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LARUTAN DAN KOLOID

Macam-Macam Campuran
Larutan
Perbandingan larutan dispersi Koloid & Suspensi
LARUTAN DISPERSI KOLOID SUSPENSI
Semua bentuk partikel dari atom,
ion atau molekul (0,1 1 nm)
Parikel paling sedikit satu
komponen atom, ion atau
molekul kecil (1 1000 nm)
Partikel paling
sedikit satu
komponen yang
dapat dilihat di
bawah mikroskop
Stabil terhadap gravitasi Kurang Stabil Tidak stabil
Homogen Perbatasan homogen Tidak Homogen
Tembus Cahaya Buram Tidak tembus
Tidak ada efek Tyndall Efek Tyndall Tidak transparan
Tidak ada gerak Brown Gerak Brown Partikel terpisah
Tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan
penyaringan
Tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan
penyaringan
Dapat dipisahkan
dengan penyaringan
Dispersi Koloid Suspensi
1
SUSPENSI
Dapat dipisahkan dengan penyaringan atau dengan sentrifugasi
DISPERSI KOLOID
JENIS FASA
TERDISPERSI
MEDIA
PENDISPERSI
CONTOH
Busa Gas Cair Busa sabun
Busa Padat Gas Padat Batu apung
Aerosol Cair Cair Gas Kabut, halimun, awan
Emulsi Cair Cair Krim, susu, saos
Emulsi Padat Cair Padat Mentega, keju
Asap Padat Gas Debu, partikulat dalam
asap
Sol Padat Cair Pati dalam air, jeli, cat
Sol Padat padat padat Aloy, mutiara
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Muatan Elektron partikel Koloid
FIGURE Colloidal particles often bear electrical charges that stabilize
the dispersion. On the left is a particle whose extremely large molecules
carry negatively charged groups. On the right the colloidalparticles has
attracted chloride ions to itself. In either case, these colloidal particles repel
each other and cannot join together.
Colloidal particle with
organic ionic groups
Colloidal particle with
adsorbed chloride ions
3
4
5
Efek Tyndall
The Tyndall effect,
A pencil line thin red laser beam
passes through the liquid in three
Rest tubes. The first contain a
colloidal dispersion of starch, the
second a solution of sodium
chrornate, and the third a colloidal
dispersion of Fe
2
O
3
, All three
appear transparent, and in the ab
sence of the ryndall effect we
might think they are all solutions,
However, the Tyndilll effect reveals
that the fist and third are coilds,
Not true solutions

