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Shirley I.

M
Genogram
Dipopulerkan oleh Monica McGoldrick dan Randy
Gerson (Genograms: Assessment and Intervention
tahun 1985).
Biopsycosocial family tree
Record family cycle, diseases and relationship in the
family
Make at first visit
Genogram can be used : genealogy, medicine,
psychiatry, psychology, social work, genetic
research, education.
The Objectives
Genealogy
o History

Medicine
o Help to evaluate risk factor
o Give information to health provider
o Give information to individual about diseases prevention
o Help to determined disease pattern in a family
Kegunaan Genogram
oMembantu dokter untuk menyatukan
data-data fisik dan mental dari aspek
kesehatan dari keluarga dengan cepat

oMenampilkan pola multigenerasi dari
penyakit dan disfungsi melalui suatu
grafik yang digunakan oleh dokter
keluarga untuk mengukur waktu,
m i n a t d a n k e a h l i a n .
Menggambar Genogram (1)
1. Menggambar kerangka genogram
Identifikasi pasien dengan lingkaran atau kotak
Anggota keluarga pria dilambangkan dan keluarga wanita
dengan
Tempatkan clinical nuclear family ditengah-tengah dari diagram
dan pernikahan yang bisa ditempatkan di sebelah kiri atau kanan
dari clinical nuclear family tersebut
Tempatkan saudara kandung secara berurutan kecuali berasal dari
pernikahan yang lain
Tampilkan umur yang tepat di dalam symbol tersebut dengan
tanggal kelahiran disebelahnya (jika diketahui) atau tunjukan
perkiraan umur relative pasien tersebut. Seperti +4, -3, dan lain-
lain, di dalam atau disebelah dari simbol yang ada
Indikasikan kematian dengan mencoret symbol dari individu yang
ada di dalam keluarga
Indikasikan perpisahan dengan single slash dan perceraian dengan
two slashes yang memotong garis pernikahan

Menggambar Genogram (2)
Pernikahan yang gagal ditulis tanggal perpisahan dan tanggal
perceraiannya
Indikasikan pernikahan kembali dengan orang yang sama dengan
multiple marriage line
Tandai anggota keluarga yang sekarang dengan garis putus-putus
Meletakkan anggota keluarga dari generasi yang sama pada level
horizontal yang sama atau setiap keluarga satu cabang

2. Mengembangkan genogram
Pada hari berikutnya masukkan masalah kesehatan fisik dan mental pada
setiap anggota keluarga yang diketahui. Penyelidikan yang spesifik
diperlukan untuk penyakit jantung, tekanan darah tinggi, diabetes,
stroke, kanker, masalah saraf, depresi, pecandu alcohol, dan bunuh diri.



The Genogram: A Tool for Understanding
Processes in the Family
Genograms are charts or graphs that diagram
the biological and interpersonal relationships
among family members across several
generations. They identify significant events in
intergenerational relationships that can have
an influence on families and individuals.
Drawing the Genogram
The basic skeleton of a genogram
Basic Symbols

Symbols of Relationships

Symbols: Marital and other
Relationships

Symbols of Multiple Marriages

Generational Relationships

A more complex skeleton

Ask relationship questions like
Who was close to whom?
Who had a conflictual relationship?
Who was left out? By whom?
Who was a favorite? Whose?
Where were the alliances, coalitions?
Who was overfunctioning or underfunctioning?
Genogram with information

Symbols of Family Relationships

Genogram with relationship lines

Creating a Chronology
A chronology is a list of major events experienced
by a family. These events are both positive and
negative.
Describe your family
processes by answering
questions like those asked in
the Family Analysis activity at:
http://www.indiana.edu/~hperf258/activities/analysis.
html
Draw your own:
In your small group, draw a simple genogram and a
minimum of 5 event chronology and discuss them.
Are there any patterns that you can identify?
Does anyone stand out in your mind as a unique
character ?
In what ways would like to be a transitional character
(change things in your family?)

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1. Families contribute to the production and/or
maintenance of symptoms
To reach a more complete diagnosis and
understanding, physician needs to explore the
symptoms in terms of the family system
Examples:
Depression
Obesity and weight loss
Heart disease
2. Different stages of the family may have different
implications on health
Families affect health and illness
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Individual Life Cycle
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Stages of the Family Life Cycle
/ 25 27
Family Life Cycle
Duval 1977
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2 yrs
2,5 yrs
3,5 yrs
7 yrs
7 yrs
8 yrs
15 yrs
10-15 yrs
1. Married couples
(without children)
2.Childbearing families
(oldest child, birth to 30 months)
3. Families with preschool children
(oldest child 30 months to 6
years)
4.Families with school children
(oldest child 6 to 13 years)
5.Families with teenagers
(oldest child 13 to 20 years)
6.Families launching young adults
(first child gone to last child
leaving home)
7.Middle-aged parents
(empty nest to retirement)
8.Aging family members
(retirement to death of both
spouses (retirement to death of
both spouses)

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