Anda di halaman 1dari 282

OLEH : HENDRIANTO HUSADA

5/4/2014
1
PENDAHULUAN
ARSITEKTUR & KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN PLC
INPUT/OUTPUT PLC
DASAR-DASAR PEMROGRAMAN PLC
KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN PEMROGRAMAN PLC
BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN PLC
LADDER DIAGRAM
REALISASI RANGKAIAN LOGIKA KE LADDER
DIAGRAM
INSTRUKSI PLC ,TIMER,COUNTER & INSTRUKSI
LAINNYA
APLIKASI PLC



5/4/2014
2
UTS 30%
UAS 40%
TUGAS 20%
ABSEN 10%
------------------------
100%
5/4/2014
3
SETIAWAN, IWAN:PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER DAN
TEKNIK PERANCANGAN SISTEM KONTROL , PENERBIT ANDI
OFFSET 2006
PETRUZELLA : PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
WEBB , JOHN W & REIS , RONALD A: PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC CONTROLLERS:Principles and Applications, fourth
Edition, Prentice Hall 1999
DUNNING, GARY:INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
CONTROLLERS ,Delmar Publisher ,1998
5/4/2014
4
DEFINISI PLC
SEJARAH PLC
KEUNTUNGAN & KERUGIAN PILC
JENIS-JENIS PLC
MEREK PLC
5/4/2014
5
SUATU PIRANTI ELEKTRONIK DIGITAL YANG
MENGGUNAKAN MEMORI INTERNAL YANG
DAPAT DIPROGRAM UNTUK MEDIA
PENYIMPANAN INTERNAL DARI INSTRUKSI-
INSTRUKSI DALAM IMPLEMENTASI FUNGSI-
FUNGSI KHUSUS SEPERI LOGIKA,
SEQUENCING , TIMING, COUNTING DAN
ARITMETIKA UNTUK MENGONTROL MELALUI
MODUL-MODUL ANALOG ATAU DIGITAL ,
BERBAGAI TIPE MESIN-MESIN ATAU PROSES.




5/4/2014
6
SUATU KOMPUTER UNTUK INDUSTRI/ KHUSUS
YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK PENGONTROLAN
SISTEM INDUSTRI
SUATU KOMPUTER UNTUK INDUSTRI DIMANA
PIRANTI KONTROL SEPERTI LIMIT SWITCHES,
PUSH BUTTON, SENSOR PROXIMITY ATAU
PHOTO ELECTRIC,FLOAT SWITCHES ATAU
PRESSURE SWITCH MEMBERIKAN SINYAL
KONTROL MASUK KE UNIT
5/4/2014
7
MENDAPATKAN PENGONTROLAN SECARA
KOMPLIT SUATU PROSES MANUFAKTUR
MENCAPAI KONSISTENSI DALAM MANUFAKTUR
MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS DAN AKURASI
BEKERJA PADA LINGKUNGAN YANG SUSAH
MENAIKKAN PRODUKTIVITAS
MEMPERSINGKAT WAKTU MEMASARKAN
KONTROL INVENTORY
BERUBAH SECARA CEPAT
5/4/2014
8
PENGENALAN
PLC
PROGRAMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

Sebuah alat yang digunakan untuk menggantikan
rangkaian sederetan relai yang dijumpai pada sistem
kontrol proses konvensional

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) merupakan
perangkat special-purpose dengan keandalan tinggi.
PLC berupa komputer mikro yang digunakan untuk
memenuhi tugas pengendalian secara logika,
berdasarkan program yang telah ditentukan.
Bekerja dengan cara mengamati
masukan/sensor dn melakukan proses sesuai
dengan yang dibutuhkan ( sesuai dengan
program yang diatur )
SEJARAH PLC
Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1960-an yang
bertujuan untuk menghilangkan beban ongkos
perawatan berbasis relai
PLC pertama didunia MODICON ( modular digital
controller ) 084
Pertengahan tahun 1970-an PLC berbasis
prosesor AMD 2901
1980-an memperkecil ukuran PLC dan
pembuatan perangkat lunak melalui program
simbolik dengan PC dan penggunaan handled
programer.
Tahun 1990-an telah dilakukan reduksi protokol
baru dan modernisasi lapisan fisik dan
peningkatan standar serta penggabungan bahasa
pemrograman dibawah SI

12
SEJARAH PLC
1968 Programmable concept developed
1969 Hardware CPU controller, with logic
instructions, 1 K of memory and 128 I/O
points
1974 Use of several (multi) processors within a
PLC - timers and counters; arithmetic
operations; 12 K of memory
and 1024 I/O points
1976 Remote input/output systems introduced
1977 Microprocessors - based PLC introduced
13
SEJARAH PLC

1980 Intelligent I/O modules developed
Enhanced communications facilities
Enhanced software features
(e.g. documentation)
Use of personal microcomputers as
programming aids
1983 Low - cost small PLCs introduced
1985 on Networking of all levels of PLC, computer
and machine using SCADA
software.

5/4/2014
1
4
PLC VS KONVESIONAL
PLC BERFUNGSI MEMPERCEPAT PROSES YANG SELAMA
INI MASIH ONVENSIONAL MENJADI OTOMATIS

PENGGUNAAN PLC BERTUJUAN UNTUK MEMPERMUDAH
PROSES-PROSES YANG SANGAT KOMPLEKS DAN SULIT
YANG HARUS DITANGANI DENGAN CEPAT, PLC JUGA
SEKALIGUS DAPAT MENGGANTIKAN BEBERAPA ALAT
YANG DIPERLUKAN.


5/4/2014
1
6

5/4/2014
1
7

5/4/2014
1
8
Karakteristik PLC:

Karakteristik PLC:

Ukuran kecil
Pemograman yang ampuh
Duplikasian mudah dan murah
Diagnosis terintegrasi &
central
Domunetasi text dan grafik
Harga murah
Aplikasi universal


Sedikit perkabelan ( wiring)
Wiring antara piranti(devices) dan relay contacts
dilakukan pada program
Mudah dan cepat untuk melakukan pengubahan .
Petunjuk troubleshooting membuat pemrograman
lebih mudah dan mengurangi downtime.
komponen-komponennya reliabel bisa berfungsi
selama beberapa tahun sebelum rusak .

5/4/2014
2
0
FLEKSIBILITAS: SATU PLC BISA MENGONTROL
BANYAK MESIN

5/4/2014
2
1
5/4/2014
2
2
Shorter project implementation time.

Easier modification

Project cost can be accurately calculated.

Shorter training time required.

Design easily changed using software ( changes and addition to specifications can be
processed by software.

A wide range of control application

Easy maintenance.

High Reliability

Standardization of Controller hardware.

