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Introduction to VSAT

Stands for Very Small

Aperture Terminal and
refers to receive/transmit
terminals installed at
dispersed sites
connecting to a central
hub via satellite using
small diameter antenna
dishes (0.6 to 3.8 meter).

@ C and KU Band
Block up converter (BUC)
Low-noise block down converter (LNB)
Orthomode transducer (OMT)
Interfacility link cable (IFL)
Indoor unit (IDU)

Antenna: Device used for transmitting and receiving radio
BUC : Block up converter is used to transmit signal.
It takes an L Band input and transmits it upstream to the
satellite on Ka, Ku, or C band .
LNB: An LNB - Low Noise Block , is used for
communications (broadcast) satellite reception. The LNB is
usually affixed either in or on the satellite dish. It is used for
receiving the signal.
OMT: Orthomode transducer is a microwave duct component
of the class of microwave circulators.

It is commonly referred as a polarization duplexer.
Such a device may be part of a VSAT antenna feed or a terrestrial
microwave radio feed.
Orthomode transducers serve either to combine or to separate two
microwave signal paths.
IFL Cable: IFL refers to the cable which connects the ODU with
the IDU.
IFL cable is often a shielded coaxial cable terminated with BNC,F
type & N type connectors.
IDU: The IDU is connected to the ODU by the Intra facility link.
In consumer satellite television applications, the IDU usually
consists of a satellite receiver which is connected to a television.
In consumer satellite Internet applications, the IDU usually consists
if a satellite modem which is connected to a computer or a router

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access )
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access )
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access )

Frequency Division Multiple Access
An approach to sharing a channel by
separating the simultaneous users in


Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Spread spectrum technique using high-
speed pseudo random (PN) codes to scramble
data words and spread spectral occupancy
for added robustness.

Pre assigned multiple accesses. (PAMA): In
Pre assigned multiple accesses the
frequency allotted is fixed. Suppose we want
to call any place, then the frequency of call
signal is fixed. This results in less number of
calls. Pre assigned multiple accesses is used
to send the data or other any signal.
The Signal Path
Demand assigned multiple accesses (DAMA): In Demand
assigned multiple accesses frequency allotted is controlled by
Master Signaling Channel Unit (MSCU). Suppose if we want
to call any place then a request is send to MSCU. MSCU allots
frequency the frequency which is free. Then the call is
establish between that two places by using allotted frequency.
Once the call is complete is over, then the frequency is left
free so that it can be used again by other caller. So now there
can be many numbers of connections as compared in PAMA.
The satellite earth station where there is MSCU is called as
masters station or HUB station.
Internet Access.
Rapid deployment.
Virtual Private Networks
Quality of Service (QOS).
Mobile Access.
Bandwidth Allocation.
Standard based.

Back-up to Terrestrial
Single Hop.
Bandwidth on
Cost per connection is
independent of the
location/ distance
Inter-operation with
Terrestrial Networks.

Extremely high initial cost needed for building and launching
satellites in the Geo-Synchronous orbit,
Higher initial cost and recurring monthly costs for terminal
equipments needed for providing Internet over broadband
when compared to terrestrial DSL networks,
Bit Error Rate is common for satellite based technologies,
Rain Attenuation might affect the performance of VSAT
communications under rainy conditions,
Latencies (>200 ms) are still higher than their terrestrial
equivalent technologies (<100 ms),
Careful direction of subscriber side terminals and dish
antennas are critical for proper working.
Trained man power is required for installation and
maintenance, other competitive technologies
(Internet Leased Lines, 3G/HSDPA/4G Cellular
technologies etc) offer much higher bandwidth at a
lower cost than what is possible by VSAT based
networks, the antennas need to be fixed outside the
offices or homes hence making them susceptible to
damage or theft, the cost of VSAT modules for
Network Routers/ Video Conferencing systems are
quite high, etc.