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JEEIVITA KATHIRVELU PILLAI NUR AFFIA BINTI HELIMIN MOHD RAHMAT BIN ABDULLAH TAUFIQ
JEEIVITA KATHIRVELU PILLAI NUR AFFIA BINTI HELIMIN MOHD RAHMAT BIN ABDULLAH TAUFIQ

JEEIVITA KATHIRVELU PILLAI NUR AFFIA BINTI HELIMIN MOHD RAHMAT BIN ABDULLAH TAUFIQ

 Adverb : Single word which modifies verb E.g; The sun shine brightly , he smile
  • Adverb : Single word which modifies verb E.g; The sun shine brightly, he smile widely.

(bright, wide= adjective + -ly)

  • Adverbial : Words and phrases that modifies verb similarly to adverb E.g; She called this morning.

  • Clause : group of words which consist of subject and verb E.g ; she walked , I cried

  • Phrase : a group of words which usually consist of present / past participle E.g; speeding away, Katy and Samantha

 Tells us when something happens and start with words like when , now , as
  • Tells us when something happens and start with words like when, now, as long as, as soon as, until and while.

Eg :

1. A lie can travel half way around the world while the truth is just putting on its shoes.

 Tells us when something happens and start with words like when , now , as

2. As long as you complete your homework, you may go to the playground.

 Applicable if the clause has a form of be.  Basic rule of changing/reducing a
  • Applicable if the clause has a form of be.

  • Basic rule of changing/reducing a clause into a phrase is omitting the noun/pronoun

  • While they were in Italy, they had trouble.

  • While in Italy, they had trouble.

  • ‘they were’ are omitted = clause is reduced

into a phrase.

  • Try to reduce;

Eg:

While I was in Italy, they had trouble.

*While in Italy, they had trouble.

  • Reduction of clause cannot be done because sentence will become ambiguous.

  • Thus, reduction of clause into a phrase need to take into consideration the noun/pronoun that exist in the sentence

  • More than 1 noun cannot do reduction

 Applicable if clause has no form of be. 1. Noun/pronoun is omitted – verb is
  • Applicable if clause has no form of be.

1. Noun/pronoun is omitted verb is changed into ‘-ing’ form.

  • Before we left, we visited Rome

  • Before leaving, we visited Rome

  • When they saw Lisa speak, many of them are surprised

  • On/upon seeing Lisa speak, many of them are surprised.

2. Noun/pronoun is omitted – add ‘having’ + past participle

  • After they had opened the door, they saw the blood

  • After having opened the door, they saw the blood

 Omission of subordinating conjunction in clause change it into adverbial phrase  While I sit
  • Omission of subordinating conjunction in clause change it into adverbial phrase

  • While I sit on the porch, I thought about my future.

  • Sitting on the porch, I thought about my future.

  • While they waited at the hospital, they were deeply troubled.

  • Waiting at the hospital, they were deeply troubled.

  • How to remember?

  • Adverb clause > adverb phrase > adverbial phrase

  • Since the children were sleeping in the car, the children were not aware of what was happening.

  • Since sleeping in the car, the children were not aware of what was happening.

  • Sleeping in the car, the children were not aware of what was happening.

 Watch video :-  http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=ez3zMBM
  • Watch video :-

  • http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=ez3zMBM

 Time clauses with "while" and "when" can be reduced by deleting the subject and "be"
  • Time clauses with "while" and "when" can be

reduced by deleting the subject and "be" verb.

  • If there is no "be" verb, change the verb in the subordinating clause to its -ing form. Sometimes

the subordinator (when or while) can be deleted as well.

  • If the subjects are different, you may not reduce

the adverbial clause.

  • Be careful when reducing time clauses that come at the end of sentences.

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