Able to withstand Harsh plant/process environments (Operate normally under
severe conditions of temperature, humidity, voltage fluctuations and noises).
CONTROL TYPE: FUNCTIONS

Sequence Control

i. Conventional Relay Control Logic
replacer
ii. Timers/ Counter
iii. PCB Card controller replacer
iv. Auto/Semi-auto/Manual control of
machine and process.


Advanced/
Sophisticated Control
i. Arithmetic operation (+, -, , )
ii. Information Handling
iii. Analog Control (Temperature, Pressure )
iv. P.I.D (Proportional Integral Derivation)
v. Servo Motor Control
vi. Stepper Motor control

CONTROL TYPE: FUNCTIONS

Supervisory Control
i. Process monitoring and alarm.
ii. Fault Diagnostic and monitoring
iii. Interfacing with Computer (RS-232C/RS
422)
iv. Printer/ ASCII Interfacing
v. Factory Automation Networking
vi. Local Area Network (LAN)
vii. Wide Area Network (WAN)
viii. Factory Automation (F.A), Flexible
Manufacturing System (F.M.S) &
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
(C.I.M).
Kriteria Pemilihan PLC
1. Hardware
a. Jumlah input dan output
b. Tegangan operasi input
dan output
c. Proteksi terhadap short
circuit
d. Indikasi status input dan
output
e. Jumlah counter/timer
f. Jumllah flag
g. Jenis dan ukuran memori
h. Maipulasi bit/word
i. Waktu sikulus bite/1 kb
statement

j. Pemrosesan alarm
k. Interface
l. Ukuran dimensi
m. Kondisi sekitar
n. Unit: compact/modular


Kriteria Pemilihan PLC
2. Software
a. Kapasitas programer
a. Kenyamanan programer
b. Bahasa pemograman
c. Test dan comissioning
d. Kualitas dokummentasi
program
5/4/2014
2
8
29
Areas of Application
Manufacturing / Machining

Food / Beverage

Metals

Power

Mining

Petrochemical / Chemical

Aplikasi
PLC banyak digunakan pada aplikasi-aplikasi industri
misalnya : pada proses pengepakan, penanganan
bahan, perakitan otomatis dan lain sebagainya.
5/4/2014
3
1
32
MEREK-MEREK PLC
AMERICAN 1. Allen Bradley
2. Gould Modicon
3. Texas Instruments
4. General Electric
5. Westinghouse
6. Cutter Hammer
7. Square D

EUROPEAN 1. Siemens
2. Klockner & Mouller
3. Festo
4. Telemechanique

33
MEREK-MEREK PLC
JAPANESE 1. Toshiba
2. Omron
3. Fanuc
4. Mitsubishi

KOREA 1. LG
2. SAMSUNG



34
PLC Size
1. SMALL - it covers units with up to 128 I/Os and
memories up to 2 Kbytes.
- these PLCs are capable of providing
simple to advance levels or
machine controls.
2. MEDIUM - have up to 2048 I/Os and memories up
to 32 Kbytes.
3. LARGE - the most sophisticated units of the PLC
family. They have up to 8192 I/Os
and memories up to 750
Kbytes.
- can control individual production
processes or entire plant.
i. Compact PLC
ii. Modular PLC
iii. PLC Plug-in Card

Manufacturer: OMRON, Allen Bradley,
Mitsubishi, NAIS, Siemens,
Toshiba, Festo etc.
Jenis kontruksi PLC:
i. Compact PLC:

Compact PLC MELSEC FX3U
Figure 1: Compact PLC
i. Modular PLC
Figure 2: Modular PLC
iii. PLC Plug-in Card
Figure 3: Plug-in Card PLC
Aplikasi PLC sangat
luas dari industri
otomotif, makanan,
pengemasan dan lain
sebagainya.






HARDWARE: ARSITEKUR PLC & BAGIAN-
BAGIAN PLC
SOFTWARE:LADDER DIAGRAM
5/4/2014
4
1

5/4/2014
4
2
5/4/2014
4
3
ARSITEKTUR PLC
5/4/2014
4
4
I M
N O
P D
U U
T L
E

From
SENSORS

Pushbuttons,
contacts,
limit switches,
etc.


PROCESSOR

POWER
SUPPLY
PROGRAMMING
DEVICE
O M
U O
T D
P U
U L
T E

To
OUTPUT

Solenoids,
contactors,
alarms
etc.

5/4/2014
4
5

5/4/2014
4
6


Microproces
sor/ CPU
ROM


RAM


Input
Output


Data BUS
Control Bus
Address Bus
3.1 Processor Architecture for PLC:
Figure 4: Design of Basic Microcomputer
48
Major Components of a Common PLC
POWER SUPPLY

Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC
components


I/O MODULES

Provides signal conversion and isolation between the
internal logic- level signals inside the PLC and the
fields high level signal.

49
Major Components of a Common PLC
PROCESSOR

Provides intelligence to command and govern the
activities of the entire PLC systems.

MEMORY
Used to store data and program

PROGRAMMING DEVICE

used to enter the desired program that will determine
the sequence of operation and control of process
equipment or driven machine.

50
Processor
The processor module contains the PLCs
microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and its memory
system.

The main function of the microprocessor is to analyze
data coming from field sensors through input modules,
make decisions based on the users defined control
program and return signal back through output modules
to the field devices. Field sensors: switches, flow, level,
pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field output devices:
motors, valves, solenoids, lamps, or audible devices.

The memory system in the processor module has two
parts: a system memory and an application memory.

51
Programming Device
Also known as:

Industrial Terminal ( Allen Bradley )

Program Development Terminal ( General Electric )

Programming Panel ( Gould Modicon )

Programmer ( Square D )

Program Loader ( Idec-Izumi )

Programming Console ( Keyence / Omron )
52
Programming Device
Types:

Hand held unit with LED / LCD display

Desktop type with a CRT display

Compatible computer terminal



53
I/O Module
The I/O interface section of a PLC connects it to
external field devices.

The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition
the various signals received from or sent to the external
input and output devices.

Input modules converts signals from discrete or analog
input devices to logic levels acceptable to PLCs
processor.

Output modules converts signal from the processor to
levels capable of driving the connected discrete or
analog output devices.

a. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The CPU controls, monitors and supervises all
operations within PLC.

It is also caries out programmed instructions stored in
the memory.

An internal communications highway also known as a
bus system, carries information to and from the CPU,
memory and I/O units under the control of the CPU.

Unit Pengolah Pusat
(CPU - Central Processing Unit)

Unit pengolah pusat atau CPU merupakan
otak dari sebuah kontroler PLC. CPU itu
sendiri biasanya merupakan sebuah
mikrokontroler (versi mini mikrokontroler
lengkap)
CPU ini juga menangani komunikasi
dengan piranti eksternal,interkonektivitas
antar bagian-bagian internal PLC,
eksekusi program, manajemen memori,
mengawasi atau mengamati masukan dan
memberikan sinyal ke keluaran(sesuai
dengan proses atau program yang
dijalankan).

