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Time Management
Learning Objectives
When you have completed this module you will be able to define the
key concepts associated with Time Management and you will be able to:

Identify the major Time wasters in your daily role

Understand the nature of Time Management
Learning Objectives
Understand a range of tools, techniques and concepts for Time

Use these techniques to build an effective Time Management process
that will enhance your productivity and lower your stress

Explain the benefits of effective Time Management process

What is Time Management?
ability to make the most efficient use of the time that
you have.
Unique Characteristics
Non discriminatory
Once lost, . LOST FOREVER.
Time Management & The Organization
Looking at time management from the perspective of the organization
what are the benefits:

Improved productivity through improved use of time by the personnel

Better performance in terms of on time delivery to customers

Increased profitability

Improved planning and control of business systems

Better alignment of activities by incorporating co-ordination of tasks and

Reduction of stress

Essential Habits
Essential habits for good time management are:
Know where the hours are going
Keep focused on the end result
Work to defined priorities
Schedule time for important issues
Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them
Confront your own indecision and delay
Take the stress out of work
Keep applying the essential habits!
Time Wasters?

External time wasters
Be aware of ways others or the environment waste
your time:
Interruptions, especially email
Office socializing
Too many meetings
Unscheduled visitors
Poor work environment
Unclear goals
Trying to get others cooperation
Bureaucratic red tape
Others you can think of ____________________
Internal time wasters
Be aware of ways in which you waste your own
Lack of planning
Lack of priorities
Slow reading skills
Physical or mental exhaustion
Not being able to say no
Messy work areas
Low motivation
Others you can think of ____________________
Time management process
1. Set your own priorities
1. Personal
2. Professional
2. Determine your goals for each priority
3. Plan the steps for goal attainment
4. Allocate time appropriately for each step
5. Use time management tools/techniques

Step 1: Set priorities
Are you unsure what is important to you? Think
about what you would do if you only had one
more year to live

You cant do everything:

Think about what you would like to accomplish

Think about what regrets you might have for not
accomplishing something

Step 2: Set goals for each priority
Personal priority: spend more time with family
Goal: Spend additional hour with family at dinner
Goal: Spend one afternoon every three months with parents

Professional priority: achieve promotion
Goal: Learn to use MS Outlook Express
Goal: Take one course each semester toward CIMA certificate

Step 3: Plan for goal attainment

Planning is bringing the future into the present
so you can do something about it now.

Alan Lakein, time management guru

Step 4: Plan to allocate time
Visualize the end result: your goal
Estimate the time required
Break the whole into pieces
Develop a schedule
Check your progress against your time estimate
Refine the schedule if needed
Anticipate/allow for possible problems

Step 5: Time management tools and techniques
1 Notes and Checklists
Recognition of the demands on energy & time
2 Calendars and appointment books
Scheduling with some focus on the future
3 Prioritization
Comparison of the relative worth of activities
4 Self management
Realization that time cannot be managed - it is ourselves that we have to

Types of Time
Time can be categorized into two types:

Fast time
when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity

Slow time
when bored with an activity or having a bad time
when scared
Over- & Under-estimating Time
Time for tasks or activities can be over- or under-
estimated due to

Intensity of activity
Level of brain function
Length of gaps between enjoyments
Fear or ecstasy
Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly
Under-estimation of time
Stress due to committing to too many tasks
Poor quality output
Deadlines may be missed

Over-estimation of time
Stress due to people pressing to have activities
Poor quality output
Deadlines set may not match requirements
Analysis of Goals & Objectives
By setting goals that relate to business performance and
conform to SMART criteria the organization will improve

S -- specific and well defined objectives
M -- measurable outputs and inputs
A -- achievable in terms of resources available and expectations
R -- relevant to the overall business strategy
T -- time bound with an operational schedule
Productive Work
Busy Vs Productive
Indecision & Delay
Urgency V Importance
Just because you are busy does not mean that you
are productive

Differentiate between

Effectiveness -- doing the right things

Efficiency -- doing the right things correctly
Busy v Productive Work
Putting off doing the things that you should be
doing at this point!

