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Chemistry

Year 10
Chapter Energy Changes and Reversible
Reactions
Textbook: Complete Chemistry for IGCSE
By RoseMarie Gallagher and Paul Ingram
Chapter 9
Subtopic 9.1,9.2,9.3
Pages: 114-119

Energy Change During
Chemical Reactions
Endothermic and Exothermic
Changes
Starters
What happens in chemical reactions?

Which releases heat?

Which other absorbs heat?
Exothermic & Endothermic
Exothermic & Endothermic
1. An exothermic reaction is one which
releases heat energy to the
surroundings
2. The temperature of the surroundings
increases
3. Thermometer shows a rise in
temperature
Exothermic reactions
Exothermic reactions
1. An Endothermic reaction is one which
absorbs heat energy from the
surroundings
2. The temperature of the surroundings
decreases
3. Thermometer shows a drope in
temperature
Endothermic reactions
Exothermic reactions
Exothermic Reactions

Examples include:
Burning reactions including the
combustion of fuels.
Detonation of explosives.
Reaction of acids with metals.





Magnesium
reacting with
acid
Exothermic reactions increase in temperature.



Combustion of
Methanol
Say whether these processes are exothermic.
1. Charcoal burning
2. A candle burning.
3. A kettle boiling water
4. Ice melting
5. A firework exploding
yes
yes
yes
no
no
You have to put heat in for boiling and melting.
You get heat out from all the other processes
Activity
Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid
Gets hot
25
o
C
45
o
C
magnesium
Hydrochloric
acid
Heat
energy
given
out
Exothermic Reactions
45
o
C
Almost immediately the hot reaction products start
to lose heat to the surroundings and eventually
they return to room temperature.
25
o
C
Chemical energy becomes heat
energy.
The reaction mixture gets hotter.
Eventually this heat is lost to the
surroundings.
It follows that reaction products have
less chemical energy than the
reactants had to start with.
Exothermic Reactions
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Progress of reaction (time)
Energy Level Diagram for an
Exothermic Reaction
reactants
Reactants have more
chemical energy.
Some of this is lost as
heat which spreads out
into the
room/surrounding.
products
Products now have
less chemical energy
than reactants.
E
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Progress of reaction
reactants
products
H=negative
Energy Level Diagram for an
Exothermic Reaction 2.
H is how
much energy
is given out
H is negative
because the
products have
less energy than
the reactants.
Energy Level Diagram for an
Exothermic Reaction
Exothermic reactions
give out energy. There
is a temperature rise
and H is negative.
Exothermic Reaction - Definition
products
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Progress of reaction
reactants
H is negative
Activity
Common exothermic reactions
Combustion
Neutralisation
Displacement(metal displacement and
non-metal displacement)
Respiration
Condensation
Freezing

Many More exothermic reactions
Combustion or Burning of fuels(petrol, diesel etc)
Metal reacting with acids
Metals are heated in gases such as oxygen, chlorine
Acids reaction with Bases or alkali
Acid reaction with aqueous or solid metal carbonates
Organic materials that are decaying/decomposing
More Metals reacting with ions of less reactive
metals(displacement)
More reactive halogens reacting with anion of less reactive
halogens(displacement)
In a cell, Glucose changing to carbon dioxide, water and releases
heat
Anhydrous solids that are dissolved in water
Soluble metal oxides that dissolves in water to form alkali
solution
1. An endothermic reaction is on which
takes in heat energy from the
surroundings
2. The temperature of the surroundings
decreases
3. Thermometer shows a drop in
temperature

Endothermic reactions
Endothermic reactions
Endothermic Reactions
Endothermic chemical reactions are
relatively rare.
A few reactions that give off gases are
highly endothermic - get very cold.
Dissolving salts (like ammonium nitrate,
ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate
salts) in water is another process that is
often endothermic.
Endothermic reactions cause a decrease in temperature.
Cools
Heat
energy
taken
in as
the
mixture
returns
back to
room
temp.
Starts 25C
Cools to 5C
Ammonium
nitrate
Water
Endothermic reactions cause a decrease in temperature.
Returns to 25C
Endothermic Reactions
25
o
C
The cold reaction products start to gain heat
from the surroundings and eventually return
to room temperature.
5
o
C
The reactants gain energy.
25
o
C
This comes from the substances used in the
reaction and the reaction gets cold.
Eventually heat is absorbed from the
surroundings and the mixture returns to
room temperature.
Overall the chemicals have gained energy.
Endothermic Reactions
products
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Progress of reaction
reactants
H=+
Energy Level Diagram for an
Endothermic Process
This is positive
because the
products have
more energy
than the
reactants.
This is how
much energy
is taken in
Endothermic reactions
take in energy. There is
a temperature drop and
H is positive.
Endothermic Reaction Definition
H=+
products
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Progress of reaction
reactants
Other endothermic reactions
Melting
Boiling
Evaporation
Thermal decomposition
Photosynthesis
Electrolysis
Metal hydrogen carbonates that reacts with dilute acid
solution
Thermal Decomposition of metal nitrates
Thermal Decomposition of metal carbonates
Thermal Decomposition of metal hydroxides
Metal nitrates dissolved in water
Ammonium salt dissolved in water
Electrolysis of molten and aqueous solution
Light decomposition of silver halide such as silver
bromide