5/4/2014
5
6
b. Memory Unit

For storage of programs.

The users ladder logic program, the state of I/O in the
memory of PLC.

The main program and the other programs necessary for the
operation of PLC.

The organization of the data and information in the memory
is called memory map.

2 types of Memory
RA
M
ROM
Memori
Memori sistem (saat ini banyak yang
mengimplementasikan penggunaan teknologi flash)
digunakan oleh PLC untuk sistem kontrol proses. Selain
berfungsi untuk menyimpan "sistem operasi", juga
digunakan untuk menyimpan program yang harus
dijalankan, dalam bentuk biner, hasil terjemahan
diagram tangga yang dibuat oleh pengguna atau
pemrogram.
Memori pengguna dibagi menjadi beberapa blok yang
memiliki fungsi khusus.Beberapa bagian memori
digunakan untuk menyimpan status masukan dan
keluaran.




RAM
Random Access Memory
ROM
Read Only Memory (read)
This memory can be read from
and written to.
This memory can be read only
Storing all users programs Storing all systems program
Entire contents will be lost if power
is switched off.
Memory content remain when the
power is switched off.
3.1.1 FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK:
Catu daya PLC
Catu daya listrik digunakan untuk
memberikan pasokan catu daya ke seluruh
bagian PLC (termasuk CPU, memori dan lain-
lain). Kebanyakan PLC bekerja pada catu
daya 24 VDC atau 220 VAC. Beberapa PLC
catu dayanya terpisah (sebagai modul
tersendiri)

Input Unit:
Function as a medium that connects the external
input devices
(Switch, sensor & timer)

Output Unit:
Function as a medium that connects the external
output devices to the CPU within PLC.
( Lamp, motor & solenoid )
3.1.1 FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK:
Kecerdasan sebuah sistem terotomasi sangat
tergantung pada kemampuan sebuah PLC untuk
membaca sinyal dari berbagai macam jenis
sensor dan pirantipiranti masukan lainnya.
sinyal-sinyal masukan tersebut dapat berupa
logik (ON atau OFF) maupun analog. PLC kecil
biasanya hanya memiliki jalur masukan digital
saja, sedangkan yang besar mampu menerima
masukan analog melalui unit khusus yang
terpadu dengan PLC-nya. Salah satu sinyal
analog yang sering dijumpai adalah sinyal arus 4
hingga 20mA (atau mV) yang diperoleh dari
berbagai macam sensor.

5/4/2014
6
3
Referring to PLC standard display Internal Relay:

Consoles LCD Display
if user use Mnemonic Code Programming.

Monitor Screen
if user use software programming method.

LCD Display
Monitor Screen
sistem otomatis tidaklah lengkap jika tidak ada
fasilitas keluaran atau fasilitas untuk
menghubungkan dengan alat-alat eksternal
(yang dikendalikan). Beberapa alat atau piranti
yang banyak digunakan adalah motor, selenoida,
relai, lampu indikator, speaker dan lain
sebagainya. Keluaran ini dapat berupa analog
maupun digital. Keluaran digital bertingkah
seperti sebuah saklar, menghubungkan dan
memutuskan jalur. Keluaran analog digunakan
untuk menghasilkan sinyal analog (misalnya,
perubahan tegangan untuk pengendalian motor
secara regulasi linear sehingga diperoleh
kecepatan putar tertentu).

5/4/2014
6
6
f. Programming Unit
Consist of 2 devices:
i. Programming Console

ii. Computer

g. Secondary Storage Unit
This unit related to CPU where all
program and information were kept.
h. Power Supply Unit:

Supplies DC power to the Central Processing Unit, Input Unit and
Output Unit.

i. Printing Unit
Used to print control system programming that controlled by PLC
wether graphically or text.



Setiap PLC biasanya memiliki jumlah masukan
dan keluaran yang terbatas. Jika diinginkan,
jumlah ini dapat ditambahkan menggunakan
sebuah modul keluaran dan masukan
tambahan (I/O expansion atau I/O extension
module).

70
Memory Map Organization
SYSTEM
System memory includes an area called the EXECUTIVE,
composed of permanently-stored programs that direct all
system activities, such as execution of the users control
program, communication with peripheral devices, and other
system activities.
The system memory also contains the routines that
implement the PLCs instruction set, which is composed of
specific control functions such as logic, sequencing, timing,
counting, and arithmetic.
System memory is generally built from read-only memory
devices.
APPLICATION
The application memory is divided into the data table area
and user program area.
The data table stores any data associated with the users
control program, such as system input and output status data,
and any stored constants, variables, or preset values. The
data table is where data is monitored, manipulated, and
changed for control purposes.
The user program area is where the programmed
instructions entered by the user are stored as an application
control program.
Data Table
User Program
72
Memory Designs
VOLATILE.
A volatile memory is one that loses its stored
information when power is removed.

Even momentary losses of power will erase any
information stored or programmed on a volatile memory
chip.

Common Type of Volatile Memory

RAM. Random Access Memory(Read/Write)
Read/write indicates that the information stored in the
memory can be retrieved or read, while write indicates
that the user can program or write information into the
memory.
73
Memory Designs


The words random access refer to the ability of any
location (address) in the memory to be accessed or
used. Ram memory is used for both the user memory
(ladder diagrams) and storage memory in many PLCs.

RAM memory must have battery backup to retain or
protect the stored program.

74
Memory Designs
Several Types of RAM Memory:

1.MOS
2.HMOS
3.CMOS

The CMOS-RAM (Complimentary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor) is probably one of the most popular.
CMOS-RAM is popular because it has a very low current
drain when not being accessed (15microamps.), and the
information stored in memory can be retained by as little
as 2Vdc.
75
Memory Designs
NON-VOLATILE
Has the ability to retain stored information when power is
removed, accidentally or intentionally. These memories
do not require battery back-up.

Common Type of Non-Volatile Memory

ROM, Read Only Memory
Read only indicates that the information stored in
memory can be read only and cannot be changed.
Information in ROM is placed there by the manufacturer
for the internal use and operation of the PLC.
76
Memory Designs
Other Types of Non-Volatile Memory

PROM, Programmable Read Only Memory
Allows initial and/or additional information to be written
into the chip.

PROM may be written into only once after being
received from the PLC manufacturer; programming is
accomplish by pulses of current.

The current melts the fusible links in the device,
preventing it from being reprogrammed. This type of
memory is used to prevent unauthorized program
changes.


77
Memory Designs
EPROM, Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

Ideally suited when program storage is to be semi-
permanent or additional security is needed to prevent
unauthorized program changes.

The EPROM chip has a quartz window over a silicon
material that contains the electronic integrated circuits.
This window normally is covered by an opaque material,
but when the opaque material is removed and the
circuitry exposed to ultra violet light, the memory
content can be erased.