List all tasks that you are currently putting off
Remove two from the list by doing them now!
Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest
Reward when tasks are completed
Punish when tasks are not completed on schedule

Dealing with Indecision or Delay
When faced with a task - decide to deal with it
according to one of the following actions:

Do it

Delegate it

Dump it

Deadline it
Busy v Productive Work
Paralyzing perfectionism
This is a failure to recognize the difference between excellence and
Busy v Productive Work
Setting unchallenging objectives
Objectives need to be set that challenge you in a realistic
manner and take heed of resource availability Otherwise you
are busy without any possibility of success

Overwork can have effects that may be classified as

People are overloaded for two main reasons

The person or team does too much

The person or team have too much to do
To deal with over-work, try the following
Understand your pressures
Dont get worked up or panicked
Dont blame everything on yourself
Walk away
Estimate time as well as possible
Agree priorities and keep them
Remind yourself that there is a limited amount of time
available to you
Proactive v Reactive Work
Reactive work - concentrates on getting things done

Handling daily routines

Dealing with urgency

Resolving crises

Handling interruptions

Proactive v Reactive Work
Proactive work - concentrates on making things happen

Developing plans and schedules

Focusing on key tasks

Achieving deadlines & targets

Managing projects

Why Crises Occur
Checklist of reasons:

Failure to recognize the crisis

Underestimation of time required

No contingency plan is ready

No follow-up on delegated tasks
Anticipating & Preventing Crises
The most effective way to anticipate and prevent
crises is to:

Set deadlines and stick with them

Use interim targets and milestones to break the task or
project into manageable chunks

Build the schedule so that it is realistic

What is a Plan?
Information & Planning
Time Management Systems
Goals & Time Spans
The Daily Plan
Planning in Time Management
Rule No 1

Failing to Plan
is Planning to Fail
What is a Plan?

A plan is a road map set in real
time to reach an objective or set
of objectives through the use of
defined resources
Information & Planning
Essential information:

You need to know what you have to plan

Once this is established
Break the task into manageable chunks
Gauge the time required for each chunk
Schedule each chunk into a logical sequence
Time Management Systems
Key components
Dated deadlines
Tasks - to do and work in progress
Ideas and notes
Key task identification
Personal information
Financial planning records
Crises log
Project log
Contact list
Checklist for Goals
Checklist for Goals
Are they realistic and challenging?
Have they been agreed with the manager and linked to the
performance appraisal system?
Do you know what it will look like when you have achieved the goal
Are the goals important to you?
Is there a time bound aspect to the goals?
Are the goals SMART?
What will the reward be once the goals have been achieved?

Planning levels should cascade as follows:
Yearly overview plan

Monthly Plan

Weekly Plan

Daily Plan
Note that in the cascade, the time span decreases whereas the level of
complexity increases
The Daily Plan
The Daily Plan should cover three main areas:

Scheduled activities for the day showing time allocated to each

Identification of key tasks for the day to allow them to be

Indication of who you need to contact during the day to allow
you to complete tasks

The Daily Plan
When setting out the daily plan pay attention to
the following points:
When do you perform best, suit your bio-rhythm

Build in planning time at the start and end of the day

Prioritize actions into musts, shoulds and coulds and
focus on the musts
The Daily Plan
Guidelines continued
Leave room for unexpecteds

Dont stack meetings back to back

Batch telephone calls

Build in quality time

Stress Management

It may seem that theres nothing you can do about
Identify the sources of stress in your work

What caused your stress (make a guess if youre
How you felt, both physically and emotionally
How you acted in response
What you did to make yourself feel better

Unhealthy ways of coping with stress

Drinking too much
Overeating or under-eating
Zoning out for hours in front of the TV or computer
Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities

Dealing with Stressful Situations

Avoid people who stress you out
Learn how to say no
Stick to your to-do list
Be willing to compromise.

Leaders and Time

Time is money, the saying goes and most of it gets lost in
disorganisation and disruption. It takes time to make time
work for you.
Time Management :Planning and
setting a ritual
Save yourself an hour a day by getting organised

Understand two-time horizons: short and log term

Make use of a calendar

Use a planner

When things begin to get hectic, a Things To Do Today list helps
focus attention on the highest priority items

Planning contact with colleagues and staff will help minimise

Time Management :Planning
Five Point Planning Check





Time Management : Urgent and Important
Urgent and Important


Rank the following activities in order of priority.
1. You have a meeting with the chief of staff in the next two minutes and you also need to grab a
banana from the kitchen which is about 10 minutes walk away.
2. Its 9am in the morning, you need to do a manpower allocation for the day as well as work on a
hand over report for the shift that comes in at 6pm
3. You need to go for team briefing and you also need to call a friend of yours in Kampala and tell
her about the neighbor's new car
Unscheduled client mtg
Pressing problems
Deadline-driven projects

Relationship building
Some meetings
Popularity actions
Peer pressure

Trivial activities
Some phone calls
Time wasters
Escape activities
Irrelevant mail
Excessive TV
Urgent Not Urgent