Are these endothermic or exothermic?
1. A red glow spread throughout the mixture
and the temperature rose.
2. The mixture bubbled vigorously but the
temperature dropped 15
0
C.
3. Hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide react
so explosively and powerfully that they
are used to power rockets into space.
4. The decaying grass in the compost
maker was considerably above the
outside temperature.
exo
endo
exo
exo
Activity
Endothermic and exothermic reactions
Step 1: Energy must be
SUPPLIED to break bonds:
Step 2: Energy is RELEASED
when new bonds are made:
A reaction is EXOTHERMIC if more energy is RELEASED
then SUPPLIED. If more energy is SUPPLIED then is
RELEASED then the reaction is ENDOTHERMIC
Energy level diagrams
Energy
level
Reaction progress
Activation
energy
Energy given
out by
reaction
Using a catalyst
might lower the
activation energy
Exothermic vs endothermic:
EXOTHERMIC more
energy is given out than is
taken in (e.g. burning,
respiration)
ENDOTHERMIC
energy is taken in but
not necessarily given out
(e.g. photosynthesis)
Burning Methane
CH
4
+ 2O
2
2H
2
O + CO
2
To burn methane
you have to break
all of these bonds:
And then you
have to make
these ones:
Burning Methane
CH
4
+ 2O
2
2H
2
O + CO
2
Methane
Carbon dioxide
Water
Oxygen
Bond energies
C-H = 435 Kj
O=O = 497 Kj
Total for breaking bonds = 4x435 + 2x497 = 2734 KJ/mol
H-O = 464 Kj C=O = 803 Kj
Total for making bonds = 2x803 + 4x464 = 3462 KJ/mol
Total energy change = 2734-3462 = -728 KJ/mol
Drawing this on an energy diagram:
2734 Kj
3462 Kj
More energy is given out (3462) than is given in (2734)
the reaction is EXOTHERMIC. The total (nett) energy
change is 728 Kj. An endothermic reaction would have a
positive energy change.
-728 Kj
Bond energy values
C-H = 435 KJ/mol
O-H = 464 KJ/mol
O=O = 497 KJ/mol
C=O = 803 KJ/mol
C-O = 360 KJ/mol
C-C = 346 KJ/mol
Hydrogen peroxide
decomposes as shown:






1. Calculate energy for bond
breaking.
2. Calculate the energy from
bond making
3. What is the value of H for the
reaction shown. Give the
correct sign.
O
H
H
O
H
H
O
O
H
H
O
O
H
H
O
O
Bond Energy (kJ)
H-O 464
O-O 146
O=O 498
Activity





Bond breaking. (endothermic)
4(O-H) + 2(O-O)
=1856+292 = +2148kJ
Bond forming: (exothermic)
4(O-H) + 1(O=O)
=1856+498 = -2354kJ
H = +2148 2354 = -206kJ

(Exothermic)
O
H
H
O
H
H
O
O
H
H
O
O
H
H
O
O
Bond Energy (kJ)
H-O 464
O-O 146
O=O 498
Answer
Copy the summary using the words from the box
to fill in the gaps:
endothermic lose positive
exothermic common
1. Exothermic reactions are _____.
2. Reactions that get cold are called _____.
3. Bond forming is an _______ process.
4. Endothermic reactions have a _____ H.
5. In exothermic reactions the chemicals ___
chemical energy.
continued
common
endothermic
exothermic
positive
lose
Activity
Copy the summary using the words from the box to fill
in the gaps:
more endothermic activation
1. The energy needed to start off a reaction is
called the ______ energy
2. In endothermic reactions bond breaking
requires ___ energy than is produced by
bond forming.
3. Bond breaking is an _________ process.
activation
more
endothermic
Activity
Which of the following is an endothermic process?

A. Burning wood
B. Reacting an acid and alkali
C. Reacting magnesium with acid
D. Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water


Which of the following is true for an exothermic
process?
products
E
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y

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k
J

Progress of reaction
reactants
A. The reactants lose
energy to the
surroundings
B. The reaction gets cold
C. The energy diagram will
be as shown
D. The reaction will have a
H that is positive (+).

Which of the following is true when chemical
bonds are broken?
A. The process is exothermic
B. Energy is given out
C. A physical change is occurring
D. The reaction will have a H that is
positive(+).

Which of the following is true for an
exothermic reaction?
A. Bond breaking involves a bigger energy
change than bond making
B. Bond making involves a bigger energy
change than bond breaking
C. Bond making involves the same energy
change as bond breaking


Which of the following is the activation
energy:

A. X
B. Y
C. Z

Boardworks Ltd 2001
E
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Progress of reaction
Y
X
Z