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Ecology defined

The study of interactions between


organisms and their environments




Ex: population dynamics; food webs;
trophic levels; nutrient cycling
Ecosystem
All of the interactions among the populations
in a community
and the communitys physical surroundings
Includes all the BIOTIC (living) factors and the
ABIOTIC (non-living) factors

Ex of ecosystems: tide pool; stream; field:
drop of pond water; a tree; woods
What are some connections
within Ecosystems?
Connections in Ecosystems
Ecosystems endlessly recycle materials
and energy
common to all ecosystems.

Linked within ecosystems:
chemically (nutrients)
biologically (food web)
physically (shared abiotic factors)
Pyramid of Energy:
its a one-way street: WHY?
Pyramid of Energy
Producers
Photosynthesis (energy + H
2
O + nutrients (CO
2
)
Pyramid of Energy
Producers
Herbivores
Pyramid of Energy
Producers
Herbivores
Carnivores
Pyramid of Energy
Producers
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Pyramid of Energy
Carnivores
Omnivores
Producers
Herbivores
Pyramid of Energy
Carnivores
Omnivores
Producers
Herbivores
Trophic Levels
Photosynthetic autotrophs
First order consumers
Second order
consumers
Third
order
consumers
Biomass
Pyramid of Size:
Generally amount of
matter stored in
organism is
inversely
proportional to the
size of the animals
Large
Medium
Small
Microscopic
Biomass
Diatoms
Daphnia
Minnows
Trout
Hawk
Producer
Herbivore or Primary
or 1st order consumer
Primary Carnivore or
secondary or 2nd order
consumer
Tertiary or 3rd order
consumer or
secondary carnivore
Tertiary carnivore or Quaternary or
4th order consumer
Energy and Biomass
Why is there only 1 hawk at the top?
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food Chain: single
line of feeding
Every food chain must
begin with a
producer and end
with a decomposer
Food Webs
Many food chains with
multiple choices at
different trophic
levels


Application Question
Turn to your neighbor
and each of you
give an example to
the other of how an
abiotic factor can
effect a biotic factor
Now, can you
reverse that??
give an example of
how a biotic factor
can effect abiotic
factors
Niche
An organisms
role in its
ecosystem

What it eats
Who eats it
Where it lives
How it affects its
environment
Interrelationships
**No two species can occupy the same niche at the
same time in the same place.
Niche, cont
Ex:
Antelope and African deer:
same niche: different place
=okay
Hares and kangaroos:
Same niche, same place &
same time = in competition
for food & space
Galapagos finches: same place
& time, diff niches - feeding,
nesting sites, habitat all
varied based on feet and
beak adaptations
Fisher and eagle
http://www.txtwriter.com/Backgrounders/graphics/evolution/
page5.jpg
http://www.travellerspoint.com/photos/17864/australia,..arri%20gate.jpg
Interrelationships - Symbiosis
Predation: (+/-)
Only one benefits;
one harmed. (can
be +/+ to population-
how?)

Mutualism: (+/+)
Both benefit-
examples?
Commensalism & Parasitism
Commensalism: (+/0)
One benefits; one neutral


Parasitism: (+/-) or (-/-)-
why?
http://www.greenwaterimages.com/bahamas2005/images/sharkwithremora.jpg
ttp://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/Personal%20photos/KonMin_A2_MacroSamples/originals/mosquito.JPG
(go to adaptation/population )ppt

BIOME: All the ecosystems
that are identified by particular
vegetation and climate:

Grasslands
Desert
Temperate deciduous forest
Tropical rainforest
Marine
Freshwater
Estuaries
Tundra
Taiga (boreal forest/ coniferous forest)




Biomes: climate

Biome in different locations can have varying species:
Ex: grassland differences
American Prairie
African Savannah

See summary chart in notes

Biomes


Aquatic Zones: Planktonic vs.
nekton vs benthic
Planktonic: floaters
*Phytoplankton:diatoms(90% O2
produced in world)
*Zooplankton

Nekton: free swimmers
Ex. whales, jellyfish etc.
Benthic: bottom dwellers
Ex: flounder, clams,coral
Aquatic Zones:
Photic vs Aphotic
Photic
Light penetrates
Photosynthesis and Respiration
*Make O2 and food(producers)
*Use CO2 and raw nutrients
(from the aphotic zone/all the
heterotrophs)
Aphotic
No light
Respiration and decomposition only
*Use O2 and food (from
producers)
*Make CO2 and raw nutrients
(through respiration-give to
photic)

Intertidal= ecotone
Zones of great diversity
* Often called nursery of the sea

Estuaries and Marshes=
Ecotones
Why are wetlands important ?