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Exercise 5.

8:
HES2155 Geomechanics
A 10m thick normally consolidated saturated clay layer has been calculated
to consolidate 400mm at 100 percent consolidation due to the layer of fill
place on top.
Calculate the time (in years, months and days) it will take for 160mm and
320mm consolidation settlement to occur if the coefficient of consolidation
is equal to 1.34 m
2
/year.

10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year


Impervious Bedrock
Surcharge created by layer of Fill
% 40 100
400
160
U ion Consolidat of Degree
c = 160 mm
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
40
40
years 03 4 . 9
34 . 1
10 126 . 0
2

Therefore,
days 25 and mths 4 yrs, 9
T
40
= 0.126 as the
surcharge is likely to
create a uniform
increase in pore pressure
throughout the
consolidating layer.
Exercise 5.8:
HES2155 Geomechanics
A 10m thick normally consolidated saturated clay layer has been calculated
to consolidate 400mm at 100 percent consolidation due to the layer of fill
place on top.
Calculate the time (in years, months and days) it will take for 160mm and
320mm consolidation settlement to occur if the coefficient of consolidation
is equal to 1.34 m
2
/year.

10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year


Impervious Bedrock
Surcharge created by layer of Fill
% 80 100
400
320
U ion Consolidat of Degree
c = 320 mm
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
80
80
years 313 . 42
34 . 1
10 567 . 0
2

Therefore,
days 23 and mths 3 yrs, 42
T
80
= 0.567 as the
surcharge is likely to
create a uniform
increase in pore pressure
throughout the
consolidating layer.
Exercise 5.9:
HES2155 Geomechanics
If a 1m thick layer of sand existed between the saturated clay and
impervious bedrock, recalculate the time it would take for 160mm (t
40
) and
320mm (t
80
) of consolidation to occur .
% 40 100
400
160
U ion Consolidat of Degree
c = 160 mm
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
40
40
years 351 . 2
34 . 1
5 126 . 0
2

Therefore,
days 6 and mths 4 yrs, 2

10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year


Impervious Bedrock
Surcharge created by layer of Fill
Sand Layer
1m
T
40
is still 0.126 but
the length of the
drainage path is now
5m
Exercise 5.9:
HES2155 Geomechanics
If a 1m thick layer of sand existed between the saturated clay and
impervious bedrock, recalculate the time it would take for 160mm (t
40
) and
320mm (t
80
) of consolidation to occur .
% 80 100
400
320
U ion Consolidat of Degree
c = 320 mm
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
80
80
years 578 . 10
34 . 1
5 567 . 0
2

Therefore,
days 28 and mths 6 yrs, 10

10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year


Impervious Bedrock
Surcharge created by layer of Fill
Sand Layer
1m
T
40
is still 0.567 but
the length of the
drainage path is now
5m
Exercise 5.10:
HES2155 Geomechanics
Using the same normally consolidated saturated clay layer as in Exercise
5.8, a small isolated square pad footing is causing the clay layer to
consolidate.
Calculate the time it will take for 40% and 80% of the consolidation to be
complete. Also, determine the degree of consolidation complete after 6
months.
Degree of Consolidation: U = 40%
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
40
40
years 582 . 3
34 . 1
10 048 . 0
2

days 29 and mths 6 yrs, 3


T
40
is now 0.048, as the loading is likely
to create a uniform decrease in pore
pressure from beneath the footing and
drainage is up.
10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year

Impervious Bedrock
Point Load
1m x
1m
Case Type 1

u
Pervious Layer
Impervious Layer
One-way
drainage
Exercise 5.10:
HES2155 Geomechanics
Using the same normally consolidated saturated clay layer as in Exercise
5.8, a small isolated square pad footing is causing the clay layer to
consolidate.
Calculate the time it will take for 40% and 80% of the consolidation to be
complete. Also, determine the degree of consolidation complete after 6
months.
Degree of Consolidation: U = 80%
v
drainage
c
H T
t
2
80
80
years 835 . 32
34 . 1
10 440 . 0
2

day 1 and mths 10 yrs, 32


T
80
is now 0.440, as the loading is likely
to create a uniform decrease in pore
pressure from beneath the footing and
drainage is up.
10m
Normally consolidated clay
(clay is fully saturated)

c
v
= 1.34 m
2
/year

Impervious Bedrock
Point load
1m x
1m
Case Type 1

u
Pervious Layer
Impervious Layer
One-way
drainage