Activity quadrants
Each quadrant explained
Effective People:
Stay out of Quadrants III & IV because they are not important
They shrink Quadrant I down to size by spending more time in
Quadrant II
People become in-efficient, when they focus only on I & III and not on II
People become non-performers, when they focus on III & IV
Working on Quadrant II is the heart of personal time management.
Being high impact activities, when done regularly would make a
tremendous difference in our lives

What is Motivation?
Motivation is a drive that encourages action or
To motivate means to encourage and inspire.
Motivation can also mean igniting the spark for
Why do we need to get motivated?
Needs Drives

Deprivation with directions


Relation between inspiration and motivation
People motivate themselves.
In order to inspire people to motivate themselves we
need to understand their needs and wants.
Example if we ask hungry man to participate in
400 meter running race and go for any award then

1)External Motivation 2) Internal Motivation
External Motivation (External Motivation comes
from outside) and they are
Money (by way of bonus, incentive,over time etc.)
These factors works temporarily and not
permanent motivator.

Internal Motivation
Internal Motivation comes from within, such as pride, a
sense of achievement, responsibility and belief.
The two most internal motivators are reorganization and
We are motivated either Positively or negatively.
Self- Motivation starts with having a vision, a dream, a
desire or a goal you want/need to achieve. How quickly or
slowly you advance towards achieving it will depend on
your motivation. Many people, while saying they really
want to achieve X,Y or Z never actually become motivated
to do the one thing necessary TAKING ACTION
Demotivating factors
Why do people move from initially motivated stage to demotivate
Some of the demotivated factors are:
Low self esteem
Negative self talk
Failure of or fear of failure
Negative criticism
Lack of priorities

Motivational factors

The presence of such factors create a highly
motivating situation but their absence doesnt cause
dissatisfaction. people always respond positively with
the presence of such factors.

A few steps to motivate others are:
Give recognition
Give respect
Make work interestingly
Encourage goal setting
Throw challenges
Provide training
Time Management : Advantages
Reduces stress and increases productivity.

Increases efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery through

Self actualization or personal career growth.

Demonstrates reliability and breeds trust giving the organization a
competitive edge.

Promotes harmony and good interpersonal skills.

TQM - do it right the first time.

Time Management: Recommendations
Delegate-accept that you can not do everything by yourself-let go!

Know your tasks( job description)

Prioritize-ranking most important, more important tasks.

C.P.A Critical path analysis i.e. systematic one task after the other.

Avoid interruptions ( Time wasters)

Differentiate between urgent and important task to jobs

Plan for your time if you do not, you waste it.

Avoid idle talk and unnecessary telephone conversations.

Thank you!

It starts with the leader self discipline

Its about doing the right thing at the right time as its not enough to be early

Understand the time wasters in your day. (Dos and Donts in your work day)

Time lost can never be found

"Time is free, but it's priceless. You can't own it,
but you can use it. You can't keep it, but you
can spend it. Once you've lost it you can never
get it back."
Delegation can simply be defined as getting help you need when you need

There is a limit to the amount of work that you can do on your own and so
there is only so much value that you can deliver to your organization
without the help of the others.

Delegation involves passing responsibility for the successful delivery of
the work to other people, while retaining a suitable level of control over
the process and the finished product.
Stages of Delegation
Decide what to delegate: A good place to start with this is your
activity log. Look for tasks in your activity log that can be quickly
taught to someone else, or can be done by someone else who already has
the necessary skills.
One way of deciding what to delegate is simply to list the things that you
do which could effectively be done by someone either more skilled in a
particular area, or less expensive

Find the right person to delegate to: Find someone who is capable
and willing to do the work, and who has the time to do it properly.
How far you can delegate jobs will depend on the ability, experience and
reliability of your assistants. Inexperienced or unreliable people will
need close supervision to get the job done to the standard and at the end
of the day you will have done the work yourself.

Stages of Delegation
Explain the purpose of the Job & what you expect:
i) Why the job needs to be done and what needs to be delivered.
ii) When the work needs to be completed
iii) The resources available and the constraints within which work needs
to be carried out. Etc.

Explain why the job is done, and what results are expected:
when you delegate a job, explain how it fits into the overall picture of
what you are trying to achieve.

Delegate complete jobs: It is much more satisfying to work on a
single task than on many fragments of the task. Delegate a complete

Stages of Delegation
Then let go! Once you have decided to delegate a task, let your
assistant get on with it. Do not constantly look over their shoulders.

Give help and coach when requested: It is important to support
the people you have delegated the work to when they are having
difficulties, but do not do the job for them.

Accept only finished work: You have delegated a task to take a work
load off you. If you accept only partially done work, then you will have
to invest time in completing them and your assistant will not have

Give credit when a job has been successfully completed; Public
recognition both reinforces the enjoyment of success with the assistant
who carried out the task and sets a standard for other employees.