The EPROM chip is also referred to as UVPROM.

78
Memory Designs
EEPROM, Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory

Also referred to as E
2
PROM, is a chip that can be
programmed using a standard programming device and
can be erased by the proper signal being applied to the
erase pin.

EEPROM is used primarily as a non-volatile backup for
the normal RAM memory. If the program in RAM is lost or
erased, a copy of the program stored on an EEPROM
chip can be down loaded into the RAM.


5/4/2014
7
9
80
PLC Operation
Basic Function of a Typical PLC

Read all field input devices via the input interfaces,
execute the user program stored in application memory,
then, based on whatever control scheme has been
programmed by the user, turn the field output devices
on or off, or perform whatever control is necessary for
the process application.

This process of sequentially reading the inputs,
executing the program in memory, and updating the
outputs is known as scanning.

Examples of PLC Programming Software:

1. Allen-Bradley Rockwell Software RSLogix500
2. Modicon - Modsoft
3. Omron - Syswin
4. GE-Fanuc Series 6 LogicMaster6
5. Square D- PowerLogic
6. Texas Instruments Simatic
6. Telemecanique Modicon TSX Micro


82
PLC Communications
Common Uses of PLC Communications Ports

Changing resident PLC programs -
uploading/downloading from a supervisory controller
(Laptop or desktop computer).

Forcing I/O points and memory elements from a
remote terminal.

Linking a PLC into a control hierarchy containing
several sizes of PLC and computer.

Monitoring data and alarms, etc. via printers or
Operator Interface Units (OIUs).


83
PLC Communications
Serial Communications

PLC communications facilities normally provides serial
transmission of information.

Common Standards

RS 232

Used in short-distance computer communications,
with the majority of computer hardware and
peripherals.
Has a maximum effective distance of approx. 30 m at
9600 baud.
84
PLC Communications
Local Area Network (LAN)

Local Area Network provides a physical link between all
devices plus providing overall data exchange
management or protocol, ensuring that each device can
talk to other machines and understand data received
from them.

LANs provide the common, high-speed data
communications bus which interconnects any or all
devices within the local area.

LANs are commonly used in business applications to
allow several users to share costly software packages
and peripheral equipment such as printers and hard disk
storage.
85
PLC Communications
RS 422 / RS 485

Used for longer-distance links, often between several
PCs in a distributed system. RS 485 can have a
maximum distance of about 1000 meters.
5/4/2014
8
6
87
Specifications
Several factors are used for evaluating the quality and
performance of programmable controllers when selecting
a unit for a particular application. These are listed below.

NUMBER OF I /O PORTS

This specifies the number of I/O devices that can be
connected to the controller. There should be sufficient
I/O ports to meet present requirements with enough
spares to provide for moderate future expansion.


Selecting a PLC
Criteria

Number of logical inputs and outputs.
Memory
Number of special I/O modules
Scan Time
Communications
Software

89
Specifications
OUTPUT-PORT POWER RATINGS

Each output port should be capable of supplying
sufficient voltage and current to drive the output
peripheral connected to it.

SCAN TIME

This is the speed at which the controller executes the
relay-ladder logic program. This variable is usually
specified as the scan time per 1000 logic nodes and
typically ranges from 1 to 200 milliseconds.




90
Specifications



MEMORY CAPACITY

The amount of memory required for a particular
application is related to the length of the program and
the complexity of the control system. Simple applications
having just a few relays do not require significant amount
of memory. Program length tend to expand after the
system have been used for a while. It is advantageous to
a acquire a controller that has more memory than is
presently needed.

Karakteristik PLC:

5/4/2014
9
2
MODUL INPUT/OUTPUT PLC PADA DASARNYA ADALAH
ANTARMUKA/INTERFACE YANG MENGHUBUNGKAN PLC DENGAN
PIRANTI INPUT/OUTPUT EKSTERNAL, MELALUI SENSOR-SENSOR
YANG TERHUBUNG KE MODUL INI , PLC MEMBACA BESARAN-
BESARAN FISIK (POSISI,GERAKAN,LEVEL,ARUS,TEGANGAN) YANG
TERDAPAT PADA SUATU PROSES ATAU MESIN .

SECARA FISIK INPUT/OUPUT MODUL TERPISAH DARI MODUL CPU .
HAL INI TERJADI UNTUK MENJAGA AGAR KERUSAKAN PADA
INPUT/OUTPUT TIDAK MENYEBABKAN TERJADINYA HUBUNG
SINGKAT PADA UNIT CPU.ISOLASI RANGKAIAN MODUL DARI CPU
INI UMUMNYA MENGGUNAKAN RANGKAIAN OPTOCOUPLER
MODUL I/O DISKRIT DAN MODUL I/O ANALOG


5/4/2014
9
4
5/4/2014
9
5
5/4/2014
9
6
INPUT KE DAN OUPUT DARI SUATU PLC ADALAH PENTING UNTUK
MEMANTAU DAN MENGONTROL SUATU PROSES. BAIK INPUT
MAUPUN OUTPUT DAPAT DIKELOMPOKKAN MENJADI 2 JENIS
DASAR YAITU: LOGIKA ATAU KONTINU
OUTPUT KE AKTUATOR MEMUNGKINKAN SUATU PLC
MENYEBABKAN SESUATU TERJADI DALAM PROSES
CONTOH AKTUATOR KATUP KUMPARAN: OUPUT YANG DAPAT
MENSWITCH SUATU ALIRAN HIDROLIK ATAU PNEUMATIK
LAMPU: OUTPUT YANG DAPAT DIAKTIFKAN SECARA LANGSUNG
DARI OUTPUT PLC BOARD
MOTOR STARTER:MOTOR YANG MENARIK SEJUMLAH ARUS YANG
BESAR KETIKA START, OLEH KARENA ITU DIBUTUHKAN MOTOR
STARTER, YANG PADA PRINSIPNYA ADALAH RELAY-RELAY YANG
BESAR
MOTOR SERVO: SUATU OUTPUT KONTINU DARI PLC DAPAT
MEMERINTAHKAN SUATU KECEPAT AN VARIABEL ATAU POSISI

OUPUT DARI PLC BIASANYA BERUPA RELAY TETAPI BISA JUGA
KOMPONEN ELEKTRONIKA SOLID STATE SEPERTI TRANSISTOR
UNTUK OUTPUT DC ATAU TRIAC UNTUK OUTPUT AC. OUTPUT
KONTINU MEMBUTUHKAN MODUL OUTPUT KHUSUS ( MODUL
ANALOG ) DENGAN DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER
INPUT BERASAL DARI SENSOR YANG MENGUBAH FENOMENA FISIK
KE SINYAL LISTRIK