LARUTAN CAMPURAN HOMOGEN
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Larutan Gas
Gas dalam gas
Cair dalam gas
Padat dalam gas
Udara
Sistem koloid
Sistem koloid
Larutan Cairan
Gas dalam cair
Cair dalam cair
Padat dalam cair
Coca-cola
Cuka, Gasolin
Gula dalam cair
Larutan Padat
Gas dalampadat
Cair dalam padat
Padat dalam padat
Aloy hidrogen dim paladium
Benzen dalam karet
Karbon dalam besi
7
Mengapa Terbentuk Larutan
Larutan Dalam Cairan
- +
Ion ion force of attraction asin sodium chploride
+ - + -
Polar molecule
Dipole-dipole force of attraction as in sugar of water
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Larutan cair Dalam Cair
Figure Ethyl alcohol molecules, C
2
H
5
O H, experience hydrogen
bonding ( ) between themselves in pure alcohol. Hydrogen bonds
also occur in pure water. When these two liquids for a solution,
hydrogen bonds can easily form between molecules of water and
those of alcohol thus, attractive forces between molecules in the
pure liquids are replaced by similar forces in the solution, and the
solution easily forms
9
Larutan padat dalam cair
Portion of surface and
edge of NaCl cristal in
contact with water
FIGURE
Hydration of ions
Hydration involves a complex
redirection of force of attrac-
tion and repulsion. Before this
solution forms, water mole-
cules are attracted only to
each other; and Na
+
and CI
-
ions have only each other in
crystal to be attracted to.
In the solution, the ions
have water molecules to
takes the places
of their oppositely
charged counterparts; and
water molecules
find ion more attactive than
even other water molecules.
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Panas Larutan
Terjadi pertukaran energi sistem dan sekelilingnya apabila 1 mol zat
terlarut dilarutkan dalam bentuk ( pada tekanan konstan) untuk
membuat larutan encer.
H : Fungsi keadaan yang tidak bergantung pada jalannya
perubahan
FIGURE Enthalpy diagram for a solid
dissolving in liquid. In the real word, the
solution is formed directly as indicated by
the red arrow. We can analyze the
energy change by imagining the two
separate steps, because entrhalpy
changes are fuctions of state and are
independent of path. The energy change
along the direct path is the algebraic sum
of step 1 and step 2.
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FIGURE The Formation of aqueous potassium iodide
Step 1 :
Step 2 :
Kl
(s)
K
+
(g)
+ l
-
(g)
K
+
(g)
+ l
-
(g)
K
+
(g)
+ l
-
(g)
H = +632 kJ
H = -619 kJ
Net : Kl
(s)
K
+
(g)
+ l
-
(g)
H
larutan
= +13 kJ
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Larutan cairan dalam cairan
Larutan gas dalam cairan Energi solvasi eksoterm
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Pengaruh Suhu pada Kelarutan
Kelarutan : Massa zat terlarut yang membentuk larutan jenuh dengan
massa pelarut pada suhu tertentu
Satuan : gram zat terlarut / 100 gram pelarut
Solut (tidak larut) Solut (larut)
Kelarutan naik jika mengabsorpsi panas
Solut (tidak larut) + Panas Solut (larut)
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FIGURE Solubilty in water
versus temperature for
several substances
Gas larut secara eksoterm dalam cairan pada semua konsentrasi
Gas (tidak larut) Gas (larut) + Panas
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Pengaruh Tekanan Pada Kelarutan dalam Gas
Kelarutan gas dalam cairan naik dengan niaknya tekanan
Gas + pelarut Larutan
FIGURE
Solubility in water versus pressure for
two gases
FIGURE
How pressure inueases the solubility of a
gas in a liquid. (a) At some specific
pressure, equilibrium exists between the
vapor phase and the solution. (b) An
Increase in pressure puts stress on the
equilibrium. (c) More gas dissolves and
equilibrium is restored
16
Hukum Henry : Konsentrasi gas dalam cairan pada suhu
yang diberikan secara langsung sebanding
dengan tekanan gas pada larutan.
Cg = Kg . Pg
Kelarutan gas yang terhidrasi kuat
SO
2
, NH
3
& CO
2
lebih mudah larut dibanding S
2
& N
2

NH
3
Ikatan H, SO
2
& CO
2
bereaksi dengan air kesetimbangan
CO
2(aq)
+ H
2
O H
2
CO
3(aq)
H
+
(aq)
+ HCO
3
-
(aq)
SO
2(aq)
+ H
2
O H
+
(aq)
+ HSO
3
-
(aq)
NH
3(aq)
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
(aq)
+ OH
-
(aq)
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Konsentrasi
* Fraksi mol dan % mol
Mol fraksi : Perbandingan jumlah mol suatu komponen terhadap
jumlah mol total komponen yang ada.
X
A
=
nA
nA + nB nC + dst
Hukum gas ideal : nA =
P
A
. V
R. T
tot
A
A
P
P
X
pelarut kg
terlarut zat mol
Molal Konst. m
* % konst. % berat (% b/b) : jumlah gram zat terlarut / 100 g larutan
% volume (% v/v) : jumlah mL zat terlarut / 100 mL larutan
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*
Perubahan di antara satuan dan konsentrasi
Merubah dari % berat ke molal
Merubah dari % berat ke fraksi mol
Menghitung % berat dari fraksi mol
Merubah molal ke fraksi mol
Merubah % berat ke molar
Merubah dari molar ke % berat

Penurunan Tekanan Uap
Tek uap campuran turun dengan adanya komponen lain
Tek uap larutan (zat terlarut : non volatil) < tek uap pel murni
Hukum Raoult
P
larutan
= X
pelarut
. P
o
pelarut

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Sifat Koligatif Larutan
CALCULATING THE MOLE FRACTION OF A GAS
FROM PARTIAL PRESSURE
Problem : What are the mole percents of nitrogen and oxygen in air
when the partial pressure are 160 torr for oxygen and 600
torr for nitrogen ? (Asumme no other gases are present)
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Solution : Let us use Equation to find the mole fraction of N
2
fist.
total total
N
N
P
torr 600
P
P
X
2
2

But the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures, so
torr 160 torr 600
torr 600
X
2
N