Leadership like painting is an art. There is no one rule to influence and get the most our of people
but like someone once said, different strokes for different folks .

You must get to understand an individual and reach out to them at their level to get the most and
best out of them.
What is a team?

Why build teams?

How do you build a team?

What the team members brings into the team.

What the team leaders brings into team.

Expectations from an effective/mature team.

Why would a team fail?

A team is a group of people working together to achieve a common goal.
To make a team there should be a leader and members. A team is
therefore an operational unit held accountable for performance.

In modern management, it has been realized that you achieve better
results through teams than through individuals.
In a team, we compliment each other: ones weakness may be the others
strength and vise versa. We need each other to achieve and we are
accountable to each other. (like the human body)

Advantages of Teamwork
Performance expectations are set high

Continuous improvement is expected and encouraged

Management structure tends to be flatter thus making communication
easier and minimizing bottlenecks.

Influence is based on expertise, knowledge needs.

People rely on shared goals rather than individual needs.

How to build a team.
Considerations to be made in team building.

Set clear targets involve staff in setting the goal.

Know your staff weakness and strengths.

Select staff with varying capabilities, talents, and

Consider willingness to belong.
Considerations to be made in Team Building
State clearly the objective (s) you want the term (s) to achieve.

In choosing members of the team, be objective and transparent, use
performance related criteria and not religion, tribe, politics.

Put together persons of varying capabilities and talents.

Take cognisance of team members opinions and feelings about
a) Forming

b) Storming

c) Norming

d) Performing

Responsibilities of a Team leader
Quality control and monitoring

Keeping costs low & minimising waste

Proper behaviour & good discipline.

Motivating team and maintaining high morale

Reducing labour turnover

Reducing conflict among team members
Qualities of good team leader.
1. Leader
Role Model, Knowledgeable, relates to the team, inspires confidence in
the team
2. Coach
Supports by listening and being compassionate, mentors agents to further
their development
3. Communicator
Possess superior communication with staff, managers as well as other
4. Motivator
Acts as a motivator to agents, keeps performance and morale high, helps
agents succeed
5. Problem Solver
Keeps the team focused, manages problems, solves conflicts, solves
problems as they arise
What a team member brings into the team?

Commitment to objectives.

Loyalty- by identifying with team.

Skills and competencies.

Willingness to belong and be lead.
Characteristics of an effective working team
The group atmosphere is informal, comfortable and relaxed.

There is lots of discussion and almost everyone participates.

The leader does not dominate the team or unduly differ from it.

Every member knows who is who in the team.

Every member knows his/her tasks.

Appreciative of each others effort.



Challenges to team work
Internal conflict/ misunderstanding..

Self centeredness.

Lack of communication.

Labor turn over.

Apparent Disparities between the more privileged and under privileged.
Tips & Techniques
Time Logs
Managing Documents
Managing Interruptions
Managing Workspace
Managing your Phone
A time-log is an effective way to see where your time actually
goes to during the working day Record the information for
about 2 weeks to get a representative picture of time spent

By logging activities and the time taken to complete them,
the time-log provides useful information that can identify
Accuracy of estimating time for tasks
Time stealing activities
Level of interruption
Loading during the day
Crises points / tasks
Dealing with Documents
Document handling can steal a vast quantity of time from
our working day

Improve your document handling by:
Handling documents only once by :

Act on what is required by the document

File the document for reference later

Dump the document
Dealing with Documents
Have a good system for handling your documents that allows
you to:

Define what you need to keep and for how long

Allows you to file materials easily and logically

Facilitates access to materials
Managing Interruptions
Try to reduce the number of interruptions by
applying the following techniques:

Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the incidence
of drop-in visits

Dont have extra chairs in your workspace - people do not hang
around as long if they must stand

For important work - move to another space so the potential
interruptors cant find you!

Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange to contact
them at a more suitable time
Managing Your Workspace
How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are
- try the following to improve efficiency

De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day

File documents once they have been used

Purge files regularly

Organize a work flow system in your space
Managing Your Phone
The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities
of time - control the phone by using:

Batch your outward calls

Delegate calls that you dont have to make personally to one of your

Terminate calls once the business has been done

Set up a rota in your team for handling incoming calls

Have a great planning system and use it

Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately

Do not over-commit

Set and agree priorities to distinguish between urgent and important

Build in some flexibility to cope with anything unexpected

Control your documents, workspace and phone

Dont procrastinate Manage Your Time Today

Define and use periods of quality time in your schedule

Learn to say No in a professional manner

Stay away from perfectionism and aim for excellence

Build in time for personal development