CONTOH SENSOR :
PROXIMITY SWITCH : MENGGUNKAN INDUKTANSI , KAPASITANSI
ATAU CAHAYA UNTUK MENDETEKSI OBYEK SECARA LOGIKA
SWITCH/SAKLAR : MEKANISME MEKANIK YANG AKAN MEMBUKA
ATAU MENUTUP KONTAK LISTRIK UNTUK SUATU SINYAL LOGIKA
POTENSIOMETER : MENGUKUR POSISI ANGULAR SECARA TERUS
MENERUS MENGGUNAKAN TAHANAN

5/4/2014
9
7
A discrete data point is one with only two states on and off.
Process switches, pushbutton switches, limit switches, and
proximity switches are all examples of discrete sensing devices.
In order for a PLC to be aware of a discrete sensors state, it
must receive a signal from the sensor through a discrete
input channel. Inside the discrete input module is (typically) a
light-emitting diode (LED) which will be energized when the
corresponding sensing device turns on. Light from this LED shines
on a photo-sensitive device such as a phototransistor inside the
module, which in turn activates abit (a single element of digital
data) inside the PLCs memory. This opto-coupled arrangement
makes each input channel of a PLC rather rugged, capable of
isolating the sensitive computer circuitry of the PLC from
transient voltage spikes and other electrical phenomena
capable of causing damage.


5/4/2014
9
8
Indicator lamps, solenoid valves, and motor contactors (starters)
are all examples of discrete control devices. In a manner similar
to discrete inputs, a PLC connects to any number of different
discrete final control devices through a discrete output channel.
Discrete output modules typically use the same form of opto-
isolation to allow the PLCs computer circuitry to send electrical
power to loads: the internal PLC circuitry driving an LED which
then activates some form of photosensitive switching device.
Alternatively, small electromechanical relays may be used to
interface the PLCs output bits to real-world electrical control
devices.
An important concept to master when working with DC discrete
I/O is the distinction between current-sourcing andcurrent-
sinking devices. The terms sourcing and sinking refer to the
direction of current (as denoted by conventional flow notation)
into or out of a devices control wire. A device sending
(conventional flow) current out of its control terminal to some
other device(s) is said to be sourcing current, while a device
accepting (conventional flow) current into its control terminal is
said to be sinking current.
To illustrate, the following illustration shows a PLC output
channel is sourcing current to an indicator lamp, which
issinking current to ground:


5/4/2014
9
9
5/4/2014
1
0
0
5/4/2014
1
0
1
5/4/2014
1
0
2
5/4/2014
1
0
3
Dari gambar 1 sampai gambar 3, terlihat bahwa secara fisik
rangkaian pada modul ini terpisah dari rangkaian internal (CPU).
Isolasi rangkaian ini menggunakan optocoupler dengan dua buah
diode pemancar yang dipasang antiparalel. Hal ini dilakukan
untuk tujuan fleksibilitas penyambungan terminal input dengan
catu daya penggerak sensor atau saklar yang terhubung. Dalam
hal ini, terminal common pada modul dapat dihubungkan balk
dengan polaritas yang lebih positif atau lebih negatif dari catu
dayanya
Besar arus yang mengalir di dalam sebuah terminal input ketika
sebuah saklar tertutup umumnya berada dalam satuan
miliampere (tipikalnya adalah 7 miliampere). Arus sebesar ini
telah cukup untuk menggerakkan basis transistor pada
optocoupler menjadi ON. Jika menggunakan sumber tegangan
yang lebih kecil dari yang telah ditentukan oleh vendor PLC yang
dipakai maka akan terjadi situasi undercurrent, yaitu arus yang
mengalir pada modul tidak dapat menggerakan basis transistor
pada optocoupler tersebut

5/4/2014
1
0
4
5/4/2014
1
0
5
5/4/2014
1
0
6
5/4/2014
1
0
7
5/4/2014
1
0
8
5/4/2014
1
0
9
5/4/2014
1
1
0
output Relay
output PLC jenis relay adalah yang paling fleksibel
penggunaannya karena dapat menggerakkan beban AC maupun
DC. kelemahannya terletak pada tanggapan switching-nya yang
relatif lambat (sekitar 10 ms ), dan akan mengalami kerusakan
setelah beberapa juta siklus switching.
Gambar 4 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis relay
Besar rating arus untuk setiap terminal umumnya tidak boleh
melebihi 2 A untuk tegangan 220 volt (untuk lebih jelasnya dapat
dilihat pada manual PLC yang digunakan). Bila batas besar rating
arus ini dilampaui, akan menimbulkan kerusakan pada modul
output nya. Jika keluaran yang akan dikontrol merupakan beban
yang relatif besar (mengalirkan arus dengan jumlah besar) maka
akan lebih aman jika output relay ini mengontrol beban tersebut
lewat relay luar.

5/4/2014
1
1
1
5/4/2014
1
1
2
output transistor
output PLC jenis transistor, beban yang dapat dikontrol terbatas
pada beban-beban jenis DC saja. (besar arus yang bisa
dilewatkan umumnya adalah 1 A, dengan waktu respons kurang
dari 1 ms)
Berdasarkan transistornya, ada dua jenis output PLC ini: (1) jenis
NPN dan (2) jenis PNP. Pada prinsipnya kedua jenis keluaran ini
adalah sama, yaitu dapat mengalirkan arus atau daya dalam satu
arah saja. Ada dua jenis mode operasi transistor ini: (1) transistor
digunakan sebagai penguat linier, dan (2) transistor digunakan
sebagai saklar. Dalam rangkaian internal PLC, Iransistor
dioperasikan sebagai saklar, yaitu dengan cara mengoperasikan
pada daerah jenuhnya.
Perlu ditekankan di sini, walaupun transistor ini berlaku sebagai
saklar, tetapi secara praktis akan selalu ada drop tegangan pada
saklar ini (antara kaki collector terhadap emiter) yang besarnya
berkisar antara 1-2 volt

Gambar 5 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis Transistor

jenis keluaran transistor NPN. Dari gambar, terlihat bahwa
terminal common pada modul output harus selalu dihubungkan
dengan sumber tegangan positif (ingat, transistor dalam
operasinya hanya akan mengalirkan arus dari collector ke emiter
jika tegangan collector lebih positif dari tegangan emitter
Modul output PLC jenis PNP memiliki prinsip kerja kebalikan dari
jenis NPN yang telah dibahas di atas.

5/4/2014
1
1
3
Gambar 5 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis Transistor

jenis keluaran transistor NPN. Dari gambar, terlihat bahwa
terminal common pada modul output harus selalu dihubungkan
dengan sumber tegangan positif (ingat, transistor dalam
operasinya hanya akan mengalirkan arus dari collector ke emiter
jika tegangan collector lebih positif dari tegangan emitter
Modul output PLC jenis PNP memiliki prinsip kerja kebalikan dari
jenis NPN yang telah dibahas di atas.