= 0,789, or 78.9 mole percent of N


2
Now we do the same for oxygen
You can easlly see that the two mole percents add up to 100%
CALCULATING MOLAL CONCENTRATION
Problem : An experiment calls for an aqueous 0,150 m solution of
sodium chloride. To prepare a solution with this
concentration, how many grams of NaCl would have to be
dissolved in 500 g of water ?
Solution : As with almost all problems involving concentrations; our
first step is to prepare a conversion factor. Thus, 0,150 m
NaCl gives us the following, two rations, where we
substitute 1000 g for 1 kg.
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2
O
O to up add percents mole 21.1 or 0.211,
torr 160 torr 600
torr 160
X
2

O H g 1000
NaCl mol 0,150
2
NaCl mol 0,150
O H g 1000
2
and
To calculate the moles of NaCl we need for 500 g of H
2
O, we
use the first ratio, because then the units will cancel property
NaCl mol 0,0750
O H g 1000
NaCl mol 0,150
x O H 500g
2
2

This gives us the moles of NaCl needed. We next convert
0.0750 mol of NaCl to grams of NaCl. (The formula weight of
NaCl is 58,5 which means, of course, 58.5 g NaCl/mol NaCl)
NaCl g 4,39
NaCl mol 1
NaCl g 58,5
x NaCl mol 0,0750
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Thus, when 4,39 g of NaCl is dissolved in 500 g of H2O, the
concentration is ), 150 m NaCl. With a little practice, you will be
able to set up a string of conversion factors and do the
calculation at the end. For example,
NaCl g 4,39
NaCl mol 1
NaCl g 58,5
O H g 1000
NaCl mol 0,150
x O H g 500
2
2

USING WEIGHT/WEIGHT PERCENT
Problem : How many grams of a 4.00% (w/w) solution of NaCl
needed to obtain 0.500 g of NaCl ?
Solution : The given concentration gives us the following
conversion factors
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solution g 100
NaCl g 4.00
NaCl g 4.00
solution g 100
and
We want 0.500 g of NaCl from this solution, so we use the
second conversion factor
solution (w/w) 4.00% of g 12.5
NaCl g 4.00
solution g 100
x NaCl g 0.500
Thus, if we take 12.5 g to the 4.00% (w/w) NaCl solution,
we will also be taking 0.500 g of
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FIGURE
The vapor pressure of an
ideal, two-component
solution of volatile
compounds
25
Larutan ideal dan penyimpangan hukum Raoult
FIGURE
Typical deviations from
ideal behavior, of the
total vapor pressure of
real, two-componen
solutions of volatile
substances.
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KenaikanTitik Didih
t
h
= k
b
. m
FIGURE
Boiling point elevation: Shown here are plots of
vapor pressures versus temperatures for a
solvent (upper curve) and for a solution of a non
volatile solute in the same solvent (lower curve).
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Tabel. molal boiling point elevation and freezing point
depression constants
Solvent Bp (
o
C) K
b
M
p
(
o
C) K
f
Water 100 0.15 0 1.86
Acetic acid 118.3 3.07 16.6 3.57
Benzen 802 2.53 5.45 5.07
Chloroform 61.2 3.63 - -
Camphor - - 178.4 37.7
Cyclohexane 80.7 2.69 6.5 20.0
Menghitung kenaikan titik didih dari molar harga konstanta kenaikan
titik dan molal
Menghitung BM dari kenaikan titik didih
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Penurunan Titik Beku
t
h
= k
b
. m
Menghitung penurunan titik beku dari molar harga konstanta
penurunan titik dan molal
Menghitung BM dari kenaikan titik beku
Dialisis dan Osmosis
Dialisis : Jika 2 larutan dengan konstrasi berbeda dipisahkan oleh suatu
membran, konst akan berubah hingga setimbang. Membran
bersifat semipermiabel (hanya ion dan molekul kecil yang
dapat lewat)
Osmosis : Jika hanya molekul pelarut yang dapat lewat pada membran
Tekanan Osmosis : Tekanan untuk menjaga aliran osmosis
= MRT
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Sifat sifat Koligatif pada Larutan Elektrolit
Memperkirakan sifat koligatif pada larutan elektolit
Ineraksi ion-ion dalam larutan cairan


elektrolit non an penghitung f
pengukuran f
t
t
: Hoff t Van' faktor i
32
% ionisasi elektrolit elektrolit lemah
ada yang asam mol
i terionisas asam mol
%ionisasi
K
t
m
f