includes the following scales: Total EQ 5 EQ Composite Scales 15 EQ Content Scales 4 Validity Scales

BarOn/EQ-i Factors
Intra-Personal Emotional SelfAwareness Assertiveness Self-Regard Self-Actualization Independence Inter-Personal Interpersonal Relationship Empathy Social Responsibility Adaptability Problem Solving Flexibility Reality Testing Stress Management Stress Tolerance Impulse Control General Mood Optimism Happiness

Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others Im fun to be with I like helping people

Rating Scale:

1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me

5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me

EQ-I Scoring
Standard Score Guideline Markedly High 130+ Atypically well developed emotional capacity 120-129 Very High Extremely well developed emotional capacity 110-119 High Well developed emotional capacity 90-109 Average Adequate emotional capacity 80-89 Low Under-developed emotional capacity 70-79 Very Low Extremely under-developed emotional capacity Under 70 Markedly Low Atypically impaired emotional capacity

Sample Sizes
- Over 10,000 used during R&D

- 3,831 used for the norms

Age Less than 30 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 or over

Males 678 432 452 214

Females 814 404 420 229

Subgroup Representation
Subgroup Caucasian Hispanic Asian Black Other % of Sample 77% 3% 8% 7% 5%

Reliability and Validity

Good reliability test-retest (>.6 @ 4mths) Cronbachs alpha (.75 to .89) Good validity construct (with other psych. tests) varying relationships (weak to strong) correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success

EQ-I and Age Differences EQ and Age (n=3831)

Some of the Applications of the EQ-i

Recruiting high performers Retaining high performers Teambuilding Managing diversity Leadership development Coaching Performance management Risk management Self development Change management Merger integration & re-shaping culture Restructuring & realignment Stress management Career planning

EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Models

EQ-i - Bar-Ons test NEO PI-R - Costa & McCrae Extraversion Warmth, gregariousness, optimism, assertiveness, high-energy

Intrapersonal Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, selfactualization, independence

Interpersonal Empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility Stress Management Problem solving, reality testing, flexibility Adaptability Stress tolerance, impulse control General Mood happiness, optimism

Neuroticism Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxiety

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures.
Predicted r = + .50 or more



What Is Emotional Intelligence?

However, the measures are not highly related.

Actual r = .00 to .15



What Is Emotional Intelligence?

What Does This Mean? EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things. How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence? How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT?

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler:

- Bar-On influenced by Wechslers search for non-intellective factors. - Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework.

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner.

EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionallyintelligent behavior as reported by the person.

Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success




EQ & Work Success (n = 100)

Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.

What Emotional Intelligence Is Not

Cognitive Intelligence (IQ)

IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1) estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success