5/4/2014
1
1
4
5/4/2014
1
1
5
output jenis triac
output Triac terbatas pada beban jenis AC
(besar arus yang bisa dilewatkan umumnya
adalah 1 A, dengan waktu respons kurang dari
1 ms)
Triac adalah sebuah komponen semikonduktor
yang berfungsi mengalirkan arus bolak-balik.
Arus yang dialirkan dikontrol oleh terminal
gate pada triac tersebut dalam modul output
PLC jenis ini, triac digunakan untuk
memerlukan gerakkan beban-beban AC lewat
rangkaian internalnya

5/4/2014
1
1
6
5/4/2014
1
1
7
5/4/2014
1
1
8
5/4/2014
1
1
9
Selain dapat mengolah sinyal digital, PLC juga dapat mengolah
sinyal analog.Modul ini biasanya didesain untuk membaca sinyal-
sinyal standard industri yakni 0 5 V, 10 V, atau 4 20 mA.
Untuk menggunakan analog input, modul ini harus dihubungkan
ke rangkaian PLC dan ditentukan Unit No.-nya. Unit No. ini
ditentukan dengan cara mengatur skrup Mach No. di depan Modul
Analog Unit. Skrup Mach No. ini ada 2 buah: satu skrup puluhan
(x10) dan satu skrup satuan (x10). Jika ingin membuat modul
ini memiliki Unit No. 12, putar skrup puluhan ke angka 1 dan
skrup satuan ke angka 2. Selain itu, di IO Table dan Unit Setup
pada CX-Programmer juga harus diberi Unit No. yang sama. Ingat,
Unit No. modul ini tidak boleh sama dengan modul lain karena
akan bertabrakan pengalamatan memorinya

5/4/2014
1
2
0
5/4/2014
1
2
1
122
I/O Module
DC / AC OUTPUT MODULE
OPTO-
ISOLATOR
IS NEEDED TO:
Prevent voltage
transients from
damaging the
processor.
Helps reduce the
effects of
electrical noise
FROM
PROCESSOR
TTL
Circuits
Amplifier
RELAY
TRIAC
XSISTOR
TO
OUTPUT
DEVICE
123
124
I/O Circuits
DIFFERENT TYPES OF I/O CIRCUITS

1. Pilot Duty Outputs
Outputs of this type typically are used to drive high-
current electromagnetic loads such as solenoids, relays,
valves, and motor starters.

These loads are highly inductive and exhibit a large
inrush current.

Pilot duty outputs should be capable of withstanding an
inrush current of 10 times the rated load for a short
period of time without failure.
125
I/O Circuits
2. General - Purpose Outputs
These are usually low- voltage and low-current and are
used to drive indicating lights and other non-inductive
loads. Noise suppression may or may not be included
on this types of modules.

3. Discrete Inputs
Circuits of this type are used to sense the status of limit
switches, push buttons, and other discrete sensors.
Noise suppression is of great importance in preventing
false indication of inputs turning on or off because of
noise.

modul analog output digunakan untuk
mengeluarkan sinyal analog dari PLC. Sinyal
analog yang dapat dikeluarkan umumnya
berada dalam rentang sinyal-sinyal standard
industri seperti 4 20 mA. Sama seperti pada
modul analog input, modul analog output
juga harus diatur Unit No. nya terlebih
dahulu untuk menentukan pengalamatan
memorinya. Selain itu, resolusi dan jenis
outputnya juga bisa ditentukan (tegangan
atau arus).
5/4/2014
1
2
6
127
I/O Circuits
4. Analog I/O

Circuits of this type sense or drive analog signals.
Analog inputs come from devices, such as
thermocouples, strain gages, or pressure sensors, that
provide a signal voltage or current that is derived from
the process variable.
Standard Analog Input signals: 4-20mA; 0-10V

Analog outputs can be used to drive devices such as
voltmeters, X-Y recorders, servomotor drives, and
valves through the use of transducers.
Standard Analog Output signals: 4-20mA; 0-5V; 0-10V





128
I/O Circuits
5. Special - Purpose I/O

Circuits of this type are used to interface PLCs to very
specific types of circuits such as servomotors, stepping
motors PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative)
loops, high-speed pulse counting, resolver and decoder
inputs, multiplexed displays, and keyboards.

This module allows for limited access to timer and
counter presets and other PLC variables without requiring
a program loader.
129
PLC
INPUTS
OUTPUTS
MOTOR
LAMP
CONTACTOR
PUSHBUTTONS
130
L1
L2
P. B SWITCH
INPUT
MODULE
WIRING DIAGRAM
LADDER PROGRAM
I:2
0
I= Input
Module
slot # in rack
Module
Terminal #
Allen-Bradley 1746-1A16
Address I:2.0/0
131
N.
O
C
L2 L1
L1
L2

OUTPUT MODULE
WIRING
MOTOR
CONTACTOR
O:4
0
CONTACTOR
LADDER PROGRAM
L1
L2
FIELD
WIRING
SOLENOID
VALVES
LAMP
BUZZER
132
Discrete Input
A discrete input also referred as digital input is an input that
is either ON or OFF are connected to the PLC digital input.
In the ON condition it is referred to as logic 1 or a logic high
and in the OFF condition maybe referred to as logic o or
logic low.
Normally Open
Pushbutton
Normally Closed
Pushbutton
Normally Open switch
Normally Closed switch
Normally Open contact
Normally closed contact
133
OFF
Logic 0
IN
PLC

Input
Module
24 V dc
OFF
Logic 1
IN
PLC

Input
Module
24 V dc
134
IN
PLC
Analog
Input
Module
Tank
Level Transmitter
An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous
signal. Typical inputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to
20mA
or 0 to10V. Below, a level transmitter monitors the level
of
liquid in the tank. Depending on the level Tx, the signal
to the
PLC can either increase or decrease as the level
increases
or decreases.
Analog Input
135
OUT
PLC

Digital
Output
Module
Lamp
A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition.
Solenoids,
contactors coils, lamps are example of devices connected to
the
Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be turned ON
or OFF by the PLC output it is connected to.
Digital Output
136
OUT
PLC

Analog
Output
Module
An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous
signal. Typical outputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA
or 0 to10V.
Analog Output
E
P
Pneumatic control valve
Supply air
Electric to pneumatic transducer
0 to 10V
BINER
OCTAL
DESIMAL
HEKSADESIMAL
5/4/2014
1
3
7
5/4/2014
1
3
8
Example: What is 1111
2
in Decimal?
The "1" on the left is in the "222" position, so that means
1222 (=8)
The next "1" is in the "22" position, so that means 122 (=4)
The next "1" is in the "2" position, so that means 12 (=2)
The last "1" is in the units position, so that means 1
Answer: 1111 = 8+4+2+1 = 15 in Decimal
Example: What is 1001
2
in Decimal?
The "1" on the left is in the "222" position, so that means
1222 (=8)
The "0" is in the "22" position, so that means 022 (=0)
The next "0" is in the "2" position, so that means 02 (=0)
The last "1" is in the units position, so that means 1
Answer: 1001 = 8+0+0+1 = 9 in Decimal

