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Chemistry Education 2011

Faculty of Mathematic and


Sciences
The periodic table organizes the elements in a particular way.
A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position
in the periodic table.

1
IA
18
VIIIA
1
1
H
1.00797
2
IIA
Periodic Table
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
2
He
4.0026
2
3
Li
6.939
4
Be
9.0122
5
B
10.811
6
C
12.0112
7
N
14.0067
8
O
15.9994
9
F
18.9984
10
Ne
20.179
3
11
Na
22.9898
12
Mg
24.305
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8 9
VIIIB
10 11
IB
12
IIB
13
Al
26.9815
14
Si
28.086
15
P
30.9738
16
S
32.064
17
Cl
35.453
18
Ar
39.948
4
19
K
39.102
20
Ca
40.08
21
Sc
44.956
22
Ti
47.90
23
V
50.942
24
Cr
51.996
25
Mn
54.9380
26
Fe
55.847
27
Co
58.9332
28
Ni
58.71
29
Cu
63.54
30
Zn
65.37
31
Ga
65.37
32
Ge
72.59
33
As
74.9216
34
Se
78.96
35
Br
79.909
36
Kr
83.80
5
37
Rb
85.47
38
Sr
87.62
39
Y
88.905
40
Zr
91.22
41
Nb
92.906
42
Mo
95.94
43
Tc
[99]
44
Ru
101.07
45
Rh
102.905
46
Pd
106.4
47
Ag
107.870
48
Cd
112.40
49
In
114.82
50
Sn
118.69
51
Sb
121.75
52
Te
127.60
53
I
126.904
54
Xe
131.30
6
55
Cs
132.905
56
Ba
137.34
57
La
138.91
72
Hf
178.49
73
Ta
180.948
74
W
183.85
75
Re
186.2
76
Os
190.2
77
Ir
192.2
78
Pt
195.09
79
Au
196.967
80
Hg
200.59
81
Tl
204.37
82
Pb
207.19
83
Bi
208.980
84
Po
[210]
85
At
[210]
86
Rn
[222]
7
87
Fr
[223]
88
Ra
[226]
89
Ac
[227]
104
Ku
[260]
105 106 107 108 109
T
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Properties of the Elements
Metallic Character
Groups and Periods
Check the Electron
Configuration
Periodic Trends
H

the number of protons found in the
nucleus of an atom of that particular
element
Atomic Number
made up of only one capital letter and,
in some cases, one or more lowercase
letters
Elemental
Symbol
Average of relative atomic mass from
1/12 of atomic mass Carbon-12
Atomic Mass
Metallic Character
Metals
elements with relatively few valence electrons, which tend
to form positive ions by losing one or more electrons
Non-metals
elements that have more valence electrons ad tend to form
negative ions by gaining one or more electrons
Semimetals
(Metalloids)
tend to have some characteristics of metals and some of
nonmetals
Properties of Metals
Good conductors of heat
and electricity.
Metals are shiny.
Ductile (can be stretched
into thin wires).
Malleable (can be pounded
into thin sheets).
A chemical property of
metal is its reaction with
water which results in
corrosion.
Properties of Non-Metals
Poor conductors of
heat and electricity.
Non-metals are not
ductile or malleable.
Solid non-metals are
brittle and break
easily.
Many non-metals are
gases.
Sulfur
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids (metal-like) have
properties of both metals
and non-metals.
They are solids that can be
shiny or dull.
They conduct heat and
electricity better than non-
metals but not as well as
metals.
They are ductile and
malleable.
Silicon
Groups
The columns of elements
with similar properties
Group IA Alkali Metals
Group IIA
Alkaline
Earth Metals
Group VIIA Halogens
Group VIIIA Noble Gases
Group IB
until VIIIB
Transition
Metals
Special Group Names
Periods
Each row (or period) is the energy level for s and p
orbitals.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Period
Number
Check the Electron Configuration
The s sublevelels hold 2 electrons
the s section is made up of 2 columns
The p sublevels hold 6 electrons
the p section is made up of 6 columns
The d sublevels hold up to 10 electrons
the d section is made up of 10 columns
The f sublevels hold up to 14 electrons
The f section is made up of 14 columns
lanthanides
actinides
s-groups
p-groups
d-transition elements
f-transition elements
For example, Rubidium (Rb) is in the fifth period and in the first
column of the s section of the periodic table.
This tell us that the valence configuration of rubidium must end in
5s
1
.
When we construct the full electron configuration of rubidium, with
its 37 electrons, we get 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
1
.
Atomic Radius or atomic size
is the distance from center
of the nucleus to the
outermost shell of an atom
Atomic
Radius
The energy required to
remove an electron from an
atom. (measured in kilojoules,
kJ)
Ionization
Energy
Atomic Sizes for Groups &Periods

Electron affinity is the
energy release when an
atom gains an electron
(also measured in kJ)
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity is
preference of atom
to gain electron
Electro-negativity
Summary of Periodic Trends