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A spillway is structure constructed at dam site,

effectively disposing off the surplus water from upstream

to downstream.
Just after the reservoir filled up to the normal pool level
water starts flowing over the spillway crest (which is
generally kept at normal pool level).
Depending upon the inflow rate, water will start rising
above the pool level, and at the same time it will be let
off over the spillway.
Spillways are provided for storage and detention dams to
release surplus or flood water which cannot be contained in
the allotted storage space, and diversion dams to bypass
flows e%ceeding those which are turned into the diversion
!n addition to provide sufficient capacity, the spillway must be
hydraulically and structurally ade&uate and must be located so
that spillway discharges will not erode or undermine the
downstream toe of the dam.
'he spillway(s bounding surfaces must be erosion resistant to
withstand the high scouring velocities created by the drop from
the reservoir surface to tail water, and usually some device will
be re&uired for dissipation of energy at the bottom of the drop.
'he fre&uency of spillway use will be determined by the
runoff characteristics of the drainage flows will result
during flood and periods of sustained high runoff when
the capacities of other facilities are e%ceeded.
At diversion dams where storage space is limited and
diversions are relatively small compared to the normal
river flows, the spillway will be used almost constantly
!t must have ade&uate discharge capacity.
!t must he hydraulically and structurally safe.
'he surface of the spillway must be erosion resistant.
'he spillway must be so located that the spillway discharge does
not erode or undermine the downstream toe of the dam.
!t should be provided with some device for the dissipation of
e%cess energy
'he spillway discharge should not e%ceed the safe discharge
capacity of the downstream channel to avoid its flooding.
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A spillway can be located either within the body of a dam, or
at one end of it or entirely away from it, independently in a
saddle. !f a deep narrow gorge with steep banks, separated
from a flank by a hillock with its level above the top of the
dam, is available the spillway can be best built independently
of the dam.
*nder such circumstances, a concrete or an earthen dam
can be constructed across the main valley and spillway can
be constructed independently into the saddle. Sometimes a
concrete or masonry dam along with its spillway can be
constructed in the main valley, while the flanks are closed by
earthen dikes or embankments. A separate independent
spillway is generally preferred for earthen dams, although
due to non availability of sites, a concrete spillway sometimes
constructed within or at one of the ends of an earth dams
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2. )ree -verfall (Straight Drop) Spillway
3. -verflow (-gee) Spillway
4. ,hute (-pen ,hannel5'rough) Spillway
6. Side ,hannel Spillway
7. Shaft (Drop !nlet51orning 8lory) spillway
9. 'unnel (,onduit) spillway
:. Siphon spillway
)ree -verfall Spillway
)ree over fall type spillway is one in which the flow
drops freely
'his type is suited in a thin arch ,deck overflow
type dam, low concrete or masonry dam
'he crest is e%tended in the form of an overhanging lip
to direct small discharges away from the face of the
overflow section
!n free over
fall spillways, the underside of the nappe is ventilated
sufficiently to prevent a pulsating, fluctuating ;et.
-verflow Spillway
'he ogee spillway has a control weir which is ogee or
S<shaped in profile.
'he upper curve of the ogee ordinarily is made to
conform closely to the profile of the lower nappe of the
ventilated sheet falling from a sharp<crested weir.
)low over the crest is made to adhere to the face of
profile by preventing access of air to the underside of
)or discharges at designed head, the flow glides over
the crest with no interference from the boundary surface
and attains near<ma%imum discharge efficiency.
Since the lower nappe of the free falling ;et will be
different for different heads over the crest of the sharp
crested weir, the profile of the ogee weir is generally
confined to the lower nappe that would be obtained for
ma%imum head over the spillway (i<e up to the
ma%imum reservoir level).
'his type of spillway can be easily used on valleys
where the width of the river is sufficient to provide the
re&uired crest length and the river bed below can be
protected from scour at moderate costs.
*sed in arch and buttress dam
,hute (-pen ,hannel5'rough)
A spillway whose discharge is conveyed from the
reservoir to the downstream river level through an open
channel, placed either along a dam abutment or through
a saddle, might be called a chute, open channel, or
through type spillway.
'he chute spillway has been used with earth<fill dams.
Sometimes, even for gravity dams, a separate spillway
is re&uired because of the narrowness of the main
valley. !n all such circumstances, a chute spillway is
!t is lighter and adaptable to any type of foundations
and hence provided easily on earth and rock fill dams.
,hute spillways ordinarily consist of an entrance
channel, control structure, a discharge channel, a
terminal structure, and an outlet channel.
'he simplest form of chute spillway has a straight
centerline and is of uniform width.
-ften, either the a%is of the entrance channel or
that of a discharge channel must be curved to fit
alignment to the topography
Side ,hannel Spillway
'he side channel spillway is one in which the control
weir is placed along the side of and appro%imately
parallel to the upper portion of the spillway discharge
channel flow over the crest falls into the narrow trough
opposite the weir, turns an appro%imate right angle, and
then continues into the main discharge channel.
side channel type of spillway commonly used for
earthen and rock fill type dams
Shaft (Drop !nlet51orning 8lory)
A drop inlet or a shaft spillway also called morning
glory is a spillway in which the water enters over a
hori=ontally positioned lip, drops through a vertical
or sloping shaft, and then flows to the downstream
river channel through a hori=ontal or near
hori=ontal conduit or tunnel.
'he structure may be considered as being made
up of three elements> namely, an overflow control
weir, a vertical transition, and a closed discharge
A drop inlet spillway can be used at dam sites in
narrow canyons where the abutments rise steeply
or where a diversion tunnel or conduit is available
for use as the downstream leg.
'his type of spillway may be adapted when the
possibility of an overflow spillway and a trough
spillway is ruled out because of non<availability of
space due to topography.
*sed for concrete and other types of dams
'unnel (,onduit) spillway
!t is a spillway in the form of a closed channel used
to convey the discharge around or under the dam.
'he closed channel may take the form of vertical or
inclined shaft, a hori=ontal tunnel through earth or
rock, or a conduit constructed in open cut and back
filled with earth materials.
1ost form of control structures can be used with
conduit and tunnel spillways.

Ample aeration must be provided in this spillway in
order to prevent a make<and<break symphonic action
which would result if some part of the tunnel or conduit
tends to seal temporarily because of an e%haustion of
air caused by surging of the water ;et, or by wave action
or backwater to guarantee free flow in the tunnel, the
ratio of the flow area to the total tunnel area is often
limited to about :7?.
Air vents may be provided at critical points along the
tunnel or conduits to insure an ade&uate air supply
which will avoid unsteady flow through the spillway.
Siphon spillway
A siphon spillway is a closed conduit system formed in
the shape of an inverted *, positioned so that the inside
of the bend of the upper passageway is at normal
reservoir storage level.
'he initial discharges of the spillway as the reservoir
rises above normal are similar to flow over a weir.
Siphon action takes place after the air in the
bend over the crest has been e%hausted.
,ontinuous flow is maintained bythe suction effect due
to the gravity pull of the water in the lower leg of the