5/4/2014
1
3
9

5/4/2014
1
4
0
Example: What is 1.1
2
in Decimal?
The "1" on the left side is in the units position, so that
means 1.
The 1 on the right side is in the "halves" position, so that
means 1(1/2)
So, 1.1 is "1 and 1 half" = 1.5 in Decimal
Example: What is 10.11
2
in Decimal?
The "1" is in the "2" position, so that means 12 (=2)
The "0" is in the units position, so that means 0
The "1" on the right of the point is in the "halves"
position, so that means 1(1/2)
The last "1" on the right side is in the "quarters"
position, so that means 1(1/4)
So, 10.11 is 2+0+1/2+1/4 = 2.75 in Decimal
Both Decimal and Binary numbers use a positional
weighting system, eg:

1010
2
= 1x2
3
+0x2
2
+1x2
1
+0x2
0
= 1x8 + 0x4 + 1x2 + 0x1 = 10
10

decimal 100 (10
2
) 10 (10
1
) 1 (10
0
)
4 0 3 400 + 0 + 3
binary 8 (2
3
) 4 (2
2
) 2 (2
1
) 1 (2
0
)
1 0 0 1 8 + 0 + 0 + 1
Multiply each 1 bit by the appropriate power of 2 and
add them together.
? ? 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
10000011
2
= .
10
?

101001100
2
=
10
?
Number Representation - Binary to decimal
A decimal number can be converted to binary by
repeated division by 2











number /2 remainder
155 77 1 Least Significant Bit
77 38 1
38 19 0
19 9 1
9 4 1
4 2 0
2 1 0
1 0 1 Most Significant bit
155
10
= 10011011
2
An alternative way is to use the placement method



128 goes into 155 once leaving 27 to be placed


So 64 and 32 are too big (make them zero)
16 goes in once leaving 11


and so on


128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1
1 0 0 1
145
Hexadecimal and Octal
Writing binary numbers as strings of 1s and 0s can be
very tedious
Octal (base 8) and Hexadecimal (base 16) notations can
be used to reduce a long string of binary digits.


octal 512 (8
3
) 64 (8
2
) 8 (8
1
) 1 (8
0
)
1 2 0 7 512 + 128 + 7
hexadecimal 256 (16
2
) 16 (16
1
) 1 (16
0
)
1 A F 256 + 160 + 15
Notice that hexadecimal requires 15 symbols (each number system needs 0
base-1 symbols) and therefore A F are used after 9.
147

148

Each octal digit corresponds to 3 binary
bits
binary octal
000 0
001 1
010 2
011 3
100 4
101 5
110 6
111 7
To convert a binary string: 10011101010011

Split into groups of 3:
010 011 101 010 011
2 3 5 2 3

Thus 10011101010011
2
= 23523
8

Each hex digit corresponds to 4 binary bits
binary hex
0000 0
0001 1
0010 2
0011 3
0100 4
0101 5
0110 6
0111 7
To convert a binary string:
10011101010011

Split into groups of 4:
0010 0111 0101 0011


Thus 10011101010011
2
=
16
?

binary hex
1000 8
1001 9
1010 A
1011 B
1100 C
1101 D
1110 E
1111 F

151

152
Characters
Three main coding schemes used: ASCII (widespread
use), EBCDIC (not used often) and UNICODE (new)
ASCII table (in hex) :
00
nul
01
soh
02
sot
03
etx
04
eot
05
enq
06
ack
07
bel
08
bs
09
ht
0a
nl
0b
vt
0c
np
0d
cr
0e
so
0f
si
10
dle
11
dc1
12
dc2
13
dc3
14
dc4
15
nak
16
syn
17
etb
18
can
19
em
1a
sub
1b
esc
1c
fs
1d
gs
1e
rs
1f
us
20
sp
21
!
22
"
23
#
24
$
25
%
26
&
27
'
28
(
29
)
2a
*
2b
+
2c
,
2d
-
2e
.
2f
/
30
0
31
1
32
2
33
3
34
4
35
5
36
6
37
7
38
8
39
9
3a
:
3b
;
3c
<
3d
=
3e
>
3f
?
40
@
41
A
42
B
43
C
44
D
45
E
46
F
47
G
48
H
49
I
4a
J
4b
K
4c
L
4d
M
4e
N
4f
O
50
P
51
Q
52
R
53
S
54
T
55
U
56
V
57
W
58
X
59
Y
5a
Z
5b
[
5c
\
5d
]
5e
^
5f
_
60
`
61
a
62
b
63
c
64
d
65
e
66
f
67
g
68
h
69
i
6a
j
6b
k
6c
l
6d
m
6e
n
6f
o
70
p
71
q
72
r
73
s
74
t
75
u
76
v
77
w
78
x
79
y
7a
z
7b
{
7c 7d
}
7e
~
7f
del
5/4/2014
1
5
4
5/4/2014
1
5
5
5/4/2014
1
5
6
Other codes exist for specific purposes
Gray codes provide a sequence where only
one bit changes for each increment
Allows increments without ambiguity due
to bits changing at different times.
E.g. changing from 3 to 4, normal binary has
all three bits changing 011 -> 100. Depending
on the order in which the bits change any
intermediate value may be created.

Dec Gra
y
0 000
1 001
2 011
3 010
4 110
5 111
6 101
7 100
5/4/2014
1
5
8
Kode digunakan untuk pengecekan data
sesuai dengan urutan biner
Biasa untuk piranti yang menggunakan posisi
angular
Konsepnya adalah bilangan binernya hanya
berubah satu setiap naik atau turun
Ini mempermudah mendeteksi terjadinya
kesalahan setiap perubahan
5/4/2014
1
5
9

5/4/2014
1
6
0
5/4/2014
1
6
1
BIT PARITY DAPAT DITAMBAHKAN KE DATA
SEBAGAI PENGECEKAN KESALAHAN
SEDERHANA DATA YANG DIKIRIM,JIKA DATA
YANG DIKIRIM TERJADI KESALAHAN AKAN
DIKIRIM ULANG ATAU DIABAIKAN
PARITY DITAMBAHKAN PADA DAA HINGGA 8
ATAU 9 BIT
PARITY EVEN DAN ODD
5/4/2014
1
6
2
5/4/2014
1
6
3
Simple gates
AND
OR
NOT
Functionality can be
expressed by a truth table
A truth table lists output for
each possible input
combination
Precedence
NOT > AND > OR
F = A B + A B
= (A (B)) + ((A) B)
Additional useful gates
NAND
NOR
XOR
NAND = AND + NOT
NOR = OR + NOT
XOR implements
exclusive-OR function
NAND and NOR gates
require only 2 transistors
AND and OR need 3
transistors!
Proving NAND gate is universal
Proving NOR gate is universal
168

