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Rocks

and
Minerals
Minerals
the building blocks of rocks
Mineral Characteristics
natural
inorganic
solid
definite composition
crystal structure

Mineral Formation
4 major processes by which minerals
form:
1. Crystallization from magma-
cooling magma causes minerals to
crystallize

2. Precipitation
Minerals dissolve out
of evaporated water;
precipitated
3. Pressure and Temperature
Change in pressure
and temperature
cause an existing
mineral to
recrystallize while
still solid
Muscovite
Talc
4. Hydrothermal
Solutions
A hot mixtures of water
with substances dissolved
in them. When they come
in contact with existing
minerals- a chemical
reaction occurs forming a
new mineral
Bornite
Mineral Composition
Minerals are grouped or classified based on
their composition. There are 6 groups

1. Carbonates - contain
carbon, oxygen, and one
ore more metallic element
2. Silicates
- formed from silicon and
oxygen
- elements combined to
form a silicon
tetrahedron, 1 silicon
atom and 4 oxygen atoms
- formed from cooling
magma
- either near the surface
(few crystals) or deep
below surface (larger
crystals)
3. Oxides
- Minerals that
contain oxygen and
one or more other
element(s)
4. Sulfates and
Sulfides
- Minerals containing
sulfur
Gypsum
Pyrite
5. Halides
-minerals containing
halogen ions plus
one or more other
elements
Halite
6. Native Elements
Minerals that exist in
a relatively pure
form
i.e. Gold, silver,
copper
Gold crystal structure
Mineral Properties
Mineral PROPERTIES
are used to identify
minerals based on
specific
characteristics
Luster
Streak
Color
Specific Gravity
Cleavage & Fracture
Hardness
Magnetism
Fluoresence
Streak
color of a mineral in
its powder form

Color
often not a good
property for Iding
Luster
how light is reflected from the
surface of a mineral

Cleavage- tendency to break along
flat, even surfaces (mica)
Fracture- uneven breakage (quartz)
Specific Gravity- ratio of a minerals
density to the density of water
Density= Mass (g)
Volume (mL or cm
3
)

Density of water is 1 g/cm
3

Specific Gravity is a ratio, no
units
Hardness- measure of resistance of a
mineral being scratched
Magnetism
Magnetite
Fluorescence
Double Refraction
Calcite
Smell
Sulfur
Rocks and
The Rock
Cycle
Rocks- any solid mass of mineral
or mineral-like matter that occurs
naturally as part of our planet
There are 3 major type or families or rock:
Igneous rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Igneous Rocks
Magma- molten material underground
Lava- magma that reaches the surface

Igneous rocks are formed from magma that
has cooled and hardened either beneath the
surface or from a volcanic eruption
2 Ways to Form Igneous Rock
Intrusive Igneous
Rocks- form when
magma hardens
beneath Earths
surface
Magma intrudes into
existing rocks

Extrusive Igneous
Rocks- form when
lava hardens on the
surface of the Earth
Extruded onto the
surface
granite
rhyolite
Magma contains some gases, including
water vapor- this make it less dense, so it
rises
As magma rises, it cools and forms crystals
The longer the cooling time the larger the
crystals

Classification of Igneous Rocks-
Igneous rocks are classified by texture
and composition
Texture refers to the appearance of an
igneous rock (size, shape, arrangement of
crystals)
Composition refers to the proportions of
light and dark
minerals in the rock
Coarse- grained Texture- form as a result
of slow cooling, ions can move = large
crystal size
Fine-grained Texture- form as a result of
quick cooling time, ions lose motion= small
crystal size
Glassy Texture- form from lava that cools
rapidly, ions dont have time to arrange =
glassy texture
Porphyritic Texture- rocks with different
size minerals that form from varying
cooling rates
Granitic Composition- contain
mainly quartz and feldspar,
some with biotite mica and
amphibole. Make up major
rocks of continental crust
Basaltic Composition- contain
mainly dark colored minerals
and feldspar, along with Mg
and Fe. Darker and denser than
granitic composition

Classification of Major Igneous Rocks
Texture is crossed with composition to classify igneous rocks. For
example, granite has a coarse texture due to slow cooling and larger
crystals, and a light color from the light colored quartz and feldspar
minerals used to form it.
Sedimentary Rocks- formed from
compacted and cemented sediments
Weathering physically and chemically
breaks rocks into small pieces called
sediments
Sediments are moved
by wind, water, ice,
and gravity
Eventually, they are
dropped and form layers
that are cemented together
Weathering, Erosion, and
Deposition
Weathering breaks
rocks down
Erosion involves
weather and the
removal of rock
Deposition is the
dropping of sediments


Sediments are
deposited according to
size

Compaction and Cementation
Compaction is the
process that squeezes
the water out of the
sediments. It is caused
by the weight of the
sediments.
Cementation takes
place when dissolved
minerals are deposited
in the tiny spaces among
the sediments.

Cementing holds the
sediments together.
Classification of Sedimentary
Rocks- based on formation
Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks are formed
from weathered bits of
rocks and minerals
Grouped according to
size of the sediments
in the rock
Chemical
Sedimentary Rocks
are formed when
dissolved minerals
precipitate from water
solution

Coquina
limestone
Sedimentary rocks hold many clues to the
Earths history
Layers of sediments are records of geologic
events on Earth
Fossils are unique to sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary rocks drop according
to size; larger particles fall first
followed by smaller particles
Metamorphic Rocks- form when
existing rocks undergo change through
heat and pressure
Metamorphism means
to change
Most metamorphic
changes occur at high
temperatures and
pressure
These occur deep
below the Earths
surface and extend
into the mantle
Forms of Metamorphism
Contact
Metamorphism-
forms when magma
intrudes into existing
rock
Changes in rocks are
minor
Regional
Metamorphism-
formed during
mountain building
process that occur
over a large area
Major changes to
rocks
Contact metamorphism Regional metamorphism
Agents of Metamorphism
Heat- causes existing
minerals to
recrystallize or new
minerals to form
Pressure- causes the
spaces between
mineral grains to
close= more compact
rock= greater density

Classification of Metamorphic
Rocks- based on texture and composition
Foliated
Metamorphic Rocks-
form when minerals
recrystallize at right
angles to the direction
of force
Causes a layered or
banded appearance
Nonfoliated
Metamorphic Rocks-
no banded texture
Most contain only one
mineral
Foliated NonFoliated
The Rock Cycle