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WHAT IS HVDC ?

In a HVDC (High voltage D.C.) transmission system,


electricity is taken from an AC power network, converted to
DC in a converter station and transmitted to the receiving
point by a transmission line (overhead) or
cable(underground).
It is then converted back to AC in another converter station
and injected into the receiving AC network. HVDC enables
the power flow to be controlled rapidly and accurately,
and improves the performance, efficiency and economy
of the connected AC networks.

REASONS FOR AC GENERATION AND
TRANSMISSION

Due to ease of transformation of voltage levels
(simple transformer action) and rugged squirrel
cage motors, ALTERNATING CURRENT is
universally utilized.Both for GENERATION
and LOADS and hence for TRANSMISSION
Generators are at remote places, away from the
populated areas i.e. the load centers
Voltage is boosted up to 220 or 400 KV by step-up
transformers for transmission to LOADS.

To reach the loads at homes/industry at
required safe levels, transformers step down
voltage.

COMPARISION OF HVAC & HVDC SYSTEMS

CONVENTIONALLY POWER TRANSMISSION IS EFFECTED
THROUGH HVAC SYSTEMS ALL OVER THE WORLD.

HVAC TRANSMISSION IS HAVING SEVER LIMITATIONS LIKE
LINE LENGTH , UNCONTROLLED POWER FLOW, OVER/LOW
VOLTAGES DURING LIGHTLY / OVER LOADED
CONDITIONS,STABILITY PROBLEMS,FAULT ISOLATION ETC

CONSIDERING THE DISADVANTAGES OF HVAC SYSTEM
AND THE ADVANTAGES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION ,
POWERGRID HAS CHOOSEN HVDC TRANSMISSION.

AC
DC
HVDC BIPOLAR LINKS IN INDIA
NER
ER
SR
NR

NER
ER
SR
NR
RIHAND-DELHI -- 2*750 MW

CHANDRAPUR-PADGE 2* 750 MW

TALCHER-KOLAR 2*1000 MW
ER TO SR
SILERU-BARASORE - 100 MW
EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT
ER SR
HVDC IN INDIA
In India presently 6 HVDC systems are in operation.
India- Pioneer developer of HVDC since 1990 with the first HVDC set
up of 1000MW 814Km Rihand-Dadri line between U.P & Rajasthan.
2000MW 1440Km Talcher-Kolar link is biggest so far connecting four
states-orissa,andhra pradesh,tamilnadu and karnataka.
In march 2000,Power-grid(largest power transmission utility of India)
awarded a new long distance HVDC transmission project to
SIEMENS,Germany.
More greater plans are cooking to add 1lakh MW of power by 2012 in
which HVDC will play vital role to transmit these powers to all
corners of India.

HVDC IN INDIA
Bipolar
HVDC LINK CONNECTING
REGION
CAPACITY
(MW)
LINE
LENGTH
Rihand
Dadri
North-North 1500 815
Chandrapur -
Padghe
West - West 1500 752
Talcher
Kolar
East South 2500 1367
HVDC IN INDIA
Back-to-Back
HVDC LINK CONNECTING
REGION
CAPACITY
(MW)
Vindyachal North West 2 x 250
Chandrapur West South 2 x 500
Vizag I East South 500
Sasaram East North 500
Vizag II East South 500
COMPARISON OF AC AND DC
TRANSMISSION
The relative merits of the two modes of transmission (AC
and DC) which need to be considered by a system planner
are based on the following factors

1. economics of transmission
2. technical performance
3. reliability
Economics of Power Transmission
The cost of a transmission line includes the investment and
operational costs. The investment includes costs of Right of
Way (RoW), transmission towers, conductors, insulators
and terminal equipment. The operational costs include
mainly the cost of losses
For lines designed with the same insulation level, a DC line
can carry as much power with two conductors (with
positive and negative polarities with respect to ground) as
an AC line with 3 conductors of the same size.
DC line requires less RoW, simpler and cheaper towers
and reduced conductor and insulator costs. The power
losses are also reduced with DC as there are only two
conductors (about 67% of that for AC with same current
carrying capacity of conductors)
The absence of skin effect with DC is also beneficial in
reducing power losses marginally
The dielectric losses in case of power cables is also
very less for DC transmission.
The corona effects on DC conductors tend to be less
significant than for AC and this also leads to the choice of
economic size of conductors with DC transmission
DC lines do not require compensation but the terminal
equipment costs are increased due to the presence of
converters and filters.

Cost of HVDC and HVAC Links with 5 GW
Capacity


Cost of 5 GW Overhead Link
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Distance [km]
I
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t

[
M

]
1150 kV HVAC 800 kV HVDC

Figure 1.1 shows the variation of costs of transmission
with distance for AC and DC transmission. For distances
less than break even distance, AC tends to be
economical than DC and costlier for longer distances.
The break even distances can vary from 500 to 800 km in
overhead lines depending on the per unit line costs.