Integration levels
SSI (small scale integration)
Introduced in late 1960s
1-10 gates (previous examples)
MSI (medium scale integration)
Introduced in late 1960s
10-100 gates
LSI (large scale integration)
Introduced in early 1970s
100-10,000 gates
VLSI (very large scale integration)
Introduced in late 1970s
More than 10,000 gates
Logical functions can be expressed in several
ways:
Truth table
Logical expressions
Graphical form
Example:
Majority function
Output is one whenever majority of inputs is 1
We use 3-input majority function
3-input majority function

A B C F
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Logical expression form
F = A B + B C + A C

All three circuits implement F = A B function
Derivation of logical expression from a circuit
Trace from the input to output
Write down intermediate logical expressions along the path
Proving logical equivalence: Truth table
method

A B F1 = A B F3 = (A + B) (A + B) (A +
B)
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1

5/4/2014
1
7
8
Proving logical equivalence: Boolean algebra
method
To prove that two logical functions F1 and F2 are
equivalent
Start with one function and apply Boolean laws to
derive the other function
Needs intuition as to which laws should be applied and
when
Practice helps
Sometimes it may be convenient to reduce both
functions to the same expression
Example: F1= A B and F3 are equivalent

A simple logic design process involves
Problem specification
Truth table derivation
Derivation of logical expression
Simplification of logical expression
Implementation
3-input majority function

A B C F
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
SOP logical expression
Four product terms
Because there are 4 rows with
a 1 output


F = A B C + A B C +
A B C + A B C
Two basic methods
Algebraic manipulation
Use Boolean laws to simplify the expression
Difficult to use
Dont know if you have the simplified form
Karnaugh map (K-map) method
Graphical method
Easy to use
Can be used to simplify logical expressions with a
few variables
Majority function example

A B C + A B C + A B C + A B C =

A B C + A B C + A B C + A B C + A B C + A B C

We can now simplify this expression as

B C + A C + A B

A difficult method to use for complex
expressions
Added extra
5/4/2014
1
8
4
5/4/2014
1
8
5
Note the order
Simplification examples
First and last columns/rows are adjacent
Minimal expression depends on groupings
No redundant groupings
Dont cares simplify the expression a lot
Using NAND gates
Get an equivalent expression

A B + C D = A B + C D
Using de Morgans law

A B + C D = A B
.
C D
Can be generalized
Majority function

A B + B C + AC = A B
.
BC
.
AC
Idea: NAND Gates: Sum-of-Products, NOR Gates: Product-of-Sums
Majority function
Combinational circuits
Output depends only on the current inputs
Combinational circuits provide a higher level
of abstraction
Help in reducing design complexity
Reduce chip count
We look at some useful combinational
circuits
195
PROGRAMMING
Normally Open
(NO)
Normally Closed
(NC)
Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The
normally open (NO) is true when the input or output status bit
controlling the contact is 1. The normally closed (NC) is true
when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 0.

196
Coils
Coils represent relays that are energized when power flows to
them. When a coil is energized it causes a corresponding
output to turn on by changing the state of the status bit controlling
the output to 1. That same output status bit maybe used to control
normally open or normally closed contact anywhere in the program.
197
Boxes
Boxes represent various instructions or functions that are
Executed when power flows to the box. Some of these
Functions are timers, counters and math operations.
198
AND OPERATION
Each rung or network on a ladder program represents
a logic operation. In the rung above, both inputs A and B
must be true (1) in order for the output C to be true (1).
Rung
A
B
C
199
OR OPERATION
In the rung above, it can be seen that either input A or B
is be true (1), or both are true, then the output C is true (1).
Rung
A
B
C
200
NOT OPERATION
In the rung above, it can be seen that if input A is be true (1),
then the output C is true (0) or when A is (0), output C is 1.
Rung
A

C
5/4/2014
2
0
1
5/4/2014
2
0
2
5/4/2014
2
0
3
5/4/2014
2
0
4
5/4/2014
2
0
5
5/4/2014
2
0
6
5/4/2014
2
0
7
5/4/2014
2
0
8
5/4/2014
2
0
9
5/4/2014
2
1
0
5/4/2014
2
1
1
5/4/2014
2
1
2
5/4/2014
2
1
3
5/4/2014
2
1
4
5/4/2014
2
1
5
5/4/2014
2
1
6
5/4/2014
2
1
7
5/4/2014
2
1
8
5/4/2014
2
1
9
5/4/2014
2
2
0
5/4/2014
2
2
1
5/4/2014
2
2
2
5/4/2014
2
2
3
5/4/2014
2
2
4
5/4/2014
2
2
5
5/4/2014
2
2
6
5/4/2014
2
2
7
5/4/2014
2
2
8
5/4/2014
2
2
9
5/4/2014
2
3
0
5/4/2014
2
3
1
5/4/2014
2
3
2
5/4/2014
2
3
3
5/4/2014
2
3
4
5/4/2014
2
3
5
5/4/2014
2
3
6
5/4/2014
2
3
7
5/4/2014
2
3
8
5/4/2014
2
3
9
5/4/2014
2
4
0
5/4/2014
2
4
1
5/4/2014
2
4
2
5/4/2014
2
4
3
5/4/2014
2
4
4
5/4/2014
2
4
5
5/4/2014
2
4
6
5/4/2014
2
4
7
5/4/2014
2
4
8
5/4/2014
2
4
9
5/4/2014
2
5
0
5/4/2014
2
5
1
5/4/2014
2
5
2
5/4/2014
2
5
3
5/4/2014
2
5
4
5/4/2014
2
5
5
5/4/2014
2
5
6
5/4/2014
2
5
7
5/4/2014
2
5
8
5/4/2014
2
5
9
5/4/2014
2
6
0
5/4/2014
2
6
1
5/4/2014
2
6
2
5/4/2014
2
6
3
5/4/2014
2
6
4
5/4/2014
2
6
5
5/4/2014
2
6
6
5/4/2014
2
6
7
5/4/2014
2
6
8
5/4/2014
2
6
9
5/4/2014
2
7
0
5/4/2014
2
7
1
5/4/2014
2
7
2
5/4/2014
2
7
3
5/4/2014
2
7
4
5/4/2014
2
7
5
5/4/2014
2
7
6
5/4/2014
2
7
7
5/4/2014
2
7
8
5/4/2014
2
7
9
5/4/2014
2
8
0
5/4/2014
2
8
1
5/4/2014